ASCJ 2009
SATURDAY AFTERNOON SESSIONS: 3:30 P.M. – 5:30 P.M
Session 17: Room 11-209

Education and the New Second Generation of Immigrants in Japan: The Case of Japanese Brazilian Migrants

Organizer: Hirohisa Takenoshita, Shizuoka University

Chair: Hirohisa Takenoshita, Shizuoka University

  1. Hirohisa Takenoshita, Shizuoka University

Transition into the secondary education among children of immigrant: The case of Japanese Brazilian migrants

  1. Eunice Akemi Ishikawa, Shizuoka University of Art and Culture

The Ethnic Schools in Immigrant Communities: The Case of Brazilian Schools in Japan

  1. Roberto De Oliveira Pires Jr., Shizuoka University

Discussing Ethnic Identity Formation among the Second Generation of Brazilian Migrants in Japan

Discussant: Yoshikazu Shiobara, Keio University

Education and the New Second Generation of Immigrants in Japan: The Case of Japanese Brazilian Migrants

Organizer: Hirohisa Takenoshita, Shizuoka University

Chair: Hirohisa Takenoshita, Shizuoka University

Globalization has led to the considerable increase in the level of transnational migration over the past two decades. Although, in the initial stage of migration, immigrants migrated into the host country alone, some of them often invited other family members there when they made their economic life relatively secure. The family reunification of immigrants has resulted in the increase of children of immigrants in the host country, while others had children born in the receiving nation. In Japan, there has been much concern about education of children of Japanese Brazilian migrants. For instance, some scholars highlighted the fact that there were 30% of children of Brazilian migrants who did not receive any compulsory education in Japan. This panel aims to argue the background and current situations for educational opportunity among children of Brazilian migrants. The first presenter, Hirohisa Takenoshita, estimates the inequality of educational opportunity which lies between children of Brazilian migrants and those of native-born Japanese population, by using the survey data for Brazilian and Japanese population. The second presenter, Eunice A. Ishikawa, argues the significance of ethnic schools for immigrant children in the case of Japanese Brazilian migrants in Japan while she compares it with ethnic schools in Brazil. The third presenter, Roberto Pires Jr. addresses the question of whether identity formation of children of Brazilian migrants would depend to a considerable extent on the type of school and ethnic community. As a whole, we account for not only the institutional background of educational attainment among children of immigrant but the consequences of education on identity formation.

1) Hirohisa Takenoshita, Shizuoka University

Transition into the secondary education among children of immigrant: The case of Japanese Brazilian migrants

Inequality of educational opportunity for children of Japanese Brazilian migrants in Japan has received considerable attention among scholars of immigration. However, previous studies lack the statistical estimation of educational disparity between immigrant and native-born children, whereas they have relied on anthropological investigation into a wide variety of topic, such as the effect of language fluency on academic achievement, the relationship between education and children’s identity formation, and social exclusion out of public school for immigrant children. This paper focuses its specific attention upon transition into the secondary education among children of Brazilian migrants, mainly because some highlighted extremely lower rates of children of immigrant who succeeded to enroll into the secondary educational institution than native-born Japanese children, most of whom do not fail to do so. We use the representative data which comes from the survey for Brazilian migrants in Shizuoka Prefecture. In order to compare the likelihood of enrollment into the secondary education between immigrant and native-born Japanese children, we employ the data which is from social stratification and mobility survey in Japan. We would make clear ethnic disparity in the rate of enrollment into secondary education and whether the extent to which family background affects educational attainment depends on the ethnicity.

  1. Eunice Akemi Ishikawa, Shizuoka University of Art and Culture

The Ethnic Schools in Immigrant Communities: The Case of Brazilian Schools in Japan

This paper will focus on the value and significance of ethnic schools in immigrant communities, analyzing their educational and cultural significance to the immigrant children. The present case will examine Brazilian Schools in Japan. In 2007, the Brazilian population in Japan exceeded 316,000. Sixteen percent of them were under 14 years old, thus they attended schools in Japan. Most of those children attend Japanese public schools, where they are immersed into Japanese language and customs. However, several children attend Brazilian schools, which follow the Brazilian educational curriculum. The purpose of these Brazilian schools is primarily to educate the children for their return to Brazil after living in Japan. In many cases Brazilian children have suffered through problems of adaptation or discrimination in the Japanese public schools, and therefore opted to attend Brazilian schools. By the end of 2007, the Brazilian Government recognized 70 Brazilian schools in Japan. At this point the paper will compare ethnic schools in Brazil, such as German, Spanish, Swiss and Japanese, describing their historical background and their current system, and the significance of these schools to the immigrant communities in Brazil. This comparison will be used to analyze the importance of these Brazilian Schools in Japan, specifically, in the Brazilian children’s education and their identity. It will also address the need of these schools, in the near future, to adapt to the children’s needs in Japan, since most of the Brazilian families living in Japan do not return to Brazil as they had planned to do when they came to Japan.

3) Roberto De Oliveira Pires Jr., Shizuoka University

Discussing Ethnic Identity Formation among the Second Generation of Brazilian Migrants in Japan

Currently we are assisting to the rise of the second generation of Brazilian migrants in Japan. Brazilian population in this country arose to almost 330,000 individuals in a period of less than 20 years. Due to many factors, most of those migrants are Japanese descendants. Moved by the "dekassegui" spirit of their ancestors, they crossed the ocean and came to Japan with the idea of staying for a short period of time. They dreamt with returning to Brazil with enough money to rebuilt their lives. However, as it happened with their ancestors in the past, they postponed their definitive return to their home country and now began establishing themselves in Japan. Once a positive minority in Brazil, they face an opposite feeling in the land they were taught to consider as their parents and grandparents' homeland. Distinctively considered Japanese in Brazil and Brazilians in Japan, they live in the Land of the Rising Sun by creating and re-creating a strong and deterritorialized Brazilian ethnic counter-identity. In this presentation I seek to discuss how all those experiences of migration and racial constructions are connected to the identity formation of the now flourishing new generation of Brazilians with Japanese ancestry in Japan.

Discussant: Yoshikazu Shiobara, Keio University