ADOdb Library for PHP

V4.80 8 Mar 2006 (c) 2000-2006 John Lim (

This software is dual licensed using BSD-Style and LGPL. This means you can use it in compiled proprietary and commercial products.

Useful ADOdb links: Download   Other Docs

Unique Features
How People are using ADOdb
Feature Requests and Bug Reports
Minimum Install
Initializing Code and Connectioning to Databases
  Data Source Name (DSN) Support   Connection Examples
High Speed ADOdb - tuning tips
Hacking and Modifying ADOdb Safely
PHP5 Features

foreach iterators exceptions
Supported Databases
Example 1: Select
Example 2: Advanced Select
Example 3: Insert
Example 4: Debugging  rs2html example
Example 5: MySQL and Menus
Example 6: Connecting to Multiple Databases at once
Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL
Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous
Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format
Example 10: Custom filters
Example 11: Smart Transactions

Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error
Data Source Names
Pivot Tables


Connections: Connect PConnect NConnect IsConnected
Executing SQL: Execute CacheExecute SelectLimit CacheSelectLimit Param Prepare PrepareSP InParameter OutParameter AutoExecute
              GetOne CacheGetOne GetRow CacheGetRow GetAll CacheGetAll GetCol CacheGetCol GetAssoc CacheGetAssoc Replace
               ExecuteCursor (oci8 only)
Generates SQL strings: GetUpdateSQL GetInsertSQL Concat IfNull length random substr qstr Param OffsetDate SQLDate DBDate DBTimeStamp
Blobs: UpdateBlob UpdateClob UpdateBlobFile BlobEncode BlobDecode
Paging/Scrolling: PageExecute CachePageExecute
Cleanup: CacheFlush Close
Transactions: StartTrans CompleteTrans FailTrans HasFailedTrans BeginTrans CommitTrans RollbackTrans
Fetching Data:
Strings: concat length qstr quote substr
Dates: DBDate DBTimeStamp UnixDate UnixTimeStamp OffsetDate SQLDate
Row Management: Affected_Rows Insert_ID RowLock GenID CreateSequence DropSequence
Error Handling: ErrorMsg ErrorNo MetaError MetaErrorMsg
Data Dictionary (metadata): MetaDatabases MetaTables MetaColumns MetaColumnNames MetaPrimaryKeys MetaForeignKeys ServerInfo
Statistics and Query-Rewriting: LogSQL fnExecute and fnCacheExecute
Deprecated: Bind BlankRecordSet Parameter

Returns one field: Fields
Returns one row:FetchRow FetchInto FetchObject FetchNextObject FetchObj FetchNextObj GetRowAssoc
Returns all rows:GetArray GetRows GetAssoc
Scrolling:Move MoveNext MoveFirst MoveLast AbsolutePosition CurrentRow AtFirstPage AtLastPage AbsolutePage

Menu generation:GetMenu GetMenu2
Dates:UserDate UserTimeStamp UnixDate UnixTimeStamp
Recordset Info:RecordCount PO_RecordSet NextRecordSet
Field Info:FieldCount FetchField MetaType
Cleanup: Close

rs2html  example
Differences between ADOdb and ADO
Database Driver Guide
Change Log


PHP's database access functions are not standardised. This creates a need for a database class library to hide the differences between the different database API's (encapsulate the differences) so we can easily switch databases. PHP 4.0.5 or later is now required (because we use array-based str_replace).

We currently support MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase, Sybase SQL Anywhere, Informix, PostgreSQL, FrontBase, SQLite, Interbase (Firebird and Borland variants), Foxpro, Access, ADO, DB2, SAP DB and ODBC. We have had successful reports of connecting to Progress and CacheLite via ODBC. We hope more people will contribute drivers to support other databases.

PHP4 supports session variables. You can store your session information using ADOdb for true portability and scalability. See adodb-session.php for more information.

Also read tips_portable_sql.htm for tips on writing portable SQL.

Unique Features of ADOdb

How People are using ADOdb

Here are some examples of how people are using ADOdb (for a much longer list, visit adodb-cool-apps):

Feature Requests and Bug Reports

Feature requests and bug reports can be emailed to or posted to the ADOdb Help forums at

Installation Guide

Make sure you are running PHP 4.0.5 or later. Unpack all the files into a directory accessible by your webserver.

To test, try modifying some of the tutorial examples. Make sure you customize the connection settings correctly. You can debug using $db->debug = true as shown below:

$db = ADONewConnection($dbdriver); # eg 'mysql' or 'postgres'
$db->debug = true;
$db->Connect($server, $user, $password, $database);
$rs = $db->Execute('select * from some_small_table');
print "<pre>";
print "</pre>";

Minimum Install

For developers who want to release a minimal install of ADOdb, you will need:


Code Initialization Examples

When running ADOdb, at least two files are loaded. First is adodb/, which contains all functions used by all database classes. The code specific to a particular database is in the adodb/driver/adodb-????.inc.php file.

For example, to connect to a mysql database:

$conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql');

Whenever you need to connect to a database, you create a Connection object using the ADONewConnection($driver) function. NewADOConnection($driver) is an alternative name for the same function.

At this point, you are not connected to the database (no longer true if you pass in a dsn). You will first need to decide whether to use persistent or non-persistent connections. The advantage of persistent connections is that they are faster, as the database connection is never closed (even when you call Close()). Non-persistent connections take up much fewer resources though, reducing the risk of your database and your web-server becoming overloaded.

For persistent connections, use $conn->PConnect(), or $conn->Connect() for non-persistent connections. Some database drivers also support NConnect(), which forces the creation of a new connection.

Connection Gotcha: If you create two connections, but both use the same userid and password, PHP will share the same connection. This can cause problems if the connections are meant to different databases. The solution is to always use different userid's for different databases, or use NConnect().

Data Source Name (DSN) Support

Since ADOdb 4.51, you can connect to a database by passing a dsn to NewADOConnection() (or ADONewConnection, which is the same function). The dsn format is:


NewADOConnection() calls Connect() or PConnect() internally for you. If the connection fails, false is returned.

	# non-persistent connection
	$dsn = 'mysql://root:pwd@localhost/mydb'; 
	$db = NewADOConnection($dsn);
	if (!$db) die("Connection failed");   
	# no need to call connect/pconnect!
	$arr = $db->GetArray("select * from table");
	# persistent connection
	$dsn2 = 'mysql://root:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist'; 

If you have special characters such as /:? in your dsn, then you need to rawurlencode them first:

	$pwd = rawurlencode($pwd);
$dsn = "mysql://root:$pwd@localhost/mydb";

Legal options are:

For all drivers 'persist', 'persistent', 'debug', 'fetchmode', 'new'
Interbase/Firebird 'dialect','charset','buffers','role'
M'soft ADO 'charpage'
MySQL 'clientflags'
MySQLi 'port', 'socket', 'clientflags'
Oci8 'nls_date_format','charset'

For all drivers, when the options persist or persistent are set, a persistent connection is forced; similarly, when new is set, then a new connection will be created using NConnect if the underlying driver supports it. The debug option enables debugging. The fetchmode calls SetFetchMode(). If no value is defined for an option, then the value is set to 1.

ADOdb DSN's are compatible with version 1.0 of PEAR DB's DSN format.

Examples of Connecting to Databases

MySQL and Most Other Database Drivers

MySQL connections are very straightforward, and the parameters are identical to mysql_connect:

	$conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql'); 

# or dsn $dsn = 'mysql://user:pwd@localhost/mydb'; $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect() # or persistent dsn $dsn = 'mysql://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist'; $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for PConnect() # a more complex example: $pwd = urlencode($pwd); $flags = MYSQL_CLIENT_COMPRESS; $dsn = "mysql://user:$pwd@localhost/mydb?persist&clientflags=$flags"; $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for PConnect()

For most drivers, you can use the standard function: Connect($server, $user, $password, $database), or a DSN since ADOdb 4.51. Exceptions to this are listed below.


PDO, which only works with PHP5, accepts a driver specific connection string:

	$conn =& NewADConnection('pdo');

The DSN mechanism is also supported:

	$conn =& NewADConnection("pdo_mysql://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist"); # persist is optional


PostgreSQL 7 and 8 accepts connections using:

a. the standard connection string:

	$conn = &ADONewConnection('postgres');  
$conn->PConnect('host=localhost port=5432 dbname=mary');

b. the classical 4 parameters:


c. dsn:

	$dsn = 'postgres://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist';  # persist is optional
	$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);  # no need for Connect/PConnect


Here is an example of querying a LDAP server. Thanks to Josh Eldridge for the driver and this example:


/* Make sure to set this BEFORE calling Connect() */
$host = '';
$ldapbase = 'ou=People,o=Baylor University,c=US';

$ldap = NewADOConnection( 'ldap' );
$ldap->Connect( $host, $user_name='', $password='', $ldapbase );

echo "<pre>";

print_r( $ldap->ServerInfo() );
$userName = 'eldridge';

$rs = $ldap->Execute( $filter );
if ($rs)
	while ($arr = $rs->FetchRow()) {

$rs = $ldap->Execute( $filter );
if ($rs) 
	while (!$rs->EOF) {
print_r( $ldap->GetArray( $filter ) );
print_r( $ldap->GetRow( $filter ) );

echo "</pre>";

Using DSN:

$dsn = "ldap://,o=Baylor University,c=US";
$db = NewADOConnection($dsn);


You define the database in the $host parameter:
	$conn = &ADONewConnection('ibase'); 

Or dsn:

	$dsn = 'firebird://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist&dialect=3';  # persist is optional
$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect/PConnect


Sqlite will create the database file if it does not exist.
	$conn = &ADONewConnection('sqlite');
	$conn->PConnect('c:\path\to\sqlite.db'); # sqlite will create if does not exist

Or dsn:

	$path = urlencode('c:\path\to\sqlite.db');
	$dsn = "sqlite://$path/?persist";  # persist is optional
	$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);  # no need for Connect/PConnect

Oracle (oci8)

With oci8, you can connect in multiple ways. Note that oci8 works fine with newer versions of the Oracle, eg. 9i and 10g.

a. PHP and Oracle reside on the same machine, use default SID.

	$conn->Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger');

b. TNS Name defined in tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES), eg. 'myTNS'

	$conn->PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', 'myTNS');


 	$conn->PConnect('myTNS', 'scott', 'tiger');

c. Host Address and SID

	$conn->connectSID = true;
	$conn->Connect('', 'scott', 'tiger', 'SID');

d. Host Address and Service Name

	$conn->Connect('', 'scott', 'tiger', 'servicename');

e. Oracle connection string:

$conn->Connect($cstr, 'scott', 'tiger');

f. ADOdb dsn:

	$dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@tnsname/?persist';  # persist is optional
$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn); # no need for Connect/PConnect

$dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@host/sid';
$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);

$dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@/'; # oracle on local machine
$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);

You can also set the charSet for Oracle 9.2 and later, supported since PHP 4.3.2, ADOdb 4.54:

	$conn->charSet = 'we8iso8859p1';

# or
$dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@tnsname/?charset=WE8MSWIN1252';
$db = ADONewConnection($dsn);

DSN-less ODBC ( Access, MSSQL and DB2 examples)

ODBC DSN's can be created in the ODBC control panel, or you can use a DSN-less connection.To use DSN-less connections with ODBC you need PHP 4.3 or later.

For Microsoft Access:

	$db =& ADONewConnection('access');
$dsn = "Driver={Microsoft Access Driver (*.mdb)};Dbq=d:\\northwind.mdb;Uid=Admin;Pwd=;"; $db->Connect($dsn);
For Microsoft SQL Server:
	$db =& ADONewConnection('odbc_mssql');
$dsn = "Driver={SQL Server};Server=localhost;Database=northwind;";
or if you prefer to use the mssql extension (which is limited to mssql 6.5 functionality):
	$db =& ADONewConnection('mssql');
$db->Execute('localhost', 'userid', 'password', 'northwind');
For DB2:
	$dbms = 'db2'; # or 'odbc_db2' if db2 extension not available
	$db =& ADONewConnection($dbms);
	$dsn = "driver={IBM db2 odbc DRIVER};Database=sample;hostname=localhost;port=50000;protocol=TCPIP;".
				"uid=root; pwd=secret";
DSN-less Connections with ADO
If you are using versions of PHP earlier than PHP 4.3.0, DSN-less connections only work with Microsoft's ADO, which is Microsoft's COM based API. An example using the ADOdb library and Microsoft's ADO:
$db = &ADONewConnection("ado_mssql");
print "<h1>Connecting DSN-less $db->databaseType...</h1>";

. "SERVER=flipper;DATABASE=ai;UID=sa;PWD=;" ;
$db->Connect($myDSN); $rs = $db->Execute("select * from table"); $arr = $rs->GetArray(); print_r($arr); ?>

High Speed ADOdb - tuning tips

ADOdb is a big class library, yet it consistently beats all other PHP class libraries in performance. This is because it is designed in a layered fashion, like an onion, with the fastest functions in the innermost layer. Stick to the following functions for best performance:

Innermost Layer

Connect, PConnect, NConnect
Execute, CacheExecute
SelectLimit, CacheSelectLimit
MoveNext, Close
qstr, Affected_Rows, Insert_ID

The fastest way to access the field data is by accessing the array $recordset->fields directly. Also set the global variables $ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_NUM, and (for oci8, ibase/firebird and odbc) $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false before you connect to your database.

Consider using bind parameters if your database supports it, as it improves query plan reuse. Use ADOdb's performance tuning system to identify bottlenecks quickly. At the time of writing (Dec 2003), this means oci8 and odbc drivers.

Lastly make sure you have a PHP accelerator cache installed such as APC, Turck MMCache, Zend Accelerator or ionCube.

Some examples:

Fastest data retrieval using PHPFastest data retrieval using ADOdb extension
$rs =& $rs->Execute($sql);
while (!$rs->EOF) {
$rs =& $rs->Execute($sql);
$array = adodb_getall($rs);

Advanced Tips

If you have the ADOdb C extension installed, you can replace your calls to $rs->MoveNext() with adodb_movenext($rs). This doubles the speed of this operation. For retrieving entire recordsets at once, use GetArray(), which uses the high speed extension function adodb_getall($rs) internally.

Execute() is the default way to run queries. You can use the low-level functions _Execute() and _query() to reduce query overhead. Both these functions share the same parameters as Execute().

If you do not have any bind parameters or your database supports binding (without emulation), then you can call _Execute() directly. Calling this function bypasses bind emulation. Debugging is still supported in _Execute().

If you do not require debugging facilities nor emulated binding, and do not require a recordset to be returned, then you can call _query. This is great for inserts, updates and deletes. Calling this function bypasses emulated binding, debugging, and recordset handling. Either the resultid, true or false are returned by _query().

For Informix, you can disable scrollable cursors with $db->cursorType = 0.

Hacking ADOdb Safely

You might want to modify ADOdb for your own purposes. Luckily you can still maintain backward compatibility by sub-classing ADOdb and using the $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION variable. $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION allows you to override the behaviour of ADONewConnection(). ADOConnection() checks for this variable and will call the function-name stored in this variable if it is defined.

In the following example, new functionality for the connection object is placed in the hack_mysql and hack_postgres7 classes. The recordset class naming convention can be controlled using $rsPrefix. Here we set it to 'hack_rs_', which will make ADOdb use hack_rs_mysql and hack_rs_postgres7 as the recordset classes.

class hack_mysql extends adodb_mysql {
var $rsPrefix = 'hack_rs_';
/* Your mods here */

class hack_rs_mysql extends ADORecordSet_mysql {
/* Your mods here */

class hack_postgres7 extends adodb_postgres7 {
var $rsPrefix = 'hack_rs_';
/* Your mods here */

class hack_rs_postgres7 extends ADORecordSet_postgres7 {
/* Your mods here */

$ADODB_NEWCONNECTION = 'hack_factory';

function& hack_factory($driver)
if ($driver !== 'mysql' && $driver !== 'postgres7') return false;

$driver = 'hack_'.$driver;
$obj = new $driver();
return $obj;


Don't forget to call the constructor of the parent class in your constructor. If you want to use the default ADOdb drivers return false in the above hack_factory() function.

PHP5 Features

ADOdb 4.02 or later will transparently determine which version of PHP you are using. If PHP5 is detected, the following features become available:

Databases Supported

The name below is the value you pass to NewADOConnection($name) to create a connection object for that database.

Name Tested Database RecordCount() usable Prerequisites Operating Systems
access B Microsoft Access/Jet. You need to create an ODBC DSN. Y/N ODBC Windows only
ado B

Generic ADO, not tuned for specific databases. Allows DSN-less connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider. This is the base class for all ado drivers.

You can set $db->codePage before connecting.

? depends on database ADO or OLEDB provider Windows only
ado_access B Microsoft Access/Jet using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider. Y/N ADO or OLEDB provider Windows only
ado_mssql B Microsoft SQL Server using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider. Y/N ADO or OLEDB provider Windows only
db2 C Uses PHP's db2-specific extension for better performance. Y/N DB2 CLI/ODBC interface

Unix and Windows. Requires IBM DB2 Universal Database client.

odbc_db2 C Connects to DB2 using generic ODBC extension. Y/N DB2 CLI/ODBC interface

Unix and Windows. Unix install hints. I have had reports that the $host and $database params have to be reversed in Connect() when using the CLI interface.

vfp A Microsoft Visual FoxPro. You need to create an ODBC DSN. Y/N ODBC Windows only
fbsql C FrontBase. Y ?

Unix and Windows

ibase B Interbase 6 or earlier. Some users report you might need to use this
$db->PConnect('localhost:c:/ibase/employee.gdb', "sysdba", "masterkey") to connect. Lacks Affected_Rows currently.

You can set $db->role, $db->dialect, $db->buffers and $db->charSet before connecting.
Y/N Interbase client Unix and Windows
firebird C Firebird version of interbase. Y/N Interbase client Unix and Windows
borland_ibase C Borland version of Interbase 6.5 or later. Very sad that the forks differ. Y/N Interbase client Unix and Windows
informix C Generic informix driver. Use this if you are using Informix 7.3 or later. Y/N Informix client Unix and Windows
informix72 C Informix databases before Informix 7.3 that do no support SELECT FIRST. Y/N Informix client Unix and Windows
ldap C LDAP driver. See this example for usage information.   LDAP extension ?
mssql A

Microsoft SQL Server 7 and later. Works with Microsoft SQL Server 2000 also. Note that date formating is problematic with this driver. For example, the PHP mssql extension does not return the seconds for datetime!

Y/N Mssql client

Unix and Windows.
Unix install howto and another one.

mssqlpo A

Portable mssql driver. Identical to above mssql driver, except that '||', the concatenation operator, is converted to '+'. Useful for porting scripts from most other sql variants that use ||.

Y/N Mssql client

Unix and Windows.
Unix install howto

mysql A MySQL without transaction support. You can also set $db->clientFlags before connecting. Y MySQL client Unix and Windows
mysqlt or maxsql A

MySQL with transaction support. We recommend using || as the concat operator for best portability. This can be done by running MySQL using:
mysqld --ansi or mysqld --sql-mode=PIPES_AS_CONCAT

Y/N MySQL client Unix and Windows
oci8 A Oracle 8/9. Has more functionality than oracle driver (eg. Affected_Rows). You might have to putenv('ORACLE_HOME=...') before Connect/PConnect.

There are 2 ways of connecting - with server IP and service name:
or using an entry in TNSNAMES.ORA or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES:
PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname).

Since 2.31, we support Oracle REF cursor variables directly (see ExecuteCursor).

Y/N Oracle client Unix and Windows
oci805 C Supports reduced Oracle functionality for Oracle 8.0.5. SelectLimit is not as efficient as in the oci8 or oci8po drivers. Y/N Oracle client Unix and Windows
oci8po A Oracle 8/9 portable driver. This is nearly identical with the oci8 driver except (a) bind variables in Prepare() use the ? convention, instead of :bindvar, (b) field names use the more common PHP convention of lowercase names.

Use this driver if porting from other databases is important. Otherwise the oci8 driver offers better performance.

Y/N Oracle client Unix and Windows
odbc A Generic ODBC, not tuned for specific databases. To connect, use
PConnect('DSN','user','pwd'). This is the base class for all odbc derived drivers.
? depends on database ODBC Unix and Windows. Unix hints.
odbc_mssql C Uses ODBC to connect to MSSQL Y/N ODBC Unix and Windows.
odbc_oracle C Uses ODBC to connect to Oracle Y/N ODBC Unix and Windows.
odbtp C Generic odbtp driver. Odbtp is a software for accessing Windows ODBC data sources from other operating systems. Y/N odbtp Unix and Windows
odbtp_unicode C Odtbp with unicode support Y/N odbtp Unix and Windows
oracle C Implements old Oracle 7 client API. Use oci8 driver if possible for better performance. Y/N Oracle client Unix and Windows
netezza C Netezza driver. Netezza is based on postgres code-base. Y ? ?
pdo C Generic PDO driver for PHP5. Y PDO extension and database specific drivers Unix and Windows.
postgres A Generic PostgreSQL driver. Currently identical to postgres7 driver. Y PostgreSQL client Unix and Windows.
postgres64 A For PostgreSQL 6.4 and earlier which does not support LIMIT internally. Y PostgreSQL client Unix and Windows.
postgres7 A PostgreSQL which supports LIMIT and other version 7 functionality. Y PostgreSQL client Unix and Windows.
postgres8 A PostgreSQL which supports version 8 functionality. Y PostgreSQL client Unix and Windows.
sapdb C SAP DB. Should work reliably as based on ODBC driver. Y/N SAP ODBC client


sqlanywhere C Sybase SQL Anywhere. Should work reliably as based on ODBC driver. Y/N SQL Anywhere ODBC client


sqlite B SQLite. Y -

Unix and Windows.

sqlitepo B Portable SQLite driver. This is because assoc mode does not work like other drivers in sqlite. Namely, when selecting (joining) multiple tables, the table names are included in the assoc keys in the "sqlite" driver.

In "sqlitepo" driver, the table names are stripped from the returned column names. When this results in a conflict, the first field get preference.

Y -

Unix and Windows.

sybase C Sybase. Y/N Sybase client

Unix and Windows.

sybase_ase C Sybase ASE. Y/N Sybase client

Unix and Windows.

The "Tested" column indicates how extensively the code has been tested and used.
A = well tested and used by many people
B = tested and usable, but some features might not be implemented
C = user contributed or experimental driver. Might not fully support all of the latest features of ADOdb.

The column "RecordCount() usable" indicates whether RecordCount() return the number of rows, or returns -1 when a SELECT statement is executed. If this column displays Y/N then the RecordCount() is emulated when the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS=true (this is the default). Note that for large recordsets, it might be better to disable RecordCount() emulation because substantial amounts of memory are required to cache the recordset for counting. Also there is a speed penalty of 40-50% if emulation is required. This is emulated in most databases except for PostgreSQL and MySQL. This variable is checked every time a query is executed, so you can selectively choose which recordsets to count.


Example 1: Select Statement

Task: Connect to the Access Northwind DSN, display the first 2 columns of each row.

In this example, we create a ADOConnection object, which represents the connection to the database. The connection is initiated with PConnect, which is a persistent connection. Whenever we want to query the database, we call the ADOConnection.Execute() function. This returns an ADORecordSet object which is actually a cursor that holds the current row in the array fields[]. We use MoveNext() to move from row to row.

NB: A useful function that is not used in this example is SelectLimit, which allows us to limit the number of rows shown.

include(''); # load code common to ADOdb
$conn = &ADONewConnection('access'); # create a connection
$conn->PConnect('northwind'); # connect to MS-Access, northwind DSN
$recordSet = &$conn->Execute('select * from products');
if (!$recordSet)
print $conn->ErrorMsg();
while (!$recordSet->EOF) {
print $recordSet->fields[0].' '.$recordSet->fields[1].'<BR>';
$recordSet->Close(); # optional
$conn->Close(); # optional

The $recordSet returned stores the current row in the $recordSet->fields array, indexed by column number (starting from zero). We use the MoveNext() function to move to the next row. The EOF property is set to true when end-of-file is reached. If an error occurs in Execute(), we return false instead of a recordset.

The $recordSet->fields[] array is generated by the PHP database extension. Some database extensions only index by number and do not index the array by field name. To force indexing by name - that is associative arrays - use the SetFetchMode function. Each recordset saves and uses whatever fetch mode was set when the recordset was created in Execute() or SelectLimit().

$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
print_r($rs1->fields); # shows array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1') print_r($rs2->fields); # shows array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')

To get the number of rows in the select statement, you can use $recordSet->RecordCount(). Note that it can return -1 if the number of rows returned cannot be determined.

Example 2: Advanced Select with Field Objects

Select a table, display the first two columns. If the second column is a date or timestamp, reformat the date to US format.

include(''); # load code common to ADOdb
$conn = &ADONewConnection('access'); # create a connection
$conn->PConnect('northwind'); # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn
$recordSet = &$conn->Execute('select CustomerID,OrderDate from Orders');
if (!$recordSet)
print $conn->ErrorMsg();
while (!$recordSet->EOF) {
$fld = $recordSet->FetchField(1); $type = $recordSet->MetaType($fld->type);

if ( $type == 'D' || $type == 'T')
print $recordSet->fields[0].' '.
else print $recordSet->fields[0].' '.$recordSet->fields[1].'<BR>';

$recordSet->Close(); # optional
$conn->Close(); # optional

In this example, we check the field type of the second column using FetchField(). This returns an object with at least 3 fields.

We then use MetaType() to translate the native type to a generic type. Currently the following generic types are defined:

If the metatype is of type date or timestamp, then we print it using the user defined date format with UserDate(), which converts the PHP SQL date string format to a user defined one. Another use for MetaType() is data validation before doing an SQL insert or update.

Example 3: Inserting

Insert a row to the Orders table containing dates and strings that need to be quoted before they can be accepted by the database, eg: the single-quote in the word John's.

include(''); # load code common to ADOdb
$conn = &ADONewConnection('access'); # create a connection

$conn->PConnect('northwind'); # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn
$shipto = $conn->qstr("John's Old Shoppe");

$sql = "insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) ";
$sql .= "values ('ANATR',2,".$conn->DBDate(time()).",$shipto)";

if ($conn->Execute($sql) === false) {
print 'error inserting: '.$conn->ErrorMsg().'<BR>';

In this example, we see the advanced date and quote handling facilities of ADOdb. The unix timestamp (which is a long integer) is appropriately formated for Access with DBDate(), and the right escape character is used for quoting the John's Old Shoppe, which is John''s Old Shoppe and not PHP's default John's Old Shoppe with qstr().

Observe the error-handling of the Execute statement. False is returned by Execute() if an error occured. The error message for the last error that occurred is displayed in ErrorMsg(). Note: php_track_errors might have to be enabled for error messages to be saved.

Example 4: Debugging

include(''); # load code common to ADOdb
$conn = &ADONewConnection('access'); # create a connection
$conn->PConnect('northwind'); # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn
$shipto = $conn->qstr("John's Old Shoppe");
$sql = "insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) ";
$sql .= "values ('ANATR',2,".$conn->FormatDate(time()).",$shipto)";
$conn->debug = true; if ($conn->Execute($sql) === false) print 'error inserting';

In the above example, we have turned on debugging by setting debug = true. This will display the SQL statement before execution, and also show any error messages. There is no need to call ErrorMsg() in this case. For displaying the recordset, see the rs2html() example.

Also see the section on Custom Error Handlers.

Example 5: MySQL and Menus

Connect to MySQL database agora, and generate a <select> menu from an SQL statement where the <option> captions are in the 1st column, and the value to send back to the server is in the 2nd column.

include(''); # load code common to ADOdb
$conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql'); # create a connection
$conn->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db
$sql = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';
$rs = $conn->Execute($sql);
print $rs->GetMenu('GetCust','Mary Rosli');

Here we define a menu named GetCust, with the menu option 'Mary Rosli' selected. See GetMenu(). We also have functions that return the recordset as an array: GetArray(), and as an associative array with the key being the first column: GetAssoc().

Example 6: Connecting to 2 Databases At Once

include(''); # load code common to ADOdb
$conn1 = &ADONewConnection('mysql'); # create a mysql connection
$conn2 = &ADONewConnection('oracle'); # create a oracle connection

$conn1->PConnect($server, $userid, $password, $database);
$conn2->PConnect(false, $ora_userid, $ora_pwd, $oraname);

$conn1->Execute('insert ...');
$conn2->Execute('update ...');

Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL

Since ADOdb 4.56, we support AutoExecute(), which simplifies things by providing an advanced wrapper for GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL(). For example, an INSERT can be carried out with:

    $record["firstname"] = "Bob"; 
    $record["lastname"] = "Smith"; 
    $record["created"] = time(); 
    $insertSQL = $conn->AutoExecute($rs, $record, 'INSERT'); 
and an UPDATE with:
    $record["firstname"] = "Caroline"; 
    $record["lastname"] = "Smith"; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith 
    $insertSQL = $conn->AutoExecute($rs, $record, 'UPDATE', 'id = 1'); 

The rest of this section is out-of-date:

ADOdb 1.31 and later supports two new recordset functions: GetUpdateSQL( ) and GetInsertSQL( ). This allow you to perform a "SELECT * FROM table query WHERE...", make a copy of the $rs->fields, modify the fields, and then generate the SQL to update or insert into the table automatically.

We show how the functions can be used when accessing a table with the following fields: (ID, FirstName, LastName, Created).

Before these functions can be called, you need to initialize the recordset by performing a select on the table. Idea and code by Jonathan Younger Since ADOdb 2.42, you can pass a table name instead of a recordset into GetInsertSQL (in $rs), and it will generate an insert statement for that table.

# SAMPLE GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL() code

# This code tests an insert

$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = -1";
# Select an empty record from the database

$conn = &ADONewConnection("mysql"); # create a connection
$conn->PConnect("localhost", "admin", "", "test"); # connect to MySQL, testdb
$rs = $conn->Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the empty recordset

$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to insert

# Set the values for the fields in the record
# Note that field names are case-insensitive
$record["firstname"] = "Bob";
$record["lastNamE"] = "Smith";
$record["creaTed"] = time();

# Pass the empty recordset and the array containing the data to insert
# into the GetInsertSQL function. The function will process the data and return
# a fully formatted insert sql statement.
$insertSQL = $conn->GetInsertSQL($rs, $record);

$conn->Execute($insertSQL); # Insert the record into the database

# This code tests an update

$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = 1";
# Select a record to update

$rs = $conn->Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the existing record to update

$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to update

# Set the values for the fields in the record
# Note that field names are case-insensitive
$record["firstname"] = "Caroline";
$record["LasTnAme"] = "Smith"; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith

# Pass the single record recordset and the array containing the data to update
# into the GetUpdateSQL function. The function will process the data and return
# a fully formatted update sql statement with the correct WHERE clause.
# If the data has not changed, no recordset is returned
$updateSQL = $conn->GetUpdateSQL($rs, $record);

$conn->Execute($updateSQL); # Update the record in the database

The behaviour of AutoExecute(), GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL() when converting empty or null PHP variables to SQL is controlled by the global $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE variable. Set it to one of the values below. Default is ADODB_FORCE_VALUE (3):

0 = ignore empty fields. All empty fields in array are ignored.
1 = force null. All empty, php null and string 'null' fields are changed to sql NULL values.
2 = force empty. All empty, php null and string 'null' fields are changed to sql empty '' or 0 values.
3 = force value. Value is left as it is. Php null and string 'null' are set to sql NULL values and
empty fields '' are set to empty '' sql values.


Thanks to Niko ( for the $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE code.

Note: the constant ADODB_FORCE_NULLS is obsolete since 4.52 and is ignored. Set $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE = ADODB_FORCE_NULL for equivalent behaviour.

Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting $rs->tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is called.

Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous

The following code creates a very simple recordset pager, where you can scroll from page to page of a recordset.


$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');


$sql = "select * from adoxyz ";

$pager = new ADODB_Pager($db,$sql);

This will create a basic record pager that looks like this:

|<   <<   >>   >|  
ID First Name Last Name Date Created
36  Alan  Turing  Sat 06, Oct 2001 
37  Serena  Williams  Sat 06, Oct 2001 
38  Yat Sun  Sun  Sat 06, Oct 2001 
39  Wai Hun  See  Sat 06, Oct 2001 
40  Steven  Oey  Sat 06, Oct 2001 
Page 8/10

The number of rows to display at one time is controled by the Render($rows) method. If you do not pass any value to Render(), ADODB_Pager will default to 10 records per page.

You can control the column titles by modifying your SQL (supported by most databases):

$sql = 'select id as "ID", firstname as "First Name", 
lastname as "Last Name", created as "Date Created"
from adoxyz';

The above code can be found in the adodb/tests/testpaging.php example included with this release, and the class ADODB_Pager in adodb/ The ADODB_Pager code can be adapted by a programmer so that the text links can be replaced by images, and the dull white background be replaced with more interesting colors.

You can also allow display of html by setting $pager->htmlSpecialChars = false.

Some of the code used here was contributed by Iván Oliva and Cornel G.

Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format

We provide some helper functions to export in comma-separated-value (CSV) and tab-delimited formats:

$db = &NewADOConnection('mysql');
$db->Connect($server, $userid, $password, $database);

$rs = $db->Execute('select fname as "First Name", surname as "Surname" from table');

print "<pre>";
print rs2csv($rs); # return a string, CSV format

print '<hr>';

$rs->MoveFirst(); # note, some databases do not support MoveFirst
print rs2tab($rs,false); # return a string, tab-delimited
# false == suppress field names in first line

print '<hr>';
rs2tabout($rs); # send to stdout directly (there is also an rs2csvout function)
print "</pre>";

$fp = fopen($path, "w");
if ($fp) {
rs2csvfile($rs, $fp); # write to file (there is also an rs2tabfile function)

Carriage-returns or newlines are converted to spaces. Field names are returned in the first line of text. Strings containing the delimiter character are quoted with double-quotes. Double-quotes are double-quoted again. This conforms to Excel import and export guide-lines.

All the above functions take as an optional last parameter, $addtitles which defaults to true. When set to false field names in the first line are suppressed.

Example 10: Recordset Filters

Sometimes we want to pre-process all rows in a recordset before we use it. For example, we want to ucwords all text in recordset.


// ucwords() every element in the recordset
function do_ucwords(&$arr,$rs)
foreach($arr as $k => $v) {
$arr[$k] = ucwords($v);

$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');

$rs = $db->Execute('select ... from table');
$rs = RSFilter($rs,'do_ucwords');

The RSFilter function takes 2 parameters, the recordset, and the name of the filter function. It returns the processed recordset scrolled to the first record. The filter function takes two parameters, the current row as an array, and the recordset object. For future compatibility, you should not use the original recordset object.

Example 11: Smart Transactions

The old way of doing transactions required you to use
$ok = $conn->Execute($sql);
if ($ok) $ok = $conn->Execute($sql2);
if (!$ok) $conn->RollbackTrans();
else $conn->CommitTrans();
This is very complicated for large projects because you have to track the error status. Smart Transactions is much simpler. You start a smart transaction by calling StartTrans():
CompleteTrans() detects when an SQL error occurs, and will Rollback/Commit as appropriate. To specificly force a rollback even if no error occured, use FailTrans(). Note that the rollback is done in CompleteTrans(), and not in FailTrans().
if (!CheckRecords()) $conn->FailTrans();

You can also check if a transaction has failed, using HasFailedTrans(), which returns true if FailTrans() was called, or there was an error in the SQL execution. Make sure you call HasFailedTrans() before you call CompleteTrans(), as it is only works between StartTrans/CompleteTrans.

Lastly, StartTrans/CompleteTrans is nestable, and only the outermost block is executed. In contrast, BeginTrans/CommitTrans/RollbackTrans is NOT nestable.

$conn->StartTrans(); # ignored if (!CheckRecords()) $conn->FailTrans(); $conn->CompleteTrans(); # ignored $conn->Execute($Sql2); $conn->CompleteTrans();

Note: Savepoints are currently not supported.

Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error

ADOdb supports PHP5 exceptions. Just include and you can now catch exceptions on errors as they occur.

try {
$db = NewADOConnection("oci8://scott:bad-password@mytns/");
} catch (exception $e) {

ADOdb also provides two custom handlers which you can modify for your needs. The first one is in the file. This makes use of the standard PHP functions error_reporting to control what error messages types to display, and trigger_error which invokes the default PHP error handler.

Including the above file will cause trigger_error($errorstring,E_USER_ERROR) to be called when
(a) Connect() or PConnect() fails, or
(b) a function that executes SQL statements such as Execute() or SelectLimit() has an error.
(c) GenID() appears to go into an infinite loop.

The $errorstring is generated by ADOdb and will contain useful debugging information similar to the error.log data generated below. This file should be included before you create any ADOConnection objects.

If you define error_reporting(0), no errors will be passed to the error handler. If you set error_reporting(E_ALL), all errors will be passed to the error handler. You still need to use ini_set("display_errors", "0" or "1") to control the display of errors.

error_reporting(E_ALL); # pass any error messages triggered to error handler
include(''); include(''); $c = NewADOConnection('mysql'); $c->PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind'); $rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz'); if ($rs) rs2html($rs); ?>

If you want to log the error message, you can do so by defining the following optional constants ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE and ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST. ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE is the error log message type (see error_log in the PHP manual). In this case we set it to 3, which means log to the file defined by the constant ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST.

error_reporting(E_ALL); # report all errors
ini_set("display_errors", "0"); # but do not echo the errors
include(''); include(''); $c = NewADOConnection('mysql'); $c->PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind'); $rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); ## invalid table productsz if ($rs) rs2html($rs); ?>
The following message will be logged in the error.log file:
(2001-10-28 14:20:38) mysql error: [1146: Table 'northwind.productsz' doesn't exist] in
EXECUTE("select * from productsz")


The second error handler is This will create a PEAR_Error derived object whenever an error occurs. The last PEAR_Error object created can be retrieved using ADODB_Pear_Error().
include(''); include(''); include(''); $c = NewADOConnection('mysql'); $c->PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind'); $rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz'); if ($rs) rs2html($rs); else { $e = ADODB_Pear_Error();
echo '<p>',$e->message,'</p>';
} ?>

You can use a PEAR_Error derived class by defining the constant ADODB_PEAR_ERROR_CLASS before the file is included. For easy debugging, you can set the default error handler in the beginning of the PHP script to PEAR_ERROR_DIE, which will cause an error message to be printed, then halt script execution:


Note that we do not explicitly return a PEAR_Error object to you when an error occurs. We return false instead. You have to call ADODB_Pear_Error() to get the last error or use the PEAR_ERROR_DIE technique.

MetaError and MetaErrMsg

If you need error messages that work across multiple databases, then use MetaError(), which returns a virtualized error number, based on PEAR DB's error number system, and MetaErrMsg().

Error Messages

Error messages are outputted using the static method ADOConnnection::outp($msg,$newline=true). By default, it sends the messages to the client. You can override this to perform error-logging.

Data Source Names

We now support connecting using PEAR style DSN's. A DSN is a connection string of the form:

$dsn = "$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename";

An example:

   $username = 'root';
$password = '';
$hostname = 'localhost';
$databasename = 'xphplens';
$driver = 'mysql';
$dsn = "$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename"
$db = NewADOConnection();
# DB::Connect($dsn) also works if you include 'adodb/' at the top
$rs = $db->query('select firstname,lastname from adoxyz');
$cnt = 0;
while ($arr = $rs->fetchRow()) {
print_r($arr); print "<br>";

More info and connection examples on the DSN format.

PEAR Compatibility

We support DSN's (see above), and the following functions:
 	query - returns PEAR_Error on error
	limitQuery - return PEAR_Error on error
	prepare - does not return PEAR_Error on error
	execute - does not return PEAR_Error on error
	setFetchMode - supports ASSOC and ORDERED
 	numRows - returns -1 if not supported
	fetchInto - does not support passing of fetchmode
	fetchRows - does not support passing of fetchmode

Caching of Recordsets

ADOdb now supports caching of recordsets using the CacheExecute( ), CachePageExecute( ) and CacheSelectLimit( ) functions. There are similar to the non-cache functions, except that they take a new first parameter, $secs2cache.

An example:

include(''); # load code common to ADOdb
$ADODB_CACHE_DIR = '/usr/ADODB_cache';
$conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql'); # create a connection
$conn->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db
$sql = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';
$rs = $conn->CacheExecute(15,$sql);

The first parameter is the number of seconds to cache the query. Subsequent calls to that query will used the cached version stored in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR. To force a query to execute and flush the cache, call CacheExecute() with the first parameter set to zero. Alternatively, use the CacheFlush($sql) call.

For the sake of security, we recommend you set register_globals=off in php.ini if you are using $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.

In ADOdb 1.80 onwards, the secs2cache parameter is optional in CacheSelectLimit() and CacheExecute(). If you leave it out, it will use the $connection->cacheSecs parameter, which defaults to 60 minutes.

$conn->cacheSecs = 3600*24; # cache 24 hours
$rs = $conn->CacheExecute('select * from table');

Please note that magic_quotes_runtime should be turned off. More info, and do not change $ADODB_FETCH_MODE (or SetFetchMode) as the cached recordset will use the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE set when the query was executed.

Pivot Tables

Since ADOdb 2.30, we support the generation of SQL to create pivot tables, also known as cross-tabulations. For further explanation read this DevShed Cross-Tabulation tutorial. We assume that your database supports the SQL case-when expression.

In this example, we will use the Northwind database from Microsoft. In the database, we have a products table, and we want to analyze this table by suppliers versus product categories. We will place the suppliers on each row, and pivot on categories. So from the table on the left, we generate the pivot-table on the right:

Supplier Category
supplier1 category1
supplier2 category1
supplier2 category2
  category1 category2 total
supplier1 1 0 1
supplier2 1 1 2

The following code will generate the SQL for a cross-tabulation:

# Query the main "product" table
# Set the rows to SupplierName
# and the columns to the values of Categories
# and define the joins to link to lookup tables
# "categories" and "suppliers"
include "adodb/";
$sql = PivotTableSQL(
$gDB, # adodb connection
'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s', # tables
'SupplierName', # rows (multiple fields allowed)
'CategoryName', # column to pivot on
'p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID' # joins/where

This will generate the following SQL:

SELECT SupplierName,
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Beverages' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Beverages",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Condiments' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Condiments",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Confections' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Confections",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Dairy Products' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Dairy Products",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Grains/Cereals' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Grains/Cereals",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Meat/Poultry' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Meat/Poultry",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Produce' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Produce",
SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Seafood' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Seafood",
SUM(1) as Total
FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID
GROUP BY SupplierName

You can also pivot on numerical columns and generate totals by using ranges. This code was revised in ADODB 2.41 and is not backward compatible. The second example shows this:

 $sql = PivotTableSQL(
$gDB, # adodb connection
'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s', # tables
'SupplierName', # rows (multiple fields allowed) array( # column ranges ' 0 ' => 'UnitsInStock <= 0', "1 to 5" => '0 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 5', "6 to 10" => '5 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 10', "11 to 15" => '10 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 15', "16+" => '15 < UnitsInStock' ), ' p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID', # joins/where 'UnitsInStock', # sum this field 'Sum ' # sum label prefix );

Which generates:

SELECT SupplierName,
SUM(CASE WHEN UnitsInStock <= 0 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 0 ",
SUM(CASE WHEN 0 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 5 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 1 to 5",
SUM(CASE WHEN 5 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 10 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 6 to 10",
SUM(CASE WHEN 10 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 15 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 11 to 15",
SUM(CASE WHEN 15 < UnitsInStock THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 16+",
SUM(UnitsInStock) AS "Sum UnitsInStock",
SUM(1) as Total,
FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID
GROUP BY SupplierName

Class Reference

Function parameters with [ ] around them are optional.

Global Variables


If the database driver API does not support counting the number of records returned in a SELECT statement, the function RecordCount() is emulated when the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS is set to true, which is the default. We emulate this by buffering the records, which can take up large amounts of memory for big recordsets. Set this variable to false for the best performance. This variable is checked every time a query is executed, so you can selectively choose which recordsets to count.


If you are using recordset caching, this is the directory to save your recordsets in. Define this before you call any caching functions such as CacheExecute( ). We recommend setting register_globals=off in php.ini if you use this feature for security reasons.

If you are using Unix and apache, you might need to set your cache directory permissions to something similar to the following:

chown -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache
chgrp -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache


Determines whether to right trim CHAR fields (and also VARCHAR for ibase/firebird). Set to true to trim. Default is false. Currently works for oci8po, ibase and firebird drivers. Added in ADOdb 4.01.


Determines the language used in MetaErrorMsg(). The default is 'en', for English. To find out what languages are supported, see the files in adodb/lang/adodb-$, where $lang is the supported langauge.


This is a global variable that determines how arrays are retrieved by recordsets. The recordset saves this value on creation (eg. in Execute( ) or SelectLimit( )), and any subsequent changes to $ADODB_FETCH_MODE have no affect on existing recordsets, only on recordsets created in the future.

The following constants are defined:


An example:

$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
print_r($rs1->fields); # shows array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1') print_r($rs2->fields); # shows array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')

As you can see in the above example, both recordsets store and use different fetch modes based on the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE setting when the recordset was created by Execute().

If no fetch mode is predefined, the fetch mode defaults to ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. The behaviour of this default mode varies from driver to driver, so do not rely on ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. For portability, we recommend sticking to ADODB_FETCH_NUM or ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Many drivers do not support ADODB_FETCH_BOTH.

SetFetchMode Function

If you have multiple connection objects, and want to have different fetch modes for each connection, then use SetFetchMode. Once this function is called for a connection object, that connection object will ignore the global variable $ADODB_FETCH_MODE and will use the internal fetchMode property exclusively.

$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
print_r($rs1->fields); # shows array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1') print_r($rs2->fields); # shows array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')

To retrieve the previous fetch mode, you can use check the $db->fetchMode property, or use the return value of SetFetchMode( ).


You can control the associative fetch case for certain drivers which behave differently. For the sybase, oci8po, mssql, odbc and ibase drivers and all drivers derived from them, ADODB_ASSOC_CASE will by default generate recordsets where the field name keys are lower-cased. Use the constant ADODB_ASSOC_CASE to change the case of the keys. There are 3 possible values:

0 = assoc lowercase field names. $rs->fields['orderid']
1 = assoc uppercase field names. $rs->fields['ORDERID']
2 = use native-case field names. $rs->fields['OrderID'] -- this is the default since ADOdb 2.90

To use it, declare it before you incldue

define('ADODB_ASSOC_CASE', 2); # use native-case for ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC


See the GetUpdateSQL tutorial.


Object that performs the connection to the database, executes SQL statements and has a set of utility functions for standardising the format of SQL statements for issues such as concatenation and date formats.

ADOConnection Fields

databaseType: Name of the database system we are connecting to. Eg. odbc or mssql or mysql.

dataProvider: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database. Normally set to native, unless using odbc or ado.

host: Name of server or data source name (DSN) to connect to.

database: Name of the database or to connect to. If ado is used, it will hold the ado data provider.

user: Login id to connect to database. Password is not saved for security reasons.

raiseErrorFn: Allows you to define an error handling function. See for an example.

debug: Set to true to make debug statements to appear.

concat_operator: Set to '+' or '||' normally. The operator used to concatenate strings in SQL. Used by the Concat function.

fmtDate: The format used by the DBDate function to send dates to the database. is '#Y-m-d#' for Microsoft Access, and ''Y-m-d'' for MySQL.

fmtTimeStamp: The format used by the DBTimeStamp function to send timestamps to the database.

true: The value used to represent true.Eg. '.T.'. for Foxpro, '1' for Microsoft SQL.

false: The value used to represent false. Eg. '.F.'. for Foxpro, '0' for Microsoft SQL.

replaceQuote: The string used to escape quotes. Eg. double single-quotes for Microsoft SQL, and backslash-quote for MySQL. Used by qstr.

autoCommit: indicates whether automatic commit is enabled. Default is true.

charSet: set the default charset to use. Currently only interbase/firebird supports this.

dialect: set the default sql dialect to use. Currently only interbase/firebird supports this.

role: set the role. Currently only interbase/firebird supports this.

metaTablesSQL: SQL statement to return a list of available tables. Eg. SHOW TABLES in MySQL.

genID: The latest id generated by GenID() if supported by the database.

cacheSecs: The number of seconds to cache recordsets if CacheExecute() or CacheSelectLimit() omit the $secs2cache parameter. Defaults to 60 minutes.

sysDate: String that holds the name of the database function to call to get the current date. Useful for inserts and updates.

sysTimeStamp: String that holds the name of the database function to call to get the current timestamp/datetime value.

leftOuter: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known. Otherwise set to false.

rightOuter: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known. Otherwise set to false.

ansiOuter: Boolean that if true indicates that ANSI style outer joins are permitted. Eg. select * from table1 left join table2 on p1=p2.

connectSID: Boolean that indicates whether to treat the $database parameter in connects as the SID for the oci8 driver. Defaults to false. Useful for Oracle 8.0.5 and earlier.

autoRollback: Persistent connections are auto-rollbacked in PConnect( ) if this is set to true. Default is false.

ADOConnection Main Functions

ADOConnection( )

Constructor function. Do not call this directly. Use ADONewConnection( ) instead.


Non-persistent connect to data source or server $host, using userid $user and password $password. If the server supports multiple databases, connect to database $database.

Returns true/false depending on connection success. Since 4.23, null is returned if the extension is not loaded.

ADO Note: If you are using a Microsoft ADO and not OLEDB, you can set the $database parameter to the OLEDB data provider you are using.

PostgreSQL: An alternative way of connecting to the database is to pass the standard PostgreSQL connection string in the first parameter $host, and the other parameters will be ignored.

For Oracle and Oci8, there are two ways to connect. First is to use the TNS name defined in your local tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES). Place the name in the $database field, and set the $host field to false. Alternatively, set $host to the server, and $database to the database SID, this bypassed tnsnames.ora.


 # $oraname in tnsnames.ora/ONAMES/HOSTNAMES
$conn->Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname);
$conn->Connect('server:1521', 'scott', 'tiger', 'ServiceName'); # bypass tnsnames.ora

There are many examples of connecting to a database. See Connection Examples for many examples.


Persistent connect to data source or server $host, using userid $user and password $password. If the server supports multiple databases, connect to database $database.

We now perform a rollback on persistent connection for selected databases since 2.21, as advised in the PHP manual. See change log or source code for which databases are affected.

Returns true/false depending on connection. Since 4.23, null is returned if the extension is not loaded. See Connect( ) above for more info.

Since ADOdb 2.21, we also support autoRollback. If you set:

 $conn = &NewADOConnection('mysql');
$conn->autoRollback = true; # default is false
$conn->PConnect(...); # rollback here

Then when doing a persistent connection with PConnect( ), ADOdb will perform a rollback first. This is because it is documented that PHP is not guaranteed to rollback existing failed transactions when persistent connections are used. This is implemented in Oracle, MySQL, PgSQL, MSSQL, ODBC currently.

Since ADOdb 3.11, you can force non-persistent connections even if PConnect is called by defining the constant ADODB_NEVER_PERSIST before you call PConnect.

Since 4.23, null is returned if the extension is not loaded.


Always force a new connection. In contrast, PHP sometimes reuses connections when you use Connect() or PConnect(). Currently works only on mysql (PHP 4.3.0 or later), postgresql and oci8-derived drivers. For other drivers, NConnect() works like Connect().

IsConnected( )

Returns true if connected to database. Added in 4.53.


Execute SQL statement $sql and return derived class of ADORecordSet if successful. Note that a record set is always returned on success, even if we are executing an insert or update statement. You can also pass in $sql a statement prepared in Prepare().

Returns derived class of ADORecordSet. Eg. if connecting via mysql, then ADORecordSet_mysql would be returned. False is returned if there was an error in executing the sql.

The $inputarr parameter can be used for binding variables to parameters. Below is an Oracle example:

 $conn->Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", array('val'=> $val));

Another example, using ODBC,which uses the ? convention:

  $conn->Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", array($val));
Binding variables

Variable binding speeds the compilation and caching of SQL statements, leading to higher performance. Currently Oracle, Interbase and ODBC supports variable binding. Interbase/ODBC style ? binding is emulated in databases that do not support binding. Note that you do not have to quote strings if you use binding.

Variable binding in the odbc, interbase and oci8po drivers.

$rs = $db->Execute('select * from table where val=?', array('10'));
Variable binding in the oci8 driver:
$rs = $db->Execute('select name from table where val=:key', 
array('key' => 10));
Bulk binding

Since ADOdb 3.80, we support bulk binding in Execute(), in which you pass in a 2-dimensional array to be bound to an INSERT/UPDATE or DELETE statement.

$arr = array(
array('Zulkifli', 24),
array('Rosnah', 21)
$ok = $db->Execute('insert into table (name,age) values (?,?)',$arr);

This provides very high performance as the SQL statement is prepared first. The prepared statement is executed repeatedly for each array row until all rows are completed, or until the first error. Very useful for importing data.


Similar to Execute, except that the recordset is cached for $secs2cache seconds in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory, and $inputarr only accepts 1-dimensional arrays. If CacheExecute() is called again with the same $sql, $inputarr, and also the same database, same userid, and the cached recordset has not expired, the cached recordset is returned.

$ADODB_CACHE_DIR = '/usr/local/ADOdbcache';
$conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql');
$rs = $conn->CacheExecute(15, 'select * from table'); # cache 15 secs
rs2html($rs); /* recordset to html table */

Alternatively, since ADOdb 1.80, the $secs2cache parameter is optional:

$conn->cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours
$rs = $conn->CacheExecute('select * from table');
If $secs2cache is omitted, we use the value in $connection->cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, or 1 hour). Use CacheExecute() only with SELECT statements.

Performance note: I have done some benchmarks and found that they vary so greatly that it's better to talk about when caching is of benefit. When your database server is much slower than your Web server or the database is very overloaded then ADOdb's caching is good because it reduces the load on your database server. If your database server is lightly loaded or much faster than your Web server, then caching could actually reduce performance.


Execute an Oracle stored procedure, and returns an Oracle REF cursor variable as a regular ADOdb recordset. Does not work with any other database except oci8. Thanks to Robert Tuttle for the design.

    $db = ADONewConnection("oci8"); 
$db->Connect("", "uid", "pwd", "FOO");
$rs = $db->ExecuteCursor("begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;",
# $rs is now just like any other ADOdb recordset object

ExecuteCursor() is a helper function that does the following internally:

	$stmt = $db->Prepare("begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;", true); 
$db->Parameter($stmt, $cur, 'cursorvar', false, -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);
$rs = $db->Execute($stmt,$bindarr);

ExecuteCursor only accepts 1 out parameter. So if you have 2 out parameters, use:

	$vv = 'A%';
$stmt = $db->PrepareSP("BEGIN list_tabs(:crsr,:tt); END;");
$db->OutParameter($stmt, $cur, 'crsr', -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);
$db->OutParameter($stmt, $vv, 'tt', 32); # return varchar(32)
$arr = $db->GetArray($stmt);
echo " val = $vv"; ## outputs 'TEST'
for the following PL/SQL:

PROCEDURE list_tabs(tabcursor IN OUT TabType,tablenames IN OUT VARCHAR) IS
OPEN tabcursor FOR SELECT * FROM TAB WHERE tname LIKE tablenames;
tablenames := 'TEST';
END list_tabs;


Returns a recordset if successful. Returns false otherwise. Performs a select statement, simulating PostgreSQL's SELECT statement, LIMIT $numrows OFFSET $offset clause.

In PostgreSQL, SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 will return the first 3 records only. The equivalent is $connection->SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',3). This functionality is simulated for databases that do not possess this feature.

And SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 OFFSET 2 will return records 3, 4 and 5 (eg. after record 2, return 3 rows). The equivalent in ADOdb is $connection->SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',3,2).

Note that this is the opposite of MySQL's LIMIT clause. You can also set $connection->SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',-1,10) to get rows 11 to the last row.

The last parameter $inputarr is for databases that support variable binding such as Oracle oci8. This substantially reduces SQL compilation overhead. Below is an Oracle example:

 $conn->SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", 100,-1,array('val'=> $val));

The oci8po driver (oracle portable driver) uses the more standard bind variable of ?:

 $conn->SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", 100,-1,array('val'=> $val));

Ron Wilson reports that SelectLimit does not work with UNIONs.

CacheSelectLimit([$secs2cache,] $sql, $numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)

Similar to SelectLimit, except that the recordset returned is cached for $secs2cache seconds in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory.

Since 1.80, $secs2cache has been optional, and you can define the caching time in $connection->cacheSecs.

$conn->cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours
$rs = $conn->CacheSelectLimit('select * from table',10);


Flush (delete) any cached recordsets for the SQL statement $sql in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.

If no parameter is passed in, then all adodb_*.cache files are deleted.

If you want to flush all cached recordsets manually, execute the following PHP code (works only under Unix):
  system("rm -f `find ".$ADODB_CACHE_DIR." -name adodb_*.cache`");

For general cleanup of all expired files, you should use crontab on Unix, or at.exe on Windows, and a shell script similar to the following:
# This particular example deletes files in the TMPPATH
# directory with the string ".cache" in their name that
# are more than 7 days old.
find ${TMPPATH} -mtime +$AGED | grep "\.cache" | xargs rm -f


Returns a virtualized error number, based on PEAR DB's error number system. You might need to include before you call this function. The parameter $errno is the native error number you want to convert. If you do not pass any parameter, MetaError will call ErrorNo() for you and convert it. If the error number cannot be virtualized, MetaError will return -1 (DB_ERROR).


Pass the error number returned by MetaError() for the equivalent textual error message.


Returns the last status or error message. The error message is reset after every call to Execute().

This can return a string even if no error occurs. In general you do not need to call this function unless an ADOdb function returns false on an error.

Note: If debug is enabled, the SQL error message is always displayed when the Execute function is called.


Returns the last error number. The error number is reset after every call to Execute(). If 0 is returned, no error occurred.

Note that old versions of PHP (pre 4.0.6) do not support error number for ODBC. In general you do not need to call this function unless an ADOdb function returns false on an error.


Sets the current fetch mode for the connection and stores it in $db->fetchMode. Legal modes are ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC and ADODB_FETCH_NUM. For more info, see $ADODB_FETCH_MODE.

Returns the previous fetch mode, which could be false if SetFetchMode( ) has not been called before.

CreateSequence($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)

Create a sequence. The next time GenID( ) is called, the value returned will be $startID. Added in 2.60.

DropSequence($seqName = 'adodbseq')

Delete a sequence. Added in 2.60.

GenID($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)

Generate a sequence number . Works for interbase, mysql, postgresql, oci8, oci8po, mssql, ODBC based (access,vfp,db2,etc) drivers currently. Uses $seqName as the name of the sequence. GenID() will automatically create the sequence for you if it does not exist (provided the userid has permission to do so). Otherwise you will have to create the sequence yourself.

If your database driver emulates sequences, the name of the table is the sequence name. The table has one column, "id" which should be of type integer, or if you need something larger - numeric(16).

For ODBC and databases that do not support sequences natively (eg mssql, mysql), we create a table for each sequence. If the sequence has not been defined earlier, it is created with the starting value set in $startID.

Note that the mssql driver's GenID() before 1.90 used to generate 16 byte GUID's.


Allows you to store a blob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where.


	# for oracle
$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, empty_blob())');

# non oracle databases
$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, null)');

Returns true if succesful, false otherwise. Supported by MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oci8, Oci8po and Interbase drivers. Other drivers might work, depending on the state of development.

Note that when an Interbase blob is retrieved using SELECT, it still needs to be decoded using $connection->DecodeBlob($blob); to derive the original value in versions of PHP before 4.1.0.

For PostgreSQL, you can store your blob using blob oid's or as a bytea field. You can use bytea fields but not blob oid's currently with UpdateBlob( ). Conversely UpdateBlobFile( ) supports oid's, but not bytea data.

If you do not pass in an oid, then UpdateBlob() assumes that you are storing in bytea fields.

If you do not have any blob fields, you can improve you can improve general SQL query performance by disabling blob handling with $connection->disableBlobs = true.


Allows you to store a clob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where. Similar to UpdateBlob (see above), but for Character Large OBjects.


	# for oracle
$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, empty_clob())');

# non oracle databases
$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, null)');


Similar to UpdateBlob, except that we pass in a file path to where the blob resides.

For PostgreSQL, if you are using blob oid's, use this interface. This interface does not support bytea fields.

Returns true if successful, false otherwise.


Some databases require blob's to be encoded manually before upload. Note if you use UpdateBlob( ) or UpdateBlobFile( ) the conversion is done automatically for you and you do not have to call this function. For PostgreSQL, currently, BlobEncode() can only be used for bytea fields.

Returns the encoded blob value.

Note that there is a connection property called blobEncodeType which has 3 legal values:

false - no need to perform encoding or decoding.
'I' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a numeric value (no need to quote).
'C' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a character value (requires quoting).

This is purely for documentation purposes, so that programs that accept multiple database drivers know what is the right thing to do when processing blobs.

BlobDecode($blob, $maxblobsize = false)

Some databases require blob's to be decoded manually after doing a select statement. If the database does not require decoding, then this function will return the blob unchanged. Currently BlobDecode is only required for one database, PostgreSQL, and only if you are using blob oid's (if you are using bytea fields, we auto-decode for you). The default maxblobsize is set in $connection->maxblobsize, which is set to 256K in adodb 4.54.

In ADOdb 4.54 and later, the blob is the return value. In earlier versions, the blob data is sent to stdout.

$rs = $db->Execute("select bloboid from postgres_table where id=$key");
$blob = $db->BlobDecode( reset($rs->fields) );

Replace($table, $arrFields, $keyCols,$autoQuote=false)

Try to update a record, and if the record is not found, an insert statement is generated and executed. Returns 0 on failure, 1 if update statement worked, 2 if no record was found and the insert was executed successfully. This differs from MySQL's replace which deletes the record and inserts a new record. This also means you cannot update the primary key. The only exception to this is Interbase and its derivitives, which uses delete and insert because of some Interbase API limitations.

The parameters are $table which is the table name, the $arrFields which is an associative array where the keys are the field names, and $keyCols is the name of the primary key, or an array of field names if it is a compound key. If $autoQuote is set to true, then Replace() will quote all values that are non-numeric; auto-quoting will not quote nulls. Note that auto-quoting will not work if you use SQL functions or operators.


# single field primary key
$ret = $db->Replace('atable',
'id',$autoquote = true);
# generates UPDATE atable SET firstname='Harun',lastname='Al-Rashid' WHERE id=1000
# or INSERT INTO atable (id,firstname,lastname) VALUES (1000,'Harun','Al-Rashid')

# compound key
$ret = $db->Replace('atable2',
array('firstname'=>'Harun','lastname'=>'Al-Rashid', 'age' => 33, 'birthday' => 'null'),
$autoquote = true);

# no auto-quoting
$ret = $db->Replace('atable2',
array('firstname'=>"'Harun'",'lastname'=>"'Al-Rashid'", 'age' => 'null'),

AutoExecute($table, $arrFields, $mode, $where=false, $forceUpdate=true,$magicq=false)

Since ADOdb 4.56, you can automatically generate and execute INSERTs and UPDATEs on a given table with this function, which is a wrapper for GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL().

AutoExecute() inserts or updates $table given an array of $arrFields, where the keys are the field names and the array values are the field values to store. Note that there is some overhead because the table is first queried to extract key information before the SQL is generated. We generate an INSERT or UPDATE based on $mode (see below).

Legal values for $mode are

You have to define the constants DB_AUTOQUERY_UPDATE and DB_AUTOQUERY_INSERT yourself or include

The $where clause is required if $mode == 'UPDATE'. If $forceUpdate=false then we will query the database first and check if the field value returned by the query matches the current field value; only if they differ do we update that field.

Returns true on success, false on error.

An example of its use is:

$record["firstName"] = "Carol";
$record["lasTname"] = "Smith"; 
# executes "INSERT INTO $table (firstName,lasTname) values ('Carol',Smith')";

$record["firstName"] = "Carol";
$record["lasTname"] = "Jones"; 
$conn->AutoExecute($table,$record,'UPDATE', "lastname like 'Sm%'");
# executes "UPDATE $table SET firstName='Carol',lasTname='Jones' WHERE lastname like 'Sm%'";

Note: One of the strengths of ADOdb's AutoExecute() is that only valid field names for $table are updated. If $arrFields contains keys that are invalid field names for $table, they are ignored. There is some overhead in doing this as we have to query the database to get the field names, but given that you are not directly coding the SQL yourself, you probably aren't interested in speed at all, but convenience.

Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting $rs->tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is called.

GetUpdateSQL(&$rs, $arrFields, $forceUpdate=false,$magicq=false, $force=null)

Generate SQL to update a table given a recordset $rs, and the modified fields of the array $arrFields (which must be an associative array holding the column names and the new values) are compared with the current recordset. If $forceUpdate is true, then we also generate the SQL even if $arrFields is identical to $rs->fields. Requires the recordset to be associative. $magicq is used to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled (see qstr()). The field names in the array are case-insensitive.

Since 4.52, we allow you to pass the $force type parameter, and this overrides the $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE global variable.

Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting $rs->tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is called.

GetInsertSQL(&$rs, $arrFields,$magicq=false,$force_type=false)

Generate SQL to insert into a table given a recordset $rs. Requires the query to be associative. $magicq is used to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled (for qstr()). The field names in the array are case-insensitive.

Since 2.42, you can pass a table name instead of a recordset into GetInsertSQL (in $rs), and it will generate an insert statement for that table.

Since 4.52, we allow you to pass the $force_type parameter, and this overrides the $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE global variable.

Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting $rs->tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is called.

PageExecute($sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)

Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See Example 8.

CachePageExecute($secs2cache, $sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)

Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See Example 8. Caching version of PageExecute.

Close( )

Close the database connection. PHP4 proudly states that we no longer have to clean up at the end of the connection because the reference counting mechanism of PHP4 will automatically clean up for us.

StartTrans( )

Start a monitored transaction. As SQL statements are executed, ADOdb will monitor for SQL errors, and if any are detected, when CompleteTrans() is called, we auto-rollback.

To understand why StartTrans() is superior to BeginTrans(), let us examine a few ways of using BeginTrans(). The following is the wrong way to use transactions:

$DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");
$DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");

because you perform no error checking. It is possible to update table1 and for the update on table2 to fail. Here is a better way:

$ok = $DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");
if ($ok) $ok = $DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");
if ($ok) $DB->CommitTrans();
else $DB->RollbackTrans();

Another way is (since ADOdb 2.0):

$ok = $DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");
if ($ok) $ok = $DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");

Now it is a headache monitoring $ok all over the place. StartTrans() is an improvement because it monitors all SQL errors for you. This is particularly useful if you are calling black-box functions in which SQL queries might be executed. Also all BeginTrans, CommitTrans and RollbackTrans calls inside a StartTrans block will be disabled, so even if the black box function does a commit, it will be ignored.

$DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");
$DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");

Note that a StartTrans blocks are nestable, the inner blocks are ignored.


Complete a transaction called with StartTrans(). This function monitors for SQL errors, and will commit if no errors have occured, otherwise it will rollback. Returns true on commit, false on rollback. If the parameter $autoComplete is true monitor sql errors and commit and rollback as appropriate. Set $autoComplete to false to force rollback even if no SQL error detected.

FailTrans( )

Fail a transaction started with StartTrans(). The rollback will only occur when CompleteTrans() is called.

HasFailedTrans( )

Check whether smart transaction has failed, eg. returns true if there was an error in SQL execution or FailTrans() was called. If not within smart transaction, returns false.

BeginTrans( )

Begin a transaction. Turns off autoCommit. Returns true if successful. Some databases will always return false if transaction support is not available. Any open transactions will be rolled back when the connection is closed. Among the databases that support transactions are Oracle, PostgreSQL, Interbase, MSSQL, certain versions of MySQL, DB2, Informix, Sybase, etc.

Note that StartTrans() and CompleteTrans() is a superior method of handling transactions, available since ADOdb 3.40. For a explanation, see the StartTrans() documentation.

You can also use the ADOdb error handler to die and rollback your transactions for you transparently. Some buggy database extensions are known to commit all outstanding tranasactions, so you might want to explicitly do a $DB->RollbackTrans() in your error handler for safety.

Detecting Transactions

Since ADOdb 2.50, you are able to detect when you are inside a transaction. Check that $connection->transCnt > 0. This variable is incremented whenever BeginTrans() is called, and decremented whenever RollbackTrans() or CommitTrans() is called.


End a transaction successfully. Returns true if successful. If the database does not support transactions, will return true also as data is always committed.

If you pass the parameter $ok=false, the data is rolled back. See example in BeginTrans().

RollbackTrans( )

End a transaction, rollback all changes. Returns true if successful. If the database does not support transactions, will return false as data is never rollbacked.


Returns an associative array for the given query $sql with optional bind parameters in $inputarr. If the number of columns returned is greater to two, a 2-dimensional array is returned, with the first column of the recordset becomes the keys to the rest of the rows. If the columns is equal to two, a 1-dimensional array is created, where the the keys directly map to the values (unless $force_array is set to true, when an array is created for each value).


We have the following data in a recordset:

row1: Apple, Fruit, Edible
row2: Cactus, Plant, Inedible
row3: Rose, Flower, Edible

GetAssoc will generate the following 2-dimensional associative array:

Apple => array[Fruit, Edible]
Cactus => array[Plant, Inedible]
Rose => array[Flower,Edible]

If the dataset is:

row1: Apple, Fruit
row2: Cactus, Plant
row3: Rose, Flower

GetAssoc will generate the following 1-dimensional associative array (with $force_array==false):

Apple => Fruit

The function returns:

The associative array, or false if an error occurs.

CacheGetAssoc([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false,$force_array=false,$first2cols=false)

Caching version of GetAssoc function above.


Executes the SQL and returns the first field of the first row. The recordset and remaining rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occur, false is returned.


Executes the SQL and returns the first row as an array. The recordset and remaining rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, false is returned.


Executes the SQL and returns the all the rows as a 2-dimensional array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, false is returned. GetArray is a synonym for GetAll.


Executes the SQL and returns all elements of the first column as a 1-dimensional array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, false is returned.

CacheGetOne([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetRow([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetAll([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetCol([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)

Similar to above Get* functions, except that the recordset is serialized and cached in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory for $secs2cache seconds. Good for speeding up queries on rarely changing data. Note that the $secs2cache parameter is optional. If omitted, we use the value in $connection->cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, or 1 hour).

Prepare($sql )

Prepares (compiles) an SQL query for repeated execution. Bind parameters are denoted by ?, except for the oci8 driver, which uses the traditional Oracle :varname convention.

Returns an array containing the original sql statement in the first array element; the remaining elements of the array are driver dependent. If there is an error, or we are emulating Prepare( ), we return the original $sql string. This is because all error-handling has been centralized in Execute( ).

Prepare( ) cannot be used with functions that use SQL query rewriting techniques, e.g. PageExecute( ) and SelectLimit( ).


$stmt = $DB->Prepare('insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)');
for ($i=0; $i < $max; $i++)
$DB->Execute($stmt,array((string) rand(), $i));

Also see InParameter(), OutParameter() and PrepareSP() below. Only supported internally by interbase, oci8 and selected ODBC-based drivers, otherwise it is emulated. There is no performance advantage to using Prepare() with emulation.

Important: Due to limitations or bugs in PHP, if you are getting errors when you using prepared queries, try setting $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false before preparing. This behaviour has been observed with ODBC.

IfNull($field, $nullReplacementValue)

Portable IFNULL function (NVL in Oracle). Returns a string that represents the function that checks whether a $field is null for the given database, and if null, change the value returned to $nullReplacementValue. Eg.

$sql = 'SELECT '.$db->IfNull('name', "'- unknown -'"). ' FROM table';


This is not a function, but a property. Some databases have "length" and others "len" as the function to measure the length of a string. To use this property:

  $sql = "SELECT ".$db->length."(field) from table";
$rs = $db->Execute($sql);


This is not a function, but a property. This is a string that holds the sql to generate a random number between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive.


This is not a function, but a property. Some databases have "substr" and others "substring" as the function to retrieve a sub-string. To use this property:

  $sql = "SELECT ".$db->substr."(field, $offset, $length) from table";
$rs = $db->Execute($sql);

For all databases, the 1st parameter of substr is the field, the 2nd is the offset (1-based) to the beginning of the sub-string, and the 3rd is the length of the sub-string.


Generates a bind placeholder portably. For most databases, the bind placeholder is "?". However some databases use named bind parameters such as Oracle, eg ":somevar". This allows us to portably define an SQL statement with bind parameters:

$sql = 'insert into table (col1,col2) values ('.$DB->Param('a').','.$DB->Param('b').')';
# generates 'insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)'
# or 'insert into table (col1,col2) values (:a,:b)
$stmt = $DB->Prepare($sql);
$stmt = $DB->Execute($stmt,array('one','two'));

PrepareSP($sql, $cursor=false )

When calling stored procedures in mssql and oci8 (oracle), and you might want to directly bind to parameters that return values, or for special LOB handling. PrepareSP() allows you to do so.

Returns the same array or $sql string as Prepare( ) above. If you do not need to bind to return values, you should use Prepare( ) instead.

The 2nd parameter, $cursor is not used except with oci8. Setting it to true will force OCINewCursor to be called; this is to support output REF CURSORs.

For examples of usage of PrepareSP( ), see InParameter( ) below.

Note: in the mssql driver, preparing stored procedures requires a special function call, mssql_init( ), which is called by this function. PrepareSP( ) is available in all other drivers, and is emulated by calling Prepare( ).

InParameter($stmt, $var, $name, $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )

Binds a PHP variable as input to a stored procedure variable. The parameter $stmt is the value returned by PrepareSP(), $var is the PHP variable you want to bind, $name is the name of the stored procedure variable. Optional is $maxLen, the maximum length of the data to bind, and $type which is database dependant. Consult mssql_bind and ocibindbyname docs at for more info on legal values for $type.

InParameter() is a wrapper function that calls Parameter() with $isOutput=false. The advantage of this function is that it is self-documenting, because the $isOutput parameter is no longer needed. Only for mssql and oci8 currently.

Here is an example using oci8:

# For oracle, Prepare and PrepareSP are identical
$stmt = $db->PrepareSP(
	"declare RETVAL integer; 

The same example using mssql:

# @RETVAL = SP_RUNSOMETHING @myid,@group
$stmt = $db->PrepareSP('SP_RUNSOMETHING'); 
# note that the parameter name does not have @ in front! $db->InParameter($stmt,$id,'myid'); $db->InParameter($stmt,$group,'group',64); # return value in mssql - RETVAL is hard-coded name

Note that the only difference between the oci8 and mssql implementations is $sql.

If $type parameter is set to false, in mssql, $type will be dynamicly determined based on the type of the PHP variable passed (string => SQLCHAR, boolean =>SQLINT1, integer =>SQLINT4 or float/double=>SQLFLT8).

In oci8, $type can be set to OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File), OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). To pass in a null, use $db->Parameter($stmt, $null=null, 'param').

OutParameter($stmt, $var, $name, $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )

Binds a PHP variable as output from a stored procedure variable. The parameter $stmt is the value returned by PrepareSP(), $var is the PHP variable you want to bind, $name is the name of the stored procedure variable. Optional is $maxLen, the maximum length of the data to bind, and $type which is database dependant.

OutParameter() is a wrapper function that calls Parameter() with $isOutput=true. The advantage of this function is that it is self-documenting, because the $isOutput parameter is no longer needed. Only for mssql and oci8 currently.

For an example, see InParameter.

Parameter($stmt, $var, $name, $isOutput=false, $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )

Note: This function is deprecated, because of the new InParameter() and OutParameter() functions. These are superior because they are self-documenting, unlike Parameter().

Adds a bind parameter suitable for return values or special data handling (eg. LOBs) after a statement has been prepared using PrepareSP(). Only for mssql and oci8 currently. The parameters are:

$stmt Statement returned by Prepare() or PrepareSP().
$var PHP variable to bind to. Make sure you pre-initialize it!
$name Name of stored procedure variable name to bind to.
[$isOutput] Indicates direction of parameter 0/false=IN 1=OUT 2= IN/OUT. This is ignored in oci8 as this driver auto-detects the direction.
[$maxLen] Maximum length of the parameter variable.
[$type] Consult mssql_bind and ocibindbyname docs at for more info on legal values for type.

Lastly, in oci8, bind parameters can be reused without calling PrepareSP( ) or Parameters again. This is not possible with mssql. An oci8 example:

$id = 0; $i = 0;
$stmt = $db->PrepareSP( "update table set val=:i where id=:id");
$db->Parameter($stmt,$i, 'i');
for ($cnt=0; $cnt < 1000; $cnt++) {
$id = $cnt;
$i = $cnt * $cnt; # works with oci8! $db->Execute($stmt);

Bind($stmt, $var, $size=4001, $type=false, $name=false)

This is a low-level function supported only by the oci8 driver. Avoid using unless you only want to support Oracle. The Parameter( ) function is the recommended way to go with bind variables.

Bind( ) allows you to use bind variables in your sql statement. This binds a PHP variable to a name defined in an Oracle sql statement that was previously prepared using Prepare(). Oracle named variables begin with a colon, and ADOdb requires the named variables be called :0, :1, :2, :3, etc. The first invocation of Bind() will match :0, the second invocation will match :1, etc. Binding can provide 100% speedups for insert, select and update statements.

The other variables, $size sets the buffer size for data storage, $type is the optional descriptor type OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File), OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). Lastly, instead of using the default :0, :1, etc names, you can define your own bind-name using $name.

The following example shows 3 bind variables being used: p1, p2 and p3. These variables are bound to :0, :1 and :2.

$stmt = $DB->Prepare("insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:0, :1, :2)");
$DB->Bind($stmt, $p1);
$DB->Bind($stmt, $p2);
$DB->Bind($stmt, $p3);
for ($i = 0; $i < $max; $i++) {
$p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;

You can also use named variables:

$stmt = $DB->Prepare("insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:name0, :name1, :name2)");
$DB->Bind($stmt, $p1, "name0");
$DB->Bind($stmt, $p2, "name1");
$DB->Bind($stmt, $p3, "name2");
for ($i = 0; $i < $max; $i++) {
$p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;


Call this method to install a SQL logging and timing function (using fnExecute). Then all SQL statements are logged into an adodb_logsql table in a database. If the adodb_logsql table does not exist, ADOdb will create the table if you have the appropriate permissions. Returns the previous logging value (true for enabled, false for disabled). Here are samples of the DDL for selected databases:

		CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
		  created datetime NOT NULL,
		  sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
		  sql1 text NOT NULL,
		  params text NOT NULL,
		  tracer text NOT NULL,
		  timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
		CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
		  created timestamp NOT NULL,
		  sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
		  sql1 text NOT NULL,
		  params text NOT NULL,
		  tracer text NOT NULL,
		  timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
		CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
		  created datetime NOT NULL,
		  sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
		  sql1 varchar(4000) NOT NULL,
		  params varchar(3000) NOT NULL,
		  tracer varchar(500) NOT NULL,
		  timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
		CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
		  created date NOT NULL,
		  sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
		  sql1 varchar(4000) NOT NULL,
		  params varchar(4000),
		  tracer varchar(4000),
		  timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
	$conn->LogSQL(); // turn on logging
$conn->LogSQL(false); // turn off logging

# output summary of SQL logging results
$perf = NewPerfMonitor($conn);
echo $perf->SuspiciousSQL();
echo $perf->ExpensiveSQL();

One limitation of logging is that rollback also prevents SQL from being logged.

If you prefer to use another name for the table used to store the SQL, you can override it by calling adodb_perf::table($tablename), where $tablename is the new table name (you will still need to manually create the table yourself). An example:

Also see Performance Monitor.

fnExecute and fnCacheExecute properties

These two properties allow you to define bottleneck functions for all sql statements processed by ADOdb. This allows you to perform statistical analysis and query-rewriting of your sql.

Examples of fnExecute

Here is an example of using fnExecute, to count all cached queries and non-cached queries, you can do this:

# $db is the connection object
function CountExecs($db, $sql, $inputarray)
global $EXECS;

if (!is_array(inputarray)) $EXECS++;
# handle 2-dimensional input arrays
else if (is_array(reset($inputarray))) $EXECS += sizeof($inputarray);
else $EXECS++;

# $db is the connection object
function CountCachedExecs($db, $secs2cache, $sql, $inputarray)
global $CACHED; $CACHED++;

$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$db->fnExecute = 'CountExecs';
$db->fnCacheExecute = 'CountCachedExecs';
# After many sql statements:`
printf("<p>Total queries=%d; total cached=%d</p>",$EXECS+$CACHED, $CACHED);

The fnExecute function is called before the sql is parsed and executed, so you can perform a query rewrite. If you are passing in a prepared statement, then $sql is an array (see Prepare). The fnCacheExecute function is only called if the recordset returned was cached. The function parameters match the Execute and CacheExecute functions respectively, except that $this (the connection object) is passed as the first parameter.

Since ADOdb 3.91, the behaviour of fnExecute varies depending on whether the defined function returns a value. If it does not return a value, then the $sql is executed as before. This is useful for query rewriting or counting sql queries.

On the other hand, you might want to replace the Execute function with one of your own design. If this is the case, then have your function return a value. If a value is returned, that value is returned immediately, without any further processing. This is used internally by ADOdb to implement LogSQL() functionality.

ADOConnection Utility Functions


No longer available - removed since 1.99.


Generates the sql string used to concatenate $s1, $s2, etc together. Uses the string in the concat_operator field to generate the concatenation. Override this function if a concatenation operator is not used, eg. MySQL.

Returns the concatenated string.


Format the $date in the format the database accepts. This is used in INSERT/UPDATE statements; for SELECT statements, use SQLDate. The $date parameter can be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d. Uses the fmtDate field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed in, it will be converted to an SQL null.

Returns the date as a quoted string.


Format the timestamp $ts in the format the database accepts; this can be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d H:i:s. Uses the fmtTimeStamp field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed in, it will be converted to an SQL null.

Returns the timestamp as a quoted string.


Quotes a string to be sent to the database. The $magic_quotes_enabled parameter may look funny, but the idea is if you are quoting a string extracted from a POST/GET variable, then pass get_magic_quotes_gpc() as the second parameter. This will ensure that the variable is not quoted twice, once by qstr and once by the magic_quotes_gpc.

Eg. $s = $db->qstr(HTTP_GET_VARS['name'],get_magic_quotes_gpc());

Returns the quoted string.


Quotes the string $s, escaping the database specific quote character as appropriate. Formerly checked magic quotes setting, but this was disabled since 3.31 for compatibility with PEAR DB.

Affected_Rows( )

Returns the number of rows affected by a update or delete statement. Returns false if function not supported.

Not supported by interbase/firebird currently.

Insert_ID( )

Returns the last autonumbering ID inserted. Returns false if function not supported.

Only supported by databases that support auto-increment or object id's, such as PostgreSQL, MySQL and MS SQL Server currently. PostgreSQL returns the OID, which can change on a database reload.


Lock a table row for the duration of a transaction. For example to lock record $id in table1:


Supported in db2, interbase, informix, mssql, oci8, postgres, sybase.


Returns a list of databases available on the server as an array. You have to connect to the server first. Only available for ODBC, MySQL and ADO.

MetaTables($ttype = false, $showSchema = false, $mask=false)

Returns an array of tables and views for the current database as an array. The array should exclude system catalog tables if possible. To only show tables, use $db->MetaTables('TABLES'). To show only views, use $db->MetaTables('VIEWS'). The $showSchema parameter currently works only for DB2, and when set to true, will add the schema name to the table, eg. "SCHEMA.TABLE".

You can define a mask for matching. For example, setting $mask = 'TMP%' will match all tables that begin with 'TMP'. Currently only mssql, oci8, odbc_mssql and postgres* support $mask.


Returns an array of ADOFieldObject's, one field object for every column of $table. A field object is a class instance with (name, type, max_length) defined. Currently Sybase does not recognise date types, and ADO cannot identify the correct data type (so we default to varchar).

The $notcasesensitive parameter determines whether we uppercase or lowercase the table name to normalize it (required for some databases). Does not work with MySQL ISAM tables.

For schema support, pass in the $table parameter, "$schema.$tablename". This is only supported for selected databases.


Returns an array of column names for $table. Since ADOdb 4.22, this is an associative array, with the keys in uppercase. Set $numericIndex=true if you want the old behaviour of numeric indexes (since 4.23).

e.g. array('FIELD1' => 'Field1', 'FIELD2'=>'Field2')

MetaPrimaryKeys($table, $owner=false)

Returns an array containing column names that are the primary keys of $table. Supported by mysql, odbc (including db2, odbc_mssql, etc), mssql, postgres, interbase/firebird, oci8 currently.

Views (and some tables) have primary keys, but sometimes this information is not available from the database. You can define a function ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys($databaseType, $database, $view, $owner) that should return an array containing the fields that make up the primary key. If that function exists, it will be called when MetaPrimaryKeys() cannot find a primary key for a table or view.

// In this example: dbtype = 'oci8', $db = 'mydb', $view = 'dataView', $owner = false 
function ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys($dbtype,$db,$view,$owner)
switch(strtoupper($view)) {
case 'DATAVIEW': return array('DATAID');
default: return false;

$db = NewADOConnection('oci8');


Returns an array of containing two elements 'description' and 'version'. The 'description' element contains the string description of the database. The 'version' naturally holds the version number (which is also a string).

MetaForeignKeys($table, $owner=false, $upper=false)

Returns an associate array of foreign keys, or false if not supported. For example, if table employee has a foreign key where employee.deptkey points to dept_table.deptid, and employee.posn=posn_table.postionid and employee.poscategory=posn_table.category, then $conn->MetaForeignKeys('employee') will return

'dept_table' => array('deptkey=deptid'),
'posn_table' => array('posn=positionid','poscategory=category')

The optional schema or owner can be defined in $owner. If $upper is true, then the table names (array keys) are upper-cased.


When an SQL statement successfully is executed by ADOConnection->Execute($sql),an ADORecordSet object is returned. This object contains a virtual cursor so we can move from row to row, functions to obtain information about the columns and column types, and helper functions to deal with formating the results to show to the user.

ADORecordSet Fields

fields: Array containing the current row. This is not associative, but is an indexed array from 0 to columns-1. See also the function Fields, which behaves like an associative array.

dataProvider: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database. Normally set to native, unless using odbc or ado.

blobSize: Maximum size of a char, string or varchar object before it is treated as a Blob (Blob's should be shown with textarea's). See the MetaType function.

sql: Holds the sql statement used to generate this record set.

canSeek: Set to true if Move( ) function works.

EOF: True if we have scrolled the cursor past the last record.

ADORecordSet Functions

ADORecordSet( )

Constructer. Normally you never call this function yourself.


Generates an associative array from the recordset. Note that is this function is also available in the connection object. More details can be found there.


Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current cursor position, indexed from 0 to $number_of_rows - 1. If $number_of_rows is undefined, till EOF.


Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current cursor position. Synonym for GetArray() for compatibility with Microsoft ADO.

GetMenu($name, [$default_str=''], [$blank1stItem=true], [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])

Generate a HTML menu (<select><option><option></select>). The first column of the recordset (fields[0]) will hold the string to display in the option tags. If the recordset has more than 1 column, the second column (fields[1]) is the value to send back to the web server.. The menu will be given the name $name.

If $default_str is defined, then if $default_str == fields[0], that field is selected. If $blank1stItem is true, the first option is empty. You can also set the first option strings by setting $blank1stItem = "$value:$text".

$Default_str can be array for a multiple select listbox.

To get a listbox, set the $size to a non-zero value (or pass $default_str as an array). If $multiple_select is true then a listbox will be generated with $size items (or if $size==0, then 5 items) visible, and we will return an array to a server. Lastly use $moreAttr to add additional attributes such as javascript or styles.

Menu Example 1: GetMenu('menu1','A',true) will generate a menu: for the data (A,1), (B,2), (C,3). Also see example 5.

Menu Example 2: For the same data, GetMenu('menu1',array('A','B'),false) will generate a menu with both A and B selected:

GetMenu2($name, [$default_str=''], [$blank1stItem=true], [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])

This is nearly identical to GetMenu, except that the $default_str is matched to fields[1] (the option values).

Menu Example 3: Given the data in menu example 2, GetMenu2('menu1',array('1','2'),false) will generate a menu with both A and B selected in menu example 2, but this time the selection is based on the 2nd column, which holds the values to return to the Web server.

UserDate($str, [$fmt])

Converts the date string $str to another format. The date format is Y-m-d, or Unix timestamp format. The default $fmt is Y-m-d.

UserTimeStamp($str, [$fmt])

Converts the timestamp string $str to another format. The timestamp format is Y-m-d H:i:s, as in '2002-02-28 23:00:12', or Unix timestamp format. UserTimeStamp calls UnixTimeStamp to parse $str, and $fmt defaults to Y-m-d H:i:s if not defined.


Parses the date string $str and returns it in unix mktime format (eg. a number indicating the seconds after January 1st, 1970). Expects the date to be in Y-m-d H:i:s format, except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where M d Y is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled by a global array, which might need localisation).

This function is available in both ADORecordSet and ADOConnection since 1.91.


Parses the timestamp string $str and returns it in unix mktime format (eg. a number indicating the seconds after January 1st, 1970). Expects the date to be in "Y-m-d, H:i:s" (1970-12-24, 00:00:00) or "Y-m-d H:i:s" (1970-12-24 00:00:00) or "YmdHis" (19701225000000) format, except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where "M d Y h:i:sA" (Dec 25 1970 00:00:00AM) is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled by a global array, which might need localisation).

This function is available in both ADORecordSet and ADOConnection since 1.91.

OffsetDate($dayFraction, $basedate=false)

Returns a string with the native SQL functions to calculate future and past dates based on $basedate in a portable fashion. If $basedate is not defined, then the current date (at 12 midnight) is used. Returns the SQL string that performs the calculation when passed to Execute().

For example, in Oracle, to find the date and time that is 2.5 days from today, you can use:

# get date one week from now
$fld = $conn->OffsetDate(7); // returns "(trunc(sysdate)+7")
# get date and time that is 60 hours from current date and time
$fld = $conn->OffsetDate(2.5, $conn->sysTimeStamp); // returns "(sysdate+2.5)"

$conn->Execute("UPDATE TABLE SET dodate=$fld WHERE ID=$id");

This function is available for mysql, mssql, oracle, oci8 and postgresql drivers since 2.13. It might work with other drivers provided they allow performing numeric day arithmetic on dates.

SQLDate($dateFormat, $basedate=false)

Returns a string which contains the native SQL functions to format a date or date column $basedate. This is used in SELECT statements. For INSERT/UPDATE statements, use DBDate. It uses a case-sensitive $dateFormat, which supports:
  Y: 4-digit Year
  Q: Quarter (1-4)
  M: Month (Jan-Dec)
  m: Month (01-12)
  d: Day (01-31)
  H: Hour (00-23)
  h: Hour (1-12)
  i: Minute (00-59)
  s: Second (00-60)
  A: AM/PM indicator
  w: day of week (0-6 or 1-7 depending on DB)
  l: day of week (as string - lowercase L)
  W: week in year (0..53 for MySQL, 1..53 for PostgreSQL and Oracle)

All other characters are treated as strings. You can also use \ to escape characters. Available on selected databases, including mysql, postgresql, mssql, oci8 and DB2.

This is useful in writing portable sql statements that GROUP BY on dates. For example to display total cost of goods sold broken by quarter (dates are stored in a field called postdate):

 $sqlfn = $db->SQLDate('Y-\QQ','postdate'); # get sql that formats postdate to output 2002-Q1
$sql = "SELECT $sqlfn,SUM(cogs) FROM table GROUP BY $sqlfn ORDER BY 1 desc";

MoveNext( )

Move the internal cursor to the next row. The $this->fields array is automatically updated. Returns false if unable to do so (normally because EOF has been reached), otherwise true.

If EOF is reached, then the $this->fields array is set to false (this was only implemented consistently in ADOdb 3.30). For the pre-3.30 behaviour of $this->fields (at EOF), set the global variable $ADODB_COMPAT_FETCH = true.


$rs = $db->Execute($sql);
if ($rs)
while (!$rs->EOF) {


Moves the internal cursor to a specific row $to. Rows are zero-based eg. 0 is the first row. The fields array is automatically updated. For databases that do not support scrolling internally, ADOdb will simulate forward scrolling. Some databases do not support backward scrolling. If the $to position is after the EOF, $to will move to the end of the RecordSet for most databases. Some obscure databases using odbc might not behave this way.

Note: This function uses absolute positioning, unlike Microsoft's ADO.

Returns true or false. If false, the internal cursor is not moved in most implementations, so AbsolutePosition( ) will return the last cursor position before the Move( ).


Internally calls Move(0). Note that some databases do not support this function.


Internally calls Move(RecordCount()-1). Note that some databases do not support this function.


Returns an associative array containing the current row. The keys to the array are the column names. The column names are upper-cased for easy access. To get the next row, you will still need to call MoveNext().

For example:
Array ( [ID] => 1 [FIRSTNAME] => Caroline [LASTNAME] => Miranda [CREATED] => 2001-07-05 )

Note: do not use GetRowAssoc() with $ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Because they have the same functionality, they will interfere with each other.


Returns the current page. Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. See Example 8.


Returns true if at first page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. See Example 8.


Returns true if at last page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. See Example 8.


Returns the value of the associated column $colname for the current row. The column name is case-insensitive.

This is a convenience function. For higher performance, use $ADODB_FETCH_MODE.


Returns array containing current row, or false if EOF. FetchRow( ) internally moves to the next record after returning the current row.

Warning: Do not mix using FetchRow() with MoveNext().


$rs = $db->Execute($sql);
if ($rs)
while ($arr = $rs->FetchRow()) {
  # process $arr


Sets $array to the current row. Returns PEAR_Error object if EOF, 1 if ok (DB_OK constant). If PEAR is undefined, false is returned when EOF. FetchInto( ) internally moves to the next record after returning the current row.

FetchRow() is easier to use. See above.


Returns an object containing the name, type and max_length of the associated field. If the max_length cannot be determined reliably, it will be set to -1. The column numbers are zero-based. See example 2.

FieldCount( )

Returns the number of fields (columns) in the record set.

RecordCount( )

Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the number of records returned cannot be determined from the database driver API, we will buffer all rows and return a count of the rows after all the records have been retrieved. This buffering can be disabled (for performance reasons) by setting the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false. When disabled, RecordCount( ) will return -1 for certain databases. See the supported databases list above for more details.

RowCount is a synonym for RecordCount.

PO_RecordCount($table, $where)

Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the database does not support this, it will perform a SELECT COUNT(*) on the table $table, with the given $where condition to return an estimate of the recordset size.

$numrows = $rs->PO_RecordCount("articles_table", "group=$group");


For databases that allow multiple recordsets to be returned in one query, this function allows you to switch to the next recordset. Currently only supported by mssql driver.

$rs = $db->Execute('execute return_multiple_rs');
$arr1 = $rs->GetArray();
$arr2 = $rs->GetArray();


Returns the current row as an object. If you set $toupper to true, then the object fields are set to upper-case. Note: The newer FetchNextObject() is the recommended way of accessing rows as objects. See below.


Gets the current row as an object and moves to the next row automatically. Returns false if at end-of-file. If you set $toupper to true, then the object fields are set to upper-case.

$rs = $db->Execute('select firstname,lastname from table');
if ($rs) {
while ($o = $rs->FetchNextObject()) {
print "$o->FIRSTNAME, $o->LASTNAME<BR>";

There is some trade-off in speed in using FetchNextObject(). If performance is important, you should access rows with the fields[] array. FetchObj()

Returns the current record as an object. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike FetchObject.


Returns the current record as an object and moves to the next record. If EOF, false is returned. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike FetctNextObject.

CurrentRow( )

Returns the current row of the record set. 0 is the first row.

AbsolutePosition( )

Synonym for CurrentRow for compatibility with ADO. Returns the current row of the record set. 0 is the first row.


Determine what generic meta type a database field type is given its native type $nativeDBType as a string and the length of the field $field_max_length. Note that field_max_length can be -1 if it is not known. The field object returned by FetchField() can be passed in $fieldobj or as the 1st parameter $nativeDBType. This is useful for databases such as mysql which has additional properties in the field object such as primary_key.

Uses the field blobSize and compares it with $field_max_length to determine whether the character field is actually a blob.

For example, $db->MetaType('char') will return 'C'.


Since ADOdb 3.0, MetaType accepts $fieldobj as the first parameter, instead of $nativeDBType.

Close( )

Closes the recordset, cleaning all memory and resources associated with the recordset.

If memory management is not an issue, you do not need to call this function as recordsets are closed for you by PHP at the end of the script. SQL statements such as INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE do not really return a recordset, so you do not have to call Close() for such SQL statements.

function rs2html($adorecordset,[$tableheader_attributes], [$col_titles])

This is a standalone function (rs2html = recordset to html) that is similar to PHP's odbc_result_all function, it prints a ADORecordSet, $adorecordset as a HTML table. $tableheader_attributes allow you to control the table cellpadding, cellspacing and border attributes. Lastly you can replace the database column names with your own column titles with the array $col_titles. This is designed more as a quick debugging mechanism, not a production table recordset viewer.

You will need to include the file

Example of rs2html:

; # load code common to ADOdb
include(''); # load code common to ADOdb
$conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql'); # create a connection
$conn->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db
$sql = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';
$rs = $conn->Execute($sql);
rs2html($rs,'border=2 cellpadding=3',array('Customer Name','Customer ID'));

Differences between this ADOdb library and Microsoft ADO

  1. ADOdb only supports recordsets created by a connection object. Recordsets cannot be created independently.
  2. ADO properties are implemented as functions in ADOdb. This makes it easier to implement any enhanced ADO functionality in the future.
  3. ADOdb's ADORecordSet->Move() uses absolute positioning, not relative. Bookmarks are not supported.
  4. ADORecordSet->AbsolutePosition() cannot be used to move the record cursor.
  5. ADO Parameter objects are not supported. Instead we have the ADOConnection::Parameter( ) function, which provides a simpler interface for calling preparing parameters and calling stored procedures.
  6. Recordset properties for paging records are available, but implemented as in Example 8.

Database Driver Guide

This describes how to create a class to connect to a new database. To ensure there is no duplication of work, kindly email me at if you decide to create such a class.

First decide on a name in lower case to call the database type. Let's say we call it xbase.

Then we need to create two classes ADODB_xbase and ADORecordSet_xbase in the file

The simplest form of database driver is an adaptation of an existing ODBC driver. Then we just need to create the class ADODB_xbase extends ADODB_odbc to support the new date and timestamp formats, the concatenation operator used, true and false. For the ADORecordSet_xbase extends ADORecordSet_odbc we need to change the MetaType function. See as an example.

More complicated is a totally new database driver that connects to a new PHP extension. Then you will need to implement several functions. Fortunately, you do not have to modify most of the complex code. You only need to override a few stub functions. See for example.

The default date format of ADOdb internally is YYYY-MM-DD (Ansi-92). All dates should be converted to that format when passing to an ADOdb date function. See Oracle for an example how we use ALTER SESSION to change the default date format in _pconnect _connect.

ADOConnection Functions to Override

Defining a constructor for your ADOConnection derived function is optional. There is no need to call the base class constructor.

_connect: Low level implementation of Connect. Returns true or false. Should set the _connectionID.

_pconnect: Low level implemention of PConnect. Returns true or false. Should set the _connectionID.

_query: Execute a query. Returns the queryID, or false.

_close: Close the connection -- PHP should clean up all recordsets.

ErrorMsg: Stores the error message in the private variable _errorMsg.

ADOConnection Fields to Set

_bindInputArray: Set to true if binding of parameters for SQL inserts and updates is allowed using ?, eg. as with ODBC.







hasLimit support SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 10 of MySQL.

hasTop support Microsoft style SELECT TOP 10 * FROM TABLE.

ADORecordSet Functions to Override

You will need to define a constructor for your ADORecordSet derived class that calls the parent class constructor.

FetchField: as documented above in ADORecordSet

_initrs: low level initialization of the recordset: setup the _numOfRows and _numOfFields fields -- called by the constructor.

_seek: seek to a particular row. Do not load the data into the fields array. This is done by _fetch. Returns true or false. Note that some implementations such as Interbase do not support seek. Set canSeek to false.

_fetch: fetch a row using the database extension function and then move to the next row. Sets the fields array. If the parameter $ignore_fields is true then there is no need to populate the fields array, just move to the next row. then Returns true or false.

_close: close the recordset

Fields: If the array row returned by the PHP extension is not an associative one, you will have to override this. See for an example. For databases such as MySQL and MSSQL where an associative array is returned, there is no need to override this function.

ADOConnection Fields to Set

canSeek: Set to true if the _seek function works.

Optimizing PHP

For info on tuning PHP, read this article on Optimizing PHP.

Change Log

4.80 8 Mar 2006

Added activerecord support.

Added mysql $conn->compat323 = true if you want MySQL 3.23 compat enabled. Fixes GetOne() Select-Limit problems.

Added to support XML Schema version 3 and updated adodb-datadict.htm docs.

4.72 21 Feb 2006

Added 'new' DSN parameter for NConnect().

Pager now sanitizes $PHP_SELF to protect against XSS. Thx to James Bercegay and others.

ADOConnection::MetaType changed to setup $rs->connection correctly.

New native DB2 driver contributed by Larry Menard, Dan Scott, Andy Staudacher, Bharat Mediratta.

The mssql CreateSequence() did not BEGIN TRANSACTION correctly. Fixed. Thx Sean Lee.

The _adodb_countrecs() function in has been revised to handle more ORDER BY variations.

4.71 24 Jan 2006

Fixes postgresql security issue related to binary strings. Thx to Andy Staudacher.

Several DSN bugs found:

1. Fix bugs in DSN connections introduced in 4.70 when underscores are found in the DSN.

2. DSN with _ did not work properly in PHP5 (fine in PHP4). Fixed.

3. Added support for PDO DSN connections in NewADOConnection(), and database parameter in PDO::Connect().

The oci8 datetime flag not correctly implemented in ADORecordSet_array. Fixed.

Added BlobDelete() to postgres, as a counterpoint to UpdateBlobFile().

Fixed GetInsertSQL() to support oci8po.

Fixed qstr() issue with postgresql with \0 in strings.

Fixed some datadict driver loading issues in _adodb_getdriver().

Added register shutdown function session_write_close in for PHP 5 compat. See

4.70 6 Jan 2006

Many fixes from Danila Ulyanov to ibase, oci8, postgres, mssql, odbc_oracle, odbtp, etc drivers.

Changed usage of binary hint in for mysql. See

Fixed invalid variable reference problem in undomq(),

Fixed in, _DBParameter() settings of fetchmode was wrong.

Fixed security issues in server.php and tmssql.php discussed by Andreas Sandblad in a Secunia security advisory. Added $ACCEPTIP = and changed suggested root password to something more secure.

Changed pager to close recordset after RenderLayout().

4.68 25 Nov 2005

PHP 5 compat for mysqli. MetaForeignKeys repeated twice and MYSQLI_BINARY_FLAG missing.

PHP 5.1 support for postgresql bind parameters using ? did not work if >= 10 parameters. Fixed. Thx to Stanislav Shramko.

Lots of PDO improvements.

Spelling error fixed in mysql MetaForeignKeys, $associative parameter.

4.67 16 Nov 2005

Postgresql not_null flag not set to false correctly. Thx Cristian MARIN.

We now check in Replace() if key is in fieldArray. Thx Sébastien Vanvelthem.

_file_get_contents() function was missing in xmlschema. fixed.

Added week in year support to SQLDate(), using 'W' flag. Thx Spider.

In sqlite metacolumns was repeated twice, causing PHP 5 problems. Fixed.

Made debug output XHTML compliant.

4.66 28 Sept 2005

ExecuteCursor() in oci8 did not clean up properly on failure. Fixed.

Updated xmlschema.dtd, by "Alec Smecher"

Hardened SelectLimit, typecasting nrows and offset to integer.

Fixed misc bugs in AutoExecute() and GetInsertSQL().

Added $conn->database as the property holding the database name. The older $conn->databaseName is retained for backward compat.

Changed _adodb_backtrace() compat check to use function_exists().

Bug in postgresql MetaIndexes fixed. Thx Kevin Jamieson.

Improved OffsetDate for MySQL, reducing rounding error.

Metacolumns added to sqlite. Thx Mark Newnham.

PHP 4.4 compat fixes for GetAssoc().

Added postgresql bind support for php 5.1. Thx Cristiano da Cunha Duarte

OffsetDate() fixes for postgresql, typecasting strings to date or timestamp.

DBTimeStamp formats for mssql, odbc_mssql and postgresql made to conform with other db's.

Changed PDO constants from PDO_ to PDO:: to support latest spec.

4.65 22 July 2005

Reverted 'X' in mssql datadict to 'TEXT' to be compat with mssql driver. However now you can set $datadict->typeX = 'varchar(4000)' or 'TEXT' or 'CLOB' for mssql and oci8 drivers.

Added charset support when using DSN for Oracle.

_adodb_getmenu did not use fieldcount() to get number of fields. Fixed.

MetaForeignKeys() for mysql/mysqli contributed by Juan Carlos Gonzalez.

MetaDatabases() now correctly returns an array for mysqli driver. Thx Cristian MARIN.

CompleteTrans(false) did not return false. Fixed. Thx to JMF.

AutoExecute() did not work with Oracle. Fixed. Thx José Moreira.

MetaType() added to connection object.

More PHP 4.4 reference return fixes. Thx Ryan C Bonham and others.

4.64 20 June 2005

In datadict, if the default field value is set to '', then it is not applied when the field is created. Fixed by Eugenio.

MetaPrimaryKeys for postgres did not work because of true/false change in 4.63. Fixed.

Tested ocifetchstatement in oci8. Rejected at the end.

Added port to dsn handling. Supported in postgres, mysql, mysqli,ldap.

Added 'w' and 'l' to mysqli SQLDate().

Fixed error handling in ldap _connect() to be more consistent. Also added ErrorMsg() handling to ldap.

Added support for union in _adodb_getcount, for postgres and oci8.

rs2html() did not work with null dates properly.

PHP 4.4 reference return fixes.

4.63 18 May 2005

Added $nrows<0 check to mysqli's SelectLimit().

Added OptimizeTable() and OptimizeTables() in By Markus Staab.

PostgreSQL inconsistencies fixed. true and false set to TRUE and FALSE, and boolean type in set to 'L' => 'BOOLEAN'. Thx Kevin Jamieson.

New adodb_session_create_table() function in By Markus Staab.

Added null check to UserTimeStamp().

Fixed typo in mysqlt driver in adorecordset. Thx to Andy Staudacher.

GenID() had a bug in the raiseErrorFn handling. Fixed. Thx Marcos Pont.

Datadict name quoting now handles ( ) in index fields correctly - they aren't part of the index field.

Performance monitoring: (1) oci8 Ixora checks moved down; (2) expensive sql changed so that only those sql with count(*)>1 are shown; (3) changed sql1 field to a length+crc32 checksum - this breaks backward compat.

We remap firebird15 to firebird in data dictionary.

4.62 2 Apr 2005

Added 'w' (dow as 0-6 or 1-7) and 'l' (dow as string) for SQLDate for oci8, postgres and mysql.

Rolled back MetaType() changes for mysqli done in prev version.

Datadict change by chris, data mappings from:

oci8:  X->varchar(4000) XL->CLOB
mssql: X->XL->TEXT
mysql: X->XL->LONGTEXT
fbird: X->XL->varchar(4000)


oci8:  X->varchar(4000) XL->CLOB
mssql: X->VARCHAR(4000) XL->TEXT
mysql: X->TEXT          XL->LONGTEXT
fbird: X->VARCHAR(4000) XL->VARCHAR(32000)

Added $connection->disableBlobs to postgresql to improve performance when no bytea is used (2-5% improvement).

Removed all HTTP_* vars.

Added $rs->tableName to be set before calling AutoExecute().

Alex Rootoff contributed ukrainian language file.

Added new mysql_option() support using $conn->optionFlags array.

Added support for ldap_set_option() using the $LDAP_CONNECT_OPTIONS global variable. Contributed by Josh Eldridge.

Added LDAP_* constant definitions to ldap.

Added support for boolean bind variables. We use $conn->false and $conn->true to hold values to set false/true to.

We now do not close the session connection in as other objects could be using this connection.

We now strip off \0 at end of Ixora SQL strings in $perf->tohtml() for oci8.

4.61 23 Feb 2005

MySQLi added support for mysqli_connect_errno() and mysqli_connect_error().

Massive improvements to alpha PDO driver.

Quote string bind parameters logged by performance monitor for easy type checking. Thx Jason Judge.

Added support for $role when connecting with Interbase/firebird.

Added support for enum recognition in MetaColumns() mysql and mysqli. Thx Amedeo Petrella.

The sybase_ase driver contributed by Interakt Online. Thx Cristian Marin

Removed not_null, has_default, and default_value from ADOFieldObject.

Sessions code, fixed quoting of keys when handling LOBs in session write() function.

Sessions code, added adodb_session_regenerate_id(), to reduce risk of session hijacking by changing session cookie dynamically. Thx Joe Li.

Perf monitor, polling for CPU did not work for PHP 4.3.10 and 5.0.0-5.0.3 due to PHP bugs, so we special case these versions.

Postgresql, UpdateBlob() added code to handle type==CLOB.

4.60 24 Jan 2005

Implemented PEAR DB's autoExecute(). Simplified design because I don't like using constants when strings work fine.

_rs2serialize will now update $rs->sql and $rs->oldProvider.

Added autoExecute().

Added support for postgres8 driver. Currently just remapped to postgres7 driver.

Changed oci8 _query(), so that OCIBindByName() sets the length to -1 if element size is > 4000. This provides better support for LONGs.

Added SetDateLocale() support for netherlands (Nl).

Spelling error in pivot code ($iff should be $iif).

mysql insert_id() did not work with mysql 3.x. Fixed.

"\r\n" not converted to spaces correctly in exporting data. Fixed.

_nconnect() in mysqli did not return value correctly. Fixed.

Arne Eckmann contributed danish language file.

Added clone() support to FetchObject() for PHP5.

Removed SQL_CUR_USE_ODBC from odbc_mssql.

4.55 5 Jan 2005

Found bug in Execute() with bind params for db's that do not support binding natively.

DropSequence() now correctly uses default parameter.

Now Execute() ignores locale for floats, so 1.23 is NEVER converted to 1,23.

SetFetchMode() not properly saved in adodb-perf, suspicious sql and expensive sql. Fixed.

Added INET to postgresql metatypes. Thx motzel.

Allow oracle hints to work when counting with _adodb_getcount in Thx Chris Wrye.

Changed mysql insert_id() to use SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID().

If alter col in datadict does not modify col type/size of actual col, then it is removed from alter col code. By Mark Newham. Not perfect as MetaType() !== ActualType().

Added handling of view fields in metacolumns() for postgresql. Thx Renato De Giovanni.

Added to informix MetaPrimaryKeys and MetaColumns fixes for null bit. Thx to Cecilio Albero.

Removed obsolete connection_timeout() from perf code.

Added support for arrayClass in

RSFilter now accepts methods of the form $array($obj, 'methodname'). Thx to

Changed CacheFlush to $cmd = 'rm -rf '.$ADODB_CACHE_DIR.'/[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]/';

For better cursor concurrency, added code to free ref cursors in oci8 when $rs->Close() is called. Note that CLose() is called internally by the Get* functions too.

Added IIF support for access when pivoting. Thx Volodia Krupach.

Added mssql datadict support for timestamp. Thx Alexios.

Informix pager fix. By Mario Ramirez.

ADODB_TABLE_REGEX now includes ':'. By Mario Ramirez.

Mark Newnham contributed MetaIndexes for oci8 and db2.

4.54 5 Nov 2004

Now you can set $db->charSet = ?? before doing a Connect() in oci8.

Added adodbFetchMode to sqlite.

Perf code, added a string typecast to substr in adodb_log_sql().

Postgres: Changed BlobDecode() to use po_loread, added new $maxblobsize parameter, and now it returns the blob instead of sending it to stdout - make sure to mention that as a compat warning. Also added $db->IsOID($oid) function; uses a heuristic, not guaranteed to work 100%.

Contributed arabic language file by "El-Shamaa, Khaled"

PHP5 exceptions did not handle @ protocol properly. Fixed.

Added ifnull handling for postgresql (using coalesce).

Added metatables() support for Postgresql 8.0 (no longer uses pg_% dictionary tables).

Improved Sybase ErrorMsg() function. By Gaetano Giunta.

Improved oci8 SelectLimit() to use Prepare(). By Cristiano Duarte.

Type-cast $row parameter in ifx_fetch_row() to int. Thx stefan bodgan.

Ralf becker contributed improvements in postgresql, sapdb, mysql data dictionary handling:
- MySql and Postgres MetaType was reporting every int column which was part of a primary key and unique as serial
- Postgres was not reporting the scale of decimal types
- MaxDB was padding the defaults of none-string types with spaces
- MySql now correctly converts enum columns to varchar

Ralf also changed Postgresql datadict:
- you cant add NOT NULL columns in postgres in one go, they need to be added as NULL and then altered to NOT NULL
- AlterColumnSQL could not change a varchar column with numbers into an integer column, postgres need an explicit conversation
- a re-created sequence was not set to the correct value, if the name was the old name (no implicit sequence), now always the new name of the implicit sequence is used

Sergio Strampelli added extra $intoken check to Lens_ParseArgs() in datadict code.

4.53 28 Sept 2004

FetchMode cached in recordset is sometimes mapped to native db fetchMode. Normally this does not matter, but when using cached recordsets, we need to switch back to using adodb fetchmode. So we cache this in $rs->adodbFetchMode if it differs from the db's fetchMode.

For informix we now set canSeek = false driver because stefan bodgan tells me that seeking doesn't work.

SetDateLocale() never worked till now ;-) Thx

Set $_bindInputArray = true in sapdb driver. Required for clob support.

Fixed some PEAR::DB emulation issues with isError() and isWarning. Thx to Gert-Rainer Bitterlich.

Empty() used in getupdatesql without strlen() check. Fixed.

Added unsigned detection to mysql and mysqli drivers. Thx to dan cech.

Added hungarian language file. Thx to Halászvári Gábor.

Improved fieldname-type formatting of datadict SQL generated (adding $widespacing parameter to _GenField).

Datadict oci8 DROP CONSTRAINTS misspelt. Fixed. Thx Mark Newnham.

Changed odbtp to dynamically change databaseType based on connection, eg. from 'odbtp' to 'odbtp_mssql' when connecting to mssql database.

In datadict, MySQL I4 was wrongly mapped to MEDIUMINT, which is actually I3. Fixed.

Fixed mysqli MetaType() recognition. Mysqli returns numeric types unlike mysql extension. Thx Francesco Riosa.

VFP odbc driver curmode set wrongly, causing problems with memo fields. Fixed.

Odbc driver did not recognize odbc version 2 driver date types properly. Fixed. Thx Bostjan.

ChangeTableSQL() fixes to by Mark Newnham.

Perf monitoring with odbc improved. Now we try in perf code to manually set the sysTimeStamp using date() if sysTimeStamp is empty.

All ADO errors are thrown as exceptions in PHP5. So we added exception handling to ado in PHP5 by creating new driver.

Added IsConnected(). Returns true if connection object connected. By Luca.Gioppo.

"Ralf Becker" contributed new sapdb data-dictionary driver and a large patch that implements field and table renaming for oracle, mssql, postgresql, mysql and sapdb. See the new RenameTableSQL() and RenameColumnSQL() functions.

We now check ExecuteCursor to see if PrepareSP was initially called.

Changed oci8 datadict to use MODIFY for $dd->alterCol. Thx Mark Newnham.

4.52 10 Aug 2004

Bug found in Replace() when performance logging enabled, introduced in ADOdb 4.50. Fixed.

Replace() checks update stmt. If update stmt fails, we now return immediately. Thx to alex.

Added support for $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE in GetUpdateSQL/GetInsertSQL. Thx to niko.

Added ADODB_ASSOC_CASE support to postgres/postgres7 driver.

Support for DECLARE stmt in oci8. Thx Lochbrunner.

4.51 29 July 2004

Added adodb-xmlschema 1.0.2. Thx dan and richard.

Added new adorecordset_ext_* classes. If ADOdb extension installed for mysql, mysqlt and oci8 (but not oci8po), we use the superfast ADOdb extension code for movenext.

Added schema support to mssql and odbc_mssql MetaPrimaryKeys().

Patched MSSQL driver to support PHP NULL and Boolean values while binding the input array parameters in the _query() function. By Stephen Farmer.

Added support for clob's for mssql, UpdateBlob(). Thx to

Added normalize support for postgresql (true=lowercase table name, or false=case-sensitive table names) to MetaColumns($table, $normalize=true).

PHP5 variant dates in ADO not working. Fixed in

Constant ADODB_FORCE_NULLS was not working properly for many releases (for GetUpdateSQL). Fixed. Also GetUpdateSQL strips off ORDER BY now - thx Elieser Leão.

Perf Monitor for oci8 now dynamically highlights optimizer_* params if too high/low.

Added dsn support to NewADOConnection/ADONewConnection.

Fixed out of page bounds bug in _adodb_pageexecute_all_rows() Thx to "Sergio Strampelli"

Speedup of movenext for mysql and oci8 drivers.

Moved debugging code _adodb_debug_execute() to

Fixed postgresql bytea detection bug. See

Fixed ibase datetimestamp typo in PHP5. Thx stefan.

Removed whitespace at end of odbtp drivers.

Added db2 metaprimarykeys fix.

Optimizations to MoveNext() for mysql and oci8. Misc speedups to Get* functions.

4.50 6 July 2004

Bumped it to 4.50 to avoid confusion with PHP 4.3.x series.

Added db2 metatables and metacolumns extensions.

Added alpha PDO driver. Very buggy, only works with odbc.

Tested mysqli. Set poorAffectedRows = true. Cleaned up movenext() and _fetch().

PageExecute does not work properly with php5 (return val not a variable). Reported Dmytro Sychevsky Fixed.

MetaTables() for mysql, $showschema parameter was not backward compatible with older versions of adodb. Fixed.

Changed mysql GetOne() to work with mysql 3.23 when using with non-select stmts (e.g. SHOW TABLES).

Changed TRIG_ prefix to a variable in Thx to

New to adodb-time code. We allow you to define your own daylights savings function, adodb_daylight_sv for pre-1970 dates. If the function is defined (somewhere in an include), then you can correct for daylights savings. See for more info.

New sqlitepo driver. This is because assoc mode does not work like other drivers in sqlite. Namely, when selecting (joining) multiple tables, in assoc mode the table names are included in the assoc keys in the "sqlite" driver. In "sqlitepo" driver, the table names are stripped from the returned column names. When this results in a conflict, the first field get preference. Contributed by Herman Kuiper

Added $forcenull parameter to GetInsertSQL/GetUpdateSQL. Idea by Marco Aurelio Silva.

More XHTML changes for GetMenu. By Jeremy Evans.

Fixes some ibase date issues. Thx to stefan bogdan.

Improvements to mysqli driver to support $ADODB_COUNTRECS.

Fixed problem when reading stream from socket. We need to poll stream continiously.

4.23 16 June 2004

New interbase/firebird fixes thx to Lester Caine. Driver fixes a problem with getting field names in the result array, and corrects a couple of data conversions. Also we default to dialect3 for firebird. Also ibase sysDate property was wrong. Changed to cast as timestamp.

The datadict driver is set up to give quoted tables and fields as this was the only way round reserved words being used as field names in TikiWiki. TikiPro is tidying that up, and I hope to be able to produce a build of THAT which uses what I consider proper UPPERCASE field and table names. The conversion of TikiWiki to ADOdb helped in that, but until the database is completely tidied up in TikiPro ...

Modified _gencachename() to include fetchmode in name hash. This means you should clear your cache directory after installing this release as the cache name algorithm has changed.

Now Cache* functions work in safe mode, because we do not create sub-directories in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR in safe mode. In non-safe mode we still create sub-directories. Done by modifying _gencachename().

Added $gmt parameter (true/false) to UserDate and UserTimeStamp in connection class, to force conversion of input (in local time) to be converted to UTC/GMT.

Mssql datadict did not support INT types properly (no size param allowed). Added _GetSize() to

For borland_ibase, BeginTrans(), changed:

   $this->_transactionID = $this->_connectionID;
   $this->_transactionID = ibase_trans($this->ibasetrans, $this->_connectionID);

Fixed typo in mysqi_field_seek(). Thx to Sh4dow (

LogSQL did not work with Firebird/Interbase. Fixed.

Postgres: made errorno() handling more consistent. Thx to Michael Jahn,

Added informix patch to better support metatables, metacolumns by "Cecilio Albero"

Cyril Malevanov contributed patch to oci8 to support passing of LOB parameters:

	$text = 'test test test';
$sql = "declare rs clob; begin :rs := lobinout(:sa0); end;";
$stmt = $conn -> PrepareSP($sql);
$conn -> InParameter($stmt,$text,'sa0', -1, OCI_B_CLOB);
$rs = '';
$conn -> OutParameter($stmt,$rs,'rs', -1, OCI_B_CLOB);
$conn -> Execute($stmt);
echo "return = ".$rs."<br>";
As he says, the LOBs limitations are:
 - use OCINewDescriptor before binding
- if Param is IN, uses save() before each execute. This is done automatically for you.
- if Param is OUT, uses load() after each execute. This is done automatically for you.
- when we bind $var as LOB, we create new descriptor and return it as a
Bind Result, so if we want to use OUT parameters, we have to store
somewhere &$var to load() data from LOB to it.
- IN OUT params are not working now (should not be a big problem to fix it)
- now mass binding not working too (I've wrote about it before)

Simplified Connect() and PConnect() error handling.

When extension not loaded, Connect() and PConnect() will return null. On connect error, the fns will return false.

CacheGetArray() added to code.

Added Init() to adorecordset_empty().

Changed postgres64 driver, MetaColumns() to not strip off quotes in default value if :: detected (type-casting of default).

Added test: if (!defined('ADODB_DIR')) die(). Useful to prevent hackers from detecting file paths.

Changed metaTablesSQL to ignore Postgres 7.4 information schemas (sql_*).

New polish language file by Grzegorz Pacan

Added support for UNION in _adodb_getcount().

Added security check for ADODB_DIR to limit path disclosure issues. Requested by postnuke team.

Added better error message support to oracle driver. Thx to Gaetano Giunta.

Added showSchema support to mysql.

Bind in oci8 did not handle $name=false properly. Fixed.

If extension not loaded, Connect(), PConnect(), NConnect() will return null.

4.22 15 Apr 2004

Moved docs to own adodb/docs folder.

Fixed session bug when quoting compressed/encrypted data in Replace().

Netezza Driver and LDAP drivers contributed by Josh Eldridge.

GetMenu now uses rtrim() on values instead of trim().

Changed MetaColumnNames to return an associative array, keys being the field names in uppercase.

Suggested fix to affected_rows to support PHP5 variants. Thx to Alexios Fakos.

Contributed bulgarian language file by Valentin Sheiretsky

Contributed romanian language file by stefan bogdan.

GetInsertSQL now checks for table name (string) in $rs, and will create a recordset for that table automatically. Contributed by Walt Boring. Also added OCI_B_BLOB in bind on Walt's request - hope it doesn't break anything :-)

Some minor postgres speedups in _initrs().

ChangeTableSQL checks now if MetaColumns returns empty. Thx Jason Judge.

Added ADOConnection::Time(), returns current database time in unix timestamp format, or false.

4.21 20 Mar 2004

We no longer in SelectLimit for VFP driver add SELECT TOP X unless an ORDER BY exists.

Pim Koeman contributed dutch language file

Rick Hickerson added CLOB support to db2 datadict.

Added odbtp driver. Thx to "stefan bogdan"

Changed PrepareSP() 2nd parameter, $cursor, to default to true (formerly false). Fixes oci8 backward compat problems with OUT params.

Fixed month calculation error in 2102-June-01 appeared as 2102-May-32.

Updated PHP5 RC1 iterator support. API changed, hasMore() renamed to valid().

Changed internal format of serialized cache recordsets. As we store a version number, this should be backward compatible.

Error handling when driver file not found was flawed in ADOLoadCode(). Fixed.

4.20 27 Feb 2004

Updated to AXMLS 1.01.

MetaForeignKeys for postgres7 modified by Edward Jaramilla, works on pg 7.4.

Now numbers accepts function calls or sequences for GetInsertSQL/GetUpdateSQL numeric fields.

Changed quotes of 'delete from $perf_table' to "". Thx Kehui (

Added ServerInfo() for ifx, and putenv trim fix. Thx Fernando Ortiz.

Added addq(), which is analogous to addslashes().

Tested with php5b4. Fix some php5 compat problems with exceptions and sybase.

Carl-Christian Salvesen added patch to mssql _query to support binds greater than 4000 chars.

Mike suggested patch to PHP5 exception handler. $errno must be numeric.

Added double quotes (") to ADODB_TABLE_REGEX.

For oci8, Prepare(...,$cursor), $cursor's meaning was accidentally inverted in 4.11. This causes problems with ExecuteCursor() too, which calls Prepare() internally. Thx to William Lovaton.

Now dateHasTime property in connection object renamed to datetime for consistency. This could break bc.

Csongor Halmai reports that db2 SelectLimit with input array is not working. Fixed..

4.11 27 Jan 2004

Csongor Halmai reports db2 binding not working. Reverted back to emulated binding.

Dan Cech modifies datadict code. Adds support for DropIndex. Minor cleanups.

Table misspelt in Changed v$conn_cache_advice to v$db_cache_advice. Reported by Steve W.

UserTimeStamp and DBTimeStamp did not handle YYYYMMDDHHMMSS format properly. Reported by Mike Muir. Fixed.

Changed oci8 Prepare(). Does not auto-allocate OCINewCursor automatically, unless 2nd param is set to true. This will break backward compat, if Prepare/Execute is used instead of ExecuteCursor. Reported by Chris Jones.

Added InParameter() and OutParameter(). Wrapper functions to Parameter(), but nicer because they are self-documenting.

Added 'R' handling in ActualType() to

Added ADOConnection::SerializableRS($rs). Returns a recordset that can be serialized in a session.

Added "Run SQL" to performance UI().

Misc spelling corrections in, and, from Heinz Hombergs.

MetaIndexes() for ibase contributed by Heinz Hombergs.

4.10 12 Jan 2004

Dan Cech contributed extensive changes to data dictionary to support name quoting (with `), and drop table/index.

Informix added cursorType property. Default remains IFX_SCROLL, but you can change to 0 (non-scrollable cursor) for performance.

Added ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys() for returning view primary keys to MetaPrimaryKeys().

Simplified chinese file, from cysoft.

Added check for ctype_alnum in Thx to Jason Judge.

Added connection parameter to ibase Prepare(). Fix by Daniel Hassan.

Added nameQuote for quoting identifiers and names to connection obj. Requested by Jason Judge. Also the data dictionary parser now detects `field name` and generates column names with spaces correctly.

BOOL type not recognised correctly as L. Fixed.

Fixed paths in ADODB_DIR for session files, and back-ported it to 4.05 (15 Dec 2003)

Added Schema to postgresql MetaTables. Thx to

Empty postgresql recordsets that had blob fields did not set EOF properly. Fixed.

CacheSelectLimit internal parameters to SelectLimit were wrong. Thx to Nio.

Modified adodb_pr() and adodb_backtrace() to support command-line usage (eg. no html).

Fixed some fr and it lang errors. Thx to Gaetano G.

Added contrib directory, with adodb rs to xmlrpc convertor by Gaetano G.

Fixed array recordset bugs when _skiprow1 is true. Thx to Gaetano G.

Fixed pivot table code when count is false.

4.05 13 Dec 2003

Added MetaIndexes to data-dict code - thx to Dan Cech.

Rewritten session code by Ross Smith. Moved code to adodb/session directory.

Added function exists check on connecting to most drivers, so we don't crash with the unknown function error.

Smart Transactions failed with GenID() when it no seq table has been created because the sql statement fails. Fix by Mark Newnham.

Added $db->length, which holds name of function that returns strlen.

Fixed error handling for bad driver in ADONewConnection - passed too few params to error-handler.

Datadict did not handle types like 16.0 properly in _GetSize. Fixed.

Oci8 driver SelectLimit() bug &= instead of =& used. Thx to Swen Thümmler.

Jesse Mullan suggested not flushing outp when output buffering enabled. Due to Apache 2.0 bug. Added.

MetaTables/MetaColumns return ref bug with PHP5 fixed in

New mysqli driver contributed by Arjen de Rijke. Based on adodb 3.40 driver. Then jlim added BeginTrans, CommitTrans, RollbackTrans, IfNull, SQLDate. Also fixed return ref bug.

$ADODB_FLUSH added, if true then force flush in debugging outp. Default is false. In earlier versions, outp defaulted to flush, which is not compat with apache 2.0.

Mysql driver's GenID() function did not work when when sql logging is on. Fixed.

$ADODB_SESSION_TBL not declared as global var. Not available if included in function. Fixed.

The input array not passed to Execute() in _adodb_getcount(). Fixed.

4.04 13 Nov 2003

Switched back to foreach - faster than list-each.

Fixed bug in ado driver - wiping out $this->fields with date fields.

Performance Monitor, View SQL, Explain Plan did not work if strlen($SQL)>max($_GET length). Fixed.

Performance monitor, oci8 driver added memory sort ratio.

Added random property, returns SQL to generate a floating point number between 0 and 1;

4.03 6 Nov 2003

The path to and was not setup properly.

Patched SQLDate in interbase to support hours/mins/secs. Thx to ari kuorikoski.

Force autorollback for pgsql persistent connections - apparently pgsql did not autorollback properly before 4.3.4. See

4.02 5 Nov 2003

Some errors in adodb_error_pg() fixed. Thx to Styve.

Spurious Insert_ID() error was generated by LogSQL(). Fixed.

Insert_ID was interfering with Affected_Rows() and Replace() when LogSQL() enabled. Fixed.

More foreach loops optimized with list/each.

Null dates not handled properly in ADO driver (it becomes 31 Dec 1969!).

Heinz Hombergs contributed patches for mysql MetaColumns - adding scale, made interbase MetaColumns work with firebird/interbase, and added lang/

Added INFORMIXSERVER environment variable.

Added $ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF for interbase/firebird.

PHP 5 beta 2 compat check. Foreach (Iterator) support. Exceptions support.

4.01 23 Oct 2003

Fixed bug in rs2html(),, that generated blank table cells.

Fixed insert_id() incorrectly generated when logsql() enabled.

Modified PostgreSQL _fixblobs to use list/each instead of foreach.

Informix ErrorNo() implemented correctly.

Modified several places to use list/each, including GetRowAssoc().

Added UserTimeStamp() to connection class.

Added $ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF for oci8po.

4.00 20 Oct 2003

Upgraded adodb-xmlschema to 1 Oct 2003 snapshot.

Fix to rs2html warning message. Thx to Filo.

Fix for odbc_mssql/mssql SQLDate(), hours was wrong.

Added MetaColumns and MetaPrimaryKeys for sybase. Thx to Chris Phillipson.

Added autoquoting to datadict for MySQL and PostgreSQL. Suggestion by Karsten Dambekalns

3.94 11 Oct 2003

Create trigger in did not work, because all cr/lf's must be removed.

ErrorMsg()/ErrorNo() did not work for many databases when logging enabled. Fixed.

Removed global variable $ADODB_LOGSQL as it does not work properly with multiple connections.

Added SQLDate support for sybase. Thx to Chris Phillipson

Postgresql checking of pgsql resultset resource was incorrect. Fix by Bharat Mediratta Same patch applied to _insertid and _affectedrows for

Added support for NConnect for postgresql.

Added Sybase data dict support. Thx to Chris Phillipson

Extensive improvements in $perf->UI(), eg. Explain now opens in new window, we show scripts which call sql, etc.

Perf Monitor UI works with magic quotes enabled.

rsPrefix was declared twice. Removed.

Oci8 stored procedure support, eg. "begin func(); end;" was incorrect in _query. Fixed.

Tiraboschi Massimiliano contributed italian language file.

Fernando Ortiz,, contributed informix performance monitor.

Added _varchar (varchar arrays) support for postgresql. Reported by PREVOT Stéphane.

0.10 Sept 9 2000 First release

Old change log history moved to old-changelog.htm.