Contact the organizers: Asian Studies Conference (ASCJ) c/o Institute of Asian Cultural Studies, International Christian University 3-10-2 Osawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181
From the 1930s to the mid-1940s was the crucial period for
the Philippines toward the country's independence several decades
after its experience of the aborted Revolution at the century's
turn. In 1935 the Commonwealth government was inaugurated as
"pre-independence polity" under the American colonial
rule, with the condition that independence was given to the Philippines
after ten years. However, the outbreak of the Asian-Pacific war
in 1941 interrupted the "peaceful" independence process
and brought the terrified Japanese occupation to the Philippines
that finally enjoyed the official independence from the United
States in 1946.
1) Fumiko Uchiyama, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. "Educational Policies and Images of a Filipino Nation during the Commonwealth Period"
In this paper, I will discuss the images of a Filipino nation that appear through the educational policies and their making processes during the Commonwealth period. In the Philippines, the basis of public educational system was established when America colonized the country at the beginning of 20th century. By the inauguration of the Commonwealth in1935, the educational system had been expanded almost all over the country. During the Commonwealth period, when the independence was already scheduled for 1946, the task for Filipino leaders was to 'Filipinize' the existing educational system. In other words, there were many attempts to innovate on the school curriculum, activities, and so on, so that Filipino youths could learn more about the Philippines and foster the common national identity and consciousness. For example, occasions to commemorate historic events were introduced into school activities. On the other hand, issues such as the creation of a national language or religious instruction gave rise to much controversy, which reveals that, among Filipinos, various images of a Filipino nation were still competing with each other and there was little consensus. Analyzing discussions and controversies on educational policies, I will discuss how Filipinos perceived Philippine society, history or culture, and what sort of nation they conceived based on those perceptions.
2) Ricardo Trota Jose, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. "The KALIBAPI (Association for Service to the New Philippines) during the Japanese Occupation"
During the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines, the Japanese
Military Administration attempted to establish administrative
and control organizations based on similar systems in Japan and
its colonies. In the case of political mobilization and control,
the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (IRAA; Taisei Yokusankai)
was established in Japan, after all political parties were dissolved.
This body was supposed to unite various political and nationalistic
groups in Japan, as well as serve as a means of control. Japan
established similar bodies in the occupied and colonized areas.
This paper will examine the establishment of such a body, the
Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (KALIBAPI; Association
for Service to the New Philippines) and its development. The
Kalibapi was established along Japanese lines, adapted to Philippine
conditions, and was used as a tool to gain greater support for
the Japanese administration and its objectives. However, its
character and objectives changed, particularly with the inauguration
of the Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic. The
3) Lydia N. Yu-Jose, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. "The Treatment of the Japanese Occupation in Philippine Textbooks"
This paper will attempt to show how Philippine textbooks on
the secondary level treat the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines.
Before going to the main topic, it will present a short explanation
of the state of academic freedom in the Philippines and the preparation
of textbooks. After presenting the main topic, it will offer
a prognosis on how, in the future, the Japanese occupation of
the Philippines would be described, in comparison to the Spanish
and American colonial periods.
4) Reynaldo C. Ileto, National University of Singapore. "Laurel and the Struggles over Philippine History"
In this paper I examine various biographies of Jose P. Laurel in order to identify the different ways in which he has been inserted into the meta-narrative of Philippine history, and how these reflect various agendas in Philippine historiography. I contrast these with how Laurel, a politician-cum-educator, saw himself in terms of this meta-narrative. Laurel's view of Philippine history and how citizens should relate to its unfolding, helps to explain his resiliency as a national figure. Through a close reading of Laurel's speeches and writings, this paper explores the 1940s "collaborationist" roots of the well-known explosion of radical sentiments in the late 1960s. It also looks into the nexus (embodied by Laurel) between intellectuals and politicians in the process of "nation-building" - an interaction so much a part of Philippine political life yet just as equally obscured by functionalist and behaviorist analyses.
Discussant: Motoe Terami-Wada, Sophia University