pmjs logs for July 2000. Total number of messages: 22

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PMJS e-journal -> Dainihon (Michael Watson, Nobumi Iyanaga, William Londo, Wayne Farris, Jacques Joly, Royall Tyler, Janet R. Goodwin, Mark Hall, Kendon Stubbs, Roberta Strippoli, Rein Raud) [archived] 

preservation campaign for the Nagaoka detached palace (Joan Piggott) 

new members: Ethan Segal, Peter Shapinsky, Sarah Dvorak, and Alexander Vesey 

Jomon web pages (Mark Hall) 

The "Dainihon" discussion arose from comments on Robert Borgen's paper "Japanese Nationalism: Ancient and Modern" online in pmjs papers

Lightly edited (see "principles"). Editorial comments in italics.

Date: Jul 04 2000 00:02:42 EDT

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: PMJS e-journal

As announced last month, an electronic journal is to be set up on the pmjs site. Many details still remain to be worked out--for which I need your input--but I am happy to announce that the following two papers can now be read online:

The Principle of Monogamy in The Tale of Genji (Royall Tyler) 

Japanese Nationalism: Ancient and Modern (Robert Borgen)

I am very grateful to both scholars and hope others will follow their lead.

Their papers can be read in two versions, a web-version without annotation, and a PDF file with full annotation. Links and further explanation--summarized below--can be found at:

We will need more discussion before the final form of the e-journal is finalized, particularly on the question of whether a system of peer-review should be introduced and if so how. This collection of papers is a first step. As the title of the e-journal is still undecided, the name "PMJS

Papers" has been temporarily adopted for sake of simplicity.
Articles, translations and book reviews may now be submitted. Professional notes including syllabi are also welcome. Each item should carry a note to indicate whether it is work in progress, a finished but unpublished piece, or work that has appeared elsewhere, in print or on the web.

For the convenience of readers, each paper will be offered in two formats: a web page version for reading online and a PDF version for downloading. PDF format presents the paper as conventionally printed, with full formatting, layout and annotation. (More on this format below.)
For those of you who have not examined what an established web journal looks like, this is a good example:

Early Modern Literary Studies: A Journal of Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century English Literature

I would now welcome a discussion on the feasibility of a fully-fledged PMJS e-journal, including but not necessarily limited to points such as

(1) its name or title

(2) scope, in periods and disciplines covered (equal to or narrower than

PMJS as a list, for example?)

(3) status of material published: revision encouraged?

(4) editorial board

(5) peer-review system

I should perhaps emphasize that if an editorial board is set up, I see my role as technical editor, i.e. web master.

Let me anticipate two questions often asked about e-journals:

Academic citation of electronic journals is now common, and there are several recommended ways of citation, from the familiar and simple _JournalTitle_ vol no (date), to a method which adds the URL (...~pmjs/...) and even the date seen (of relevance when pages are revised). Example:

Established e-journals must ensure that (1) pages are available even when

servers are temporarily down, (2) material continues to remain available to

the academic community in the same way as print materials are (or should

be). The simplest short-term solution is to back up the pages on a mirror

site. Long-term storage needs are beginning to be met by projects set up by

libraries or consortia of libraries make permanent archives of web material

of value. (I should add that authors of materials posted in the PMJS

e-journal would retain copyright, and be free to publish in print form.)
Some technical notes to finish. I have not ironed out all technical

problems. One thing I need to know from you is whether you experience any

problems reading the web-versions and PDF versions on the systems that you

use. Comments also welcome on matters of format (footnotes, spacing, font

type and size).
PDF stands for Portable Document Format, Adobe's widely-used file format for

the exchange of electronic texts. To read and print PDF files, you require

the software Acrobat Reader. You may have it already as a browser plug-in.

If not, you can download from Adobe.
The kanji included in these PDF files will display correctly on Japanese

systems of Mac/Windows. If you use another language system, you can still

read PDF files that include Japanese fonts as well as Traditional and

Simplified Chinese and Korean provided you download the free CJK font pack

from Adobe.
The problem of diacritics still remains. I should point out the different

solutions adopted for the first two papers posted:
The Principle of Monogamy in The Tale of Genji (Royall Tyler)

web page version (no annotation, with circumflexes for macrons)

PDF version (full annotation, kanji, circumflexes for macrons)
Japanese Nationalism: Ancient and Modern (Robert Borgen)

web page version (no annotation, with kanji but no diacritics)

PDF version (full annotation, kanji, circumflexes for macrons)

discusses the "macron" problem and answers these questions:

How do I download and view a PDF file?

How should files be sent to the list editor?

Why offer a web-page version of papers?

What is a "character set"?
Finally--for this has become much too long--a technical plea:
So far attempts to include macrons have resulted in unsightly bitmat images.

If anyone with experience with Adobe Acrobat 4.0 can tell me off-list how to

"embed" a font including macrons, I would be grateful.
Michael Watson <>

Date: Jul 05 2000 10:40:07 EDT
From: Nobumi Iyanaga <>
Subject: PMJS e-journal


Dear List members,

I am very pleased by the announce of the new PMJS e-journal, and I read the
paper of Robert Borgen, "Japanese Nationalism: Ancient and Modern" with the
greatest interest. It is a fascinating piece of erudition and of a great
sense of history and literature. I would like to make some remarks in its

First, the mention of the Joojin's mother and her poem recalled me that my
former teacher, the late Professor Bernard Frank, wrote a paper on her.
Although I have not yet had the luck of read it, I am sure that it is very
interesting. Here is the reference:

Bernard Frank, "L'experience d'un malheur absolu: son refus et son
depassement. L'histoire de la mere de Joojin", Comptes rendus de l'Academie
des Inscriptions et Belle-Lettres, avril-juin, 1989, and corrigenta, in
novembre-decembre, 1989, p. 472-488.

In the poem quoted, the expression "teru hi-no-moto", "[the land of] the
rising sun", reminded me a poem which would have been written by Motoori
Norinaga, and which says:

Sashi-izuru asahi-no-moto no hikari yori
Koma Morokoshi mo haru wo shiruran

[I would translate: "Korea and China too will know the [coming of the]
spring from the shining light of the [land of the] morning sun"...]

I found this poem in two writings of Uchimura Kanzoo, the famous Christian
of the Meiji area, who ascribes it by mistake to Hiraga Gennai: the one is
the chapter 9 of his book entitled "Chijin-ron" ["Treatise on the Human
Geography"?] written in Meiji 27 [1894]; and the other is a short paper of
Taisho 13 [1924] entitled "Nihon no tenshoku" ["The vocation of Japan"] (I
found them in the selection of his writing "Uchimura Kanzoo", vol. 38 of
the collection "Nihon no meicho" published by Chuuoo kooron-sha, edited by
Matsuzawa Hiroaki [I am not sure of the pronunciation of his first name],
Tokyo, 1984, p. 410 and p. 467; the editor says that the ascription to
Hiraga Gennai is a mistake, and the original poem seems to be one found in
"Suzuya-shuu" of Motoori Norinaga). -- By the way, I quoted these writings
of Uchimura in a paper "Modern World and Orientalism -- Case studies on
Hegel, Uchimura Kanzo and the so called Kyoto-school just before the Second
World War" (in Japanese) which you can read on-line

This poem is clearly "nationalistic", while the poem of the mother of
Joojin quoted in Mr. Borgen's paper is not. But anyway, the expression "hi
no moto" ("under the sun" or "origin of the sun"...??) as a paraphrase of
"Nihon", Japan, seems to me very interesting; it may very easily have a
"nationalistic connotation"... Does anyone of the list know of any other
example(s) of the use of this expression in Japanese poems or literature in

The questions asked by the Chinese court to Joojin and his answers,
recorded in Joojin's journal, which Mr. Borgen quotes in his paper, are
very interesting also. They constitute one of the rare documents recording
the first real contacts between Japan and other countries. Although the
period and contents are very different, I think that this document can be
compared to the report of the Jesuit Lancilotto on Japan that he sent to
Roma in 1548, in which we find questions of Jesuits on Japan, and answers
by a certain Yajiroo, or Anjiroo, who was at Goa at that moment...

Another interesting point for me in Mr. Borgen's paper was the word
"Dai-nihon-koku" ["Great Japanese Nation"] that Joojin uses in his diary.
As I am especially interested these last years in the beginning of medieval
Shintoism and its relation with Buddhism, this word recalls me immediately
the famous medieval Buddho-Shintoist doctrine of Japan as the "Original
Land of the Buddha Mahaavairocana" ("Dainichi no hongoku"). As Itoo
Satoshi has shown in his paper on the myth of Maara of the Sixth Heaven,
the first occurrence of this doctrine seems to be a passage of "Shingon
Fuhoo San'yoo-shoo" written by the Shingon monk Jooson, in 1060 (Taisho
Canon No. 2433, vol. 77, p. 421c2-4; cf. Itoo Satoshi, "Dairokuten Maoo
setsu no seiritsu -- toku-ni Nakatomi no harae kunkai no shosetsu wo
chuushin toshite", Nihon Bungaku, May 1995, p. 69a). Mr. Borgen says that
"Reading too much into this term is dangerous. [...] Joojin was merely
imitating Chinese usage. If Japan is "The Great Japanese Nation," China is
"The Great Song Nation," a term Joojin also adopts. Joojin is simply
attempting to put Japan on an equal footing with China, not asserting
Japanese superiority." He is certainly right. He says also that "The
oldest example of "Great Japanese Nation" cited in the authoritative
dictionary Nihon Kokugo Daijiten is a document dated 1046, a mere 26 years
before Joojin used the term", and quotes a prayer to Hachiman Daibosatsu.
Anyway, the work of Jooson is a little earlier than the diary of Joojin.
And there, the term "Dainichi no hongoku = Dai-nihon-koku" is clearly
related to Amaterasu...

In Nakatomi no harae kunkai (p. 45 in the edition of Nihon Shisoo Taikei,
vol. 19), which seems to have been written between 1081 and 1178, we can

"Land of Four Directions" (yomo no kuni): it is the Continent of Dai-nihon
(Dai-nihon shuu nari); it is the palace of [the Buddha] Mahaavairocana
(Dainichi guu); it is the land of the world (sekai no kokudo nari).

Here, Dainich and Dai-nihon are clearly associated. I would not say that
it is simply "nationalistic"; it is rather an expression of a kind of a
very special "metaphysical/mystical nationalism".

I don't think that Joojin's usage of the term "Dai-nihon-koku" had the same
connotation; yet, it seems to me very interesting that the same term, with
a very strong mystical meaning, was used just at the same period...


I am sorry for this lengthy posting. I hope some of you, readers of Mr.
Borgen's excellent paper, find it of some interest.

Best regards,

Nobumi Iyanaga

Date: Jul 05 2000 10:53:08 EDT
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: PMJS e-journal


Apologies to anyone who not succeeded in reading the PDF files of the two
papers recently posted to the site. They download and display fine with
_Japanese_ version of the free software Adobe Acrobat, but not with the
English language version, which lacks the needed fonts, as Ivo Smits kindly
wrote to tell me.

The Japanese version can be downloaded either from the Japan or U.S.
site--choose language "Japanese" and platform (Mac or Windows):
The English and Japanese versions of Acrobat can co-exist on the same

To keep file size down, I did not embed fonts, but I should have followed
the example of the excellent PDF files available from the Japanese Journal
of Religious Studies:

While I adjust things here, I'd welcome more comments on list or off
concerning the proposal for an e-journal.

Michael Watson

Date: Jul 05 2000 17:06:22 EDT
From: "William Londo" <>
Subject: PMJS e-journal

Acrobat readable files (.PDF) containing Japanese fonts CAN be read with the English version of Acrobat Reader as long as the Japanese font pack is added to it. Adobe offers this for free, at Once installed, the Japanese should show up fine. I think it's fine not to imbed the fonts, as this saves download time for those of us still creeping along on modems. ---Bill

Date: Jul 06 2000 08:07:22 EDT
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: new member


We again have the ASCJ conference at Sophia to thank for the latest
subscription. I believe I am correct in saying that Professor Joly is the
first member to join us from French-speaking world of Japan studies. I hope
many more will join us.

Jacques Joly <>
Professor, Eichi University, Amagasaki, Hyogo, Japan.

My main interest is in the History of Thought in Japan. My Ph. D.
(Doctorat de Lettres in Far Eastern Studies) at the University of Paris
7 in 1991 analysed the idea of shizen in the thought of Ando Sh ki, a
mid-Tokugawa Confucianist thinker, and this study was later expanded in
order to include a more precise survey of the 18th Century Confucian
discourse in Japan, especially that of Ogy Sorai. I also started to
study the Japanese history of thought from Meiji era up to contemporary
issues, as well as some of their ideological avatars (such as the
constitution of T  hi - Japanese type orientalism), a move which
required me to investigate more intensively the Japanese history--and
more precisely the political history--of the 19th and 20th centuries.
In this regard, I devoted myself to translating (in French) the main
works of Masao Maruyama (1914-1996) such as : Nihon seiji shis hi
kenky , under the French title of "Essais sur l istoire de la pens 
politique au Japon" (Vol I: 1996). Currently, I am supervising a
project of translating Selected Works of Masao Maruyama.

Le Naturel selon Ando Shoeki (Un type de discours sur la nature et la
spontan t par un ma?re-confuc n de l' oque Tokugawa : Ando Sh ki (1703
-1762). Vol 1, Paris: College de France, Maisonneuve et Larose, 1996. 550

Michael Watson <>

Date: Jul 07 2000 20:30:28 EDT
From: wwf1 <>
Subject: PMJS e-journal

Dear Michael,
Maybe I have missed something, but I was wondering whether we are
supposed or allowed to comment or ask questions about the two articles using
the more public list address? Or, is it better to e-mail each author
individually? If so, I would like to have their individual addresses. I found
both papers interesting and have a few comments on each. In particular,
Royall was addressing issues of family and marriage which someone with a
demographic interest like me wants to talk over.
I didn't see any stated policy, but I may be suffering from jetlag, back
from Tokyo yesterday.
Thanks and best wishes,
Wayne Farris

Date: Jul 10 2000 21:29:13 EDT 

From: Michael Watson <> 

Subject: announcements

A number of announcements.
(1) short interruption of service on ListBot
(2) announcement of symposium in Tokyo, July 22 on the preservation campaign
for the Nagaoka detached palace site (from Joan Piggott)
(3) announcement of position in Australia (forwarded by Kate Wildman Nakai)
The last is really just a stocking filler, but do pass it on as appropriate.

(1) The ListBot system will be unavailable from 10:00 PM PST Saturday July 7
until 6:00 AM PST Sunday July 8, due to a scheduled power outage at our
network service provider. During this time, users will not be able to log
in, nor will the system send or receive mail. If members try to post to a
list during this time, they will receive a "Message Undeliverable" error.

(2) from Joan Piggott <>

The preservation campaign for the Nagaoka detached palace site seems to be
having some effect.

Here I am sending you some further information. Part is in Japanese and
will thus not be readable by some members.

There will be a symposium at Meiji University on July 22 that I hope some
members will also attend. I am including the schedule and contacts here.

Nagaoka Symposium
The Nagaoka Capital and Kammu Tenno
7/22 (Saturday) 12:30-17:00
Meiji University Ribatei Ta-wa 6th Fl. Room 1063
(located 5 mins. away from JR Ochanomizu Station)

The focus of the symposium is the importance of the Nagaoka capital
(784-94), which served as Kammu Tenno's capital prior to the move to
Heian-kyo in 794, and of recent archaeological discoveries made there.


12:30 Greeting Prof. Toshio Araki (Senshu University)

12:40 Measuring the Importance of Kammu Tenno Michiko Nagai

13:20 Measuring the Importance of Nagaoka-kyo Prof. Rokuro Hayashi
(Emeritus, Kokugakuin University)

13:50 Break

14:00 Recent Excavation at Nagaokakyo Prof. Akira Yamanaka (Mie

14:40 Wooden Documents and Inscribed Pottery at the Nagaoka Detached
Palace and Higashi'in Site Prof. Motoichi Kamada (Kyoto University)

15:10 Break

15:20 An hour-long discussion led by Profs. Tomoyasu Kato (Tokyo
University) and Nagato Sato (Kokugakuin University) will follow.

16:30 Concluding Remarks Prof. Yasutami Suzuki (Kokugakuin University)

After the symposium participants are invited to join together for a social
event, from about 17:30 to 19:30.

For further information contact:
Nagaoka-kyo and Kammu Tenno Symposium Planning Group
Prof. Toshio Araki, Chair
194-0014 Machida-shi, Takagesaka 1038-1-12
Tel, Fax 042-724-0295

The symposium is being planned by interested scholars working with the
Rekishigaku kenkyuai Kodaishibukai and the Bunkazai hozon zenkoku kyoiku
Admission will be free but prepared materials will be made available for a
nominal charge.

The following is an update from Prof. Toshio Araki, Senshu University. He
has joined Prof. Yamanaka in leading the preservation effort, especially in

[Japanese: omitted]

Date: Jul 10 2000 23:12:21 EDT
From: "M.Joly Jacques" <>
Subject: PMJS e-journal

[in response to Nobumi Iyanaga]

I just wanted to insist on the fact that the use of the term Dainihon or Dainihonkoku, before the Meiji Restoration clearly does not possess any nationalistic meaning . It reminds me of a remark done by Timon Screech to the EmjnetÝ members. I hope he will pardon me to directly quote him but I think it is the best thing to do because his remark is very enlightening for our context :
« there is the issue of the term Dai-Nihon. In this context, I take
issue with Arai Hakuseki who said Dai-Nihon was a solecism. In fact, all
North-East Asian states have used dai-X to mean something very like our
idea of country. This survives vestigially, for example, in Korean Airlines
(Dai-Kan kouku - in Japanese pronunciation); this doesn't mean Great Korea,
but just Korea, as in Dai-Ming Dai-Qing etc. This dai- became
mis-understood (perhaps deliberately) in Meiji, when the quite erroneous
translation of 'Great Japan' was cointed, which in itself was based on a
misunderstanding of the name Great Britain (so-called not from megalomania,
but because the part of France closest to England is called Britain -
Bretagne -Ý too).» 

Date: Jul 10 2000 23:17:06 EDT
From: (Royall Tyler)
Subject: PMJS e-journal


Anyone who (like Wayne Farris) wants to comment on my electronic Genji artic
le is of course welcome to do so, either on the list or privately.

I'm sorry there are a few question marks in it--things I had forgotten that
I had not looked up.

Royall Tyler


Date: Jul 11 2000 00:09:55 EDT
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: PMJS e-journal


Many thanks to Wayne Farris for raising the question of whether it is
appropriate or desired to have mailing list discussion of the online
publications. I should certainly hope so. Readers should judge whether to
send their comments or reactions to the list, as Nobumi Iyanaga has already
done, or directly to the authors. I'd like to see how things develop before
deciding whether any policy needs to be defined.

As both authors are regular contributors to pmjs, I trust that it will not
be a breach of netiquette to give their addresses once more here:

Royall Tyler <>
Robert Borgen <>

The two essays were not sent out to the list as a whole if only because it
would be a burden on the many members who read messages by modem. However
the topics discussed by them are of great interest to many of us. I hope
that all interested readers will look at the versions available on the Web

I thank all those who have talked or written to me about the proposed
e-journal proposal. One reminder for those thinking of submitting material:
leading journals in the field will not consider for publication articles
which have been widely circulated electronically. For this reason,
publication on the web should be seen as an end in itself, and not a first
step to submission elsewhere.

The two forms of publication are not necessarily in competition. Web
publication can fulfill many functions that are not and can not be easily
performed by existing print journals, such as reproducing work previously
published in out of the way places (such as Bob Borgen's article) or
disseminating work of value that might otherwise never be published, like
short conference papers.

Michael Watson

Date: Jul 11 2000 17:02:38 EDT
From: "Janet R. Goodwin" <>
Subject: PMJS e-journal

A Web publication can also contain art work that is difficult for print
journals to accommodate, such as color photographs. I'd think this would
make a Web journal a very attractive venue for art historians in

--Janet Goodwin

Date: Jul 11 2000 17:48:39 EDT
From: Nobumi Iyanaga <>
Subject: Dainihon [was: re: PMJS e-journal]


Dear Mr. Joly,

Thank you for pointing out this interesting fact.

>I just wanted to insist on the fact that the use of the term Dainihon or
>Dainihonkoku, before the Meiji Restoration clearly does not possess any
>nationalistic meaning . It reminds me of a remark done by Timon Screech to
>the Emjnet members. I hope he will pardon me to directly quote him but I
>think it is the best thing to do because his remark is very enlightening
>for our context :[...]

Mr. Screech is certainly right. However, it seems to me that pre-Meiji
Japanese people didn't use *always* "Dainihon" to designate their country.
I would be interested to know what were the contexts in which this word was
used rather than simply "Nihon" or "waga-choo" or "hon-chou", etc. And
when the usage of this term became usual...? Even if the date mentioned in
Nihon Kokugo Daijiten , 1046, was not the date of *the first* occurrence of
the term, I think it was not usual before that date. And for example, in
the dictionary Koojien, the only term beginning with "Dainihon" which is
from pre-Meiji period is "Dainihon-shi", "The History of [Great??] Japan",
and this work is known as nationalistic (I think...).

And I would be interested to know also when and how the usage of this
"Dai-" before the name of countries in other North-East Asian states became
usual... For example, is there any examples of "Dai-kudara", etc., and if
so, what were the contexts?

Thank you in advance for any enlightenment.

Best regards,

Nobumi Iyanaga

Date: Jul 12 2000 04:58:35 EDT 


Subject: PMJS e-journal

It seems like there should be no reason why a web based journal should
be any less than a printed one. The Royal Chemical Society, the American
Institute of Physics, and one of the geological societies in the US all
have peer-reviewed electronic journals (and most are free of charge).

Not only can color graphics be done, the whole process is supposedly faster
and gets it out sooner and more cheaply.

I don't see why the humanities field can get on board! Other than INTERNET
ARCHAEOLOGY, I don't know of any peer-reviewed e-journals for the
humanities. If nothing else,
maybe PMJS should be the one to try. I'd be happy to volunteer to be a reviewer
for archaeology articles...(if anybody but me sends any in...).

Just my two yen's worth for this evening,
Mark Hall

Date: Jul 12 2000 07:27:47 EDT
From: wwf1 <>
Subject: Dainihon [was: re: PMJS e-journal]

Dear list members,

I have previously published some information which I believes bears on this discussion of ""Nihon" and "Ancient nationalism."First of all, let me say that I found Bob's paper to be excellent and I learned from it. He has raised an interesting question (among others): How did the residents of the archipelago think of themselves? Did they have a political identity?

As I think Bob already knows, I'm not much of a believer in nationalism before the late nineteenth century in Japan. To cite just three examples:

1) It is well-known that in the Edo period, peasants, chonin, and
samurai thought of themselves as residents of their domain, first and last.
There was very little sense of a larger entity called Nihon. This loyalty to
the greater entity (or the Emperor Meiji) had to be created after 1868. To
me, that's what Carol Gluck's book is all about.

2) In the early 1860s--I don't recall the exact date--Choshu samurai
set an expulsion date to chase away the hairy barbarians and opened fire upon
US ships passing through the Straits of Shimonoseki. The Europeans and
Americans were naturally angered, and set an international fleet to teach
those uppity Choshu samurai a lesson. As I recall, and I think the details
are in David Earl's EMPEROR AND NATION, when the fleet arrived and attacked,
Choshu residents appeared at the scene of battle and sold food and other
wares--to both sides. In other words, no sense of us vs. them.

3) Finally, from the Kamakura period, when the Mongols invaded in 1274
and 1281, the bakufu had a devil of a time getting samurai to show up for
battle. Thus the start of the the practice of CHAKUJO-CHO (the right term, I
think), wherein bushi promised to show up to fight. Not only does this
reflect on the so-called "professionalism" of the samurai class, but if
samurai won't even show up for an invasion thought to endanger the entire
island chain, what do you think the average commoner thought? I'm inclined to
agree with Amino Yoshihiko in his classic MOKO SHURAI, that for most residents
of the archipelago, they couldn't care less about the invasion.
Now, having disagreed (or maybe not?) about the existence of nationalism
before the late nineteenth century, let me be perfectly inconsistent and cite
an example which fits into Bob's schema. When Emperor Shomu left his
short-lived capital at Kuni in 744, some commoners saw his palanquin, and
according to the SHOKU NIHONGI, they shouted "Long live Shomu" SHOMU TENNO
BANZAI. What was on their mind? Was this mere dynastic loyalty? or
something greater?

Finally, for all of you searching for early uses of the characters NIHON,
some may be found in the law codes, under the chapter on Documentary Forms
(KUSHIKI-RYO). This chapter of the codes lists the precise forms to be
followed for various documents, among other things. If you look in the
KOKUSHI TAIKEI version of RYO NO SHUGE, under the very first form (p. 774),
the form is given for imperial edicts (CHOKUSHI). According to the version I
was taught, the official title for such utterances from the tenno was AKITSU
MIKAMI SHIRASHI MESU YAMATO NO SUMERA MIKOTONORI. The characters for YAMATO are NIHON and SUMERA is TENNO. Since the exact same phrase is cited in KOKI, the commentary on the Taiho Codes, we know that the phrase was in the 701
Taiho Codes as well.

Moreover, the gloss YAMATO for NIHON gives us a clue about the meaning of
the term. In other words, NIHON refers to the dynasty, or its ancestral home
in Yamato Province, or both. To me, any references to NIHON KOKU before the
Edo period anyway, refer to the dynasty and go no further than the Kinai.
I should, however, note that the SHISO TAIKEI version of the CHOKUSHI
passage gives the gloss HI NO MOTO for NIHON. But KOKUSHI TAIKEI versions of
SENMYO from the late seventh and eighth century all gloss NIHON as YAMATO.
(By the way, I should add that many Japanese ancientists have complained to me
about the pompous and inaccurate glosses in SHISO TAIKEI.)

Finally, (sorry for the long message, but I woke up early), on the same page, the very same KOKI discusses what NIHON means. In a passage that I have also quoted in SACRED TEXTS AND BURIED TREASURES, the legal commentator asks: "How is SHIRASHIMESU YAMATO NO SUMERA different from "nearby" and "barbarian countries" (KOKU)? The answer comes: "The country next door (RINKOKU) is the GREAT TANG, the barbarian country (BANKOKU) refers to Silla." To me the implication is that country refers to the area directly controlled by the
dynasty, in Japan's case perhaps no more than Yamato or the Kinai. And
perhaps a cynic would say that this sense of "country" is merely the literate
dynasts saying: "We control so much land and have the right to control the
tax-producers living thereon." What the residents thought is not noted
anywhere, that I'm aware of.

I have herewith exhausted my thoughts on this subject. Hope this was worth your time.
Wayne Farris

Date: Jul 12 2000 17:58:40 EDT
From: Kendon Stubbs <>
Subject: PMJS e-journal

In the U.S. the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) publishes a
biennial _ARL Directory of Electronic Journals_. (ARL comprises the 100+
largest university libraries in North America.) The latest issue of its
directory was published in 1998. According to the press release at

the directory included 1,465 electronic journals from worldwide sources, of
which 1,002 were peer-reviewed, and 708 charged for access. A new edition
of the directory is nearing publication. The scope will be limited to
scholarly e-journals. According to a staff member at ARL, the directory
will include 3,900+ peer-reviewed e-journals. This is an increase in
peer-reviewed scholarly e-journals of almost 300% in two years.

A huge amount of discussion of traditional paper journals and new
e-journals has been underway in the U.S. among scholarly associations,
libraries, faculty, and others. ARL has a division dedicated to tracking
the discussion, the ARL Office of Scholarly Communication at

This Web page includes some links pertinent to questions about the PMJS
e-journal - for example, under "Projects & Proposals." The new "Principles
for Emerging Systems of Scholarly Publishing" also points to some issues
relevant to the PMJS journal, such as archiving e-journals and e-articles,
free vs. fee access, electronic publishing and evaluation of faculty, etc.

Kendon Stubbs

Date: Jul 13 2000 03:18:52 EDT
From: Roberta Strippoli <rober...@...nford.EDU>
Subject: PMJS e-journal

I don't know if it has been included in that database, but the
Romanian Journal of Japanese Studies is certainly worth a look. They
started publishing it last year, and it includes articles by scholars
from all around the world.


Date: Jul 18 2000 07:34:44 EDT
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: new members

Let me take advantage of the lull in messages to welcome four new members:
Ethan Segal, Peter Shapinsky, Sarah Dvorak, and Alexander Vesey.

Ethan Isaac Segal <>

I am a Ph.D. candidate in Japanese history at Stanford University,
currently at the University of Tokyo Shiryo Hensanjo for my dissertation
research. My area of concentration is medieval Japan, with the dissertation
focusing on economic growth, trade, and the spread of markets during the
Kamakura and Muromachi periods. Other projects and presentations that I
have been involved with include tokuseirei, gift economy, proto-nationalism,
women's history, and gender history.

Peter D. Shapinsky <>

I am a Ph.D. student in medieval Japanese history at U. of Michigan. My
main area of focus at present is kaizoku, especially the Murakami family
of the Setonaikai in the 14th through 16th centuries.

Sarah Dvorak <>

--profile please!--

Alexander M. Vesey <amve...@...enix.Princeton.EDU>

A graduate student in Princeton University's Department of East Asian
Studies, I am completing a dissertation on the social history of the rural
Buddhist clergy in the second half of the Tokugawa period. I frame the
topic within the context of the Edo period status system (mibun seido) to
explore the nature of the clergy's place and function within village
society. Sub-topics examined within the study include the legal parameters
of the clergy's status standing, the role of ecclesiastic education in the
formation of status identiy, temples and clerics as elite elements within
village structures, and the clegy's function as mediators
in village disputes.

Before coming to Princeton, I received an MA in Buddhist Studies at the
University of Michigan, and trained at Tokufukuji in Kyoto.

This brings the number of members back up to 216. Four or five members have
temporarily unsubscribed to avoid a build-up of mail over the summer--they
were kind enough to drop me a message to explain.

Michael Watson

Date: Jul 19 2000 03:33:26 EDT
Subject: Jomon web pages

For those of you interested, the English version of the
Niigata Prefectural Museum are on line now at

Not on the Japanese pages is an introductory section on the archaeology of
the Jomon era.

All comments, etc. are appreciated.

Best, Mark

Date: Jul 19 2000 14:26:16 EDT 

From: "Rein Raud" <> 

Subject: Dainihon [was: re: PMJS e-journal]

When we speak about "nationalism", especially historically, we should not
make the mistake of confusing political and ethnic (national) identity.
modern English usage does not really distinguish between the two. Quite
a lot of other languages make the distinction, and it is possible to
encounter a fierce nationalist of some little (or stateless) nation who
actually travels on a passport of some other country. The question should
thus be separated into two also for more ancient times. It is quite possible
that somebody has political allegiance only to the lord of one's domain, but
is fiercely nationalistic about foreigners etc.

Rein Raud

Date: Jul 20 2000 20:25:57 EDT
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: new art journal

From: Melanie Trede <>
Subject: new art journal


I realised that noone has introduced a new biannual art journal to our
list yet, the second edition of which was issued a couple of months ago.

The journal is edited by the Kyoto publisher Daigo shobo under the title
"Bijutsu Forum 21", and costs Y2.800.
It is 'nicely' designed, and comes in DinA 4 size covering 200 pages of
mostly text (tategaki) and less--largely monochrome--illustrations.

Each issue includes rather brief and easily readable
but scholarly articles,book and exhibition reviews by academics and
curators such as Namiki Seishi, Yasumura Toshinobu, Patricia Fischer, and
Henry Smith among others.
The articles are in Japanese, and brief English (and Japanese) summaries
are included at the back.

There is a lot to say about this newcomer, but three special features seem
to be standing out:

Each volume covers a 'hot' topic that is addressed from various angles.
the first (Oct. '99) is on
"Nihon bijutsushi saiko: Edo no bijutsu ha dono you ni katararete kita ka?
Rethinking Japanese Art History: The Gaze upon Edo period Art"

the second (May 2000) is on
"Art Criticism: Its History and present Situation",

and the Fall issue will be on museums and collecting (sic!).

Secondly, a special section at the end of each volume includes
introductions to contemporary artists.

And finally, it is entirely a Kansai product,
i.e. more than 90% (I guess) of the authors are scholars located in the
Kansai area, some of them little known to Tokyoites like myself;

I highly recommend to subscribe to this journal which fills a huge gap
in both Japanese and Western language publications in the field.

If you are interested in doing so, please contact
Kudo Yoko who is the editor of the journal at Daigo shobo at
Tel. 075 - 575-3515
Fax: 3525.

melanie trede


Institute of Fine Arts, NYU

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