pmjs logs for November 2001. Total number of messages: 62

To make logs quicker to open and easier to read, announcements of a public nature have be removed and placed on an open page: an2001.11. Only the header and a short lead is given below.

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ASCJ Call for Papers (Michael Watson) 

botan and buddhism (Robin Gill, Rokuo Tanaka) --> peony before haiku (Robin Gill) 

Akazome Emon shu / HS Levy & AEmon (Denise O'Brien) 

ASCJ co-panelists wanted (Michael Watson) 

History and Culture of Japanese Food (Barbara Nostrand, Rokuo Tanaka ) 

--> university press backorders (Mike Smitka, William Higginson) 

Sainsbury and Handa Fellowships (Morgan Pitelka) 

[Tokyo Hensanjo] symposium announcement (Mikael Adolphson) 

Shakkyo (Yumiko Hulvey) 

new members: Barbara Cross, Brett de Bary, James Dorsey, Sachie Noguchi, and Gaynor Sekimori 

Gates to Heian-kyo (Karl Friday, Andrew Goble, Matthew Stavros, Bill Higginson, Barbara Nostrand, David Pollack) --> public archive 

Position announcement (Michael Watson) 

[note from editor about use of diacritics in e-mail] 

PAJLS, vol. 2 (Eiji Sekine) 

tenure-track position at Pomona College 

One year position posting/Washington University 

Marius B. Jansen Memorial Conference 

new profiles: Alari Allik, Amanda Stinchecum, Stefania Burk, and Daniel Gallimore 

Bulletin of Portuguese/Japanese Studies (Morgan Pitelka) 

Chiyome query (Susan Klein, Brian Goldsmith, William Bodiford, Lawrence Marceau) 

OT: Embeddable Japanese Fonts (Rolf Giebel, Philip C. Brown) 

4th International Conference on Okinawan Studies (Bureau of the Okinawa-Conference, Bonn) 

Union Catalogue of Early Japanese books in Europe (Peter Kornicki, Philip Brown, Lawrence Marceau) 

Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto (Matthew Stavros, David Pollack, Carol Tsang, Hank Glassman, Karen Brock, Rokuo Tanaka, Hank Glassmann, Richard Bowring, Andrew Goble, Rokuo Tanaka, Janet Goodwin, Tom Conlan, Robert Khan, G. Cameron Hurst, Jacqueline Stone) --> public archive 

part-time teaching position at Tokyo Denki University (Haruko Wakabayashi) 

UMichigan Japanese Literature Position (Esperanza R-Christensen) 

Date: Thu, 1 Nov 2001 17:46:44 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: ASCJ Call for Papers

Asian Studies Conference Japan (ASCJ) - Call for Papers

A reminder that the deadline for proposals is December 1. Time to get your panels together!

Last year Columbia graduate students organized a memorable panel on
"Literary Form, the Book and the Material History of Reading in Medieval and Early Modern Japan."

I look forward to a strong pmjs presence next year.

Michael Watson
ASCJ Webmaster (as well...)

From: Patricia Sippel <>
Subject: Asian Studies Conference Japan

CALL FOR PAPERS FOR THE SIXTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE -->an2001.11 [on announcements page]

Date: Fri, 2 Nov 2001 10:30:09 -0500

From: "robin gill" <>

Subject: botan and buddhism

O-hisashiburi, minna-sama!

If I may dare add something to what Rokuo Tanaka has written in response to
Yumiko Hulvey:

While the king/ruler is the leading metaphorical peony (hana-no-o^), Issa
treated it more like a talisman for bringing wealth (appropo for this
"fuki-no-hana) and Shiki thought of it more like a kamuro than a king! . The
shishi connection appears in many haiku and shishi-mai costumes are often
adorned with them. And, because Benzaiten combines wealth with beauty, the
artist Odano Naotake depicted a pot of them (one white and one mixed
red-white blossom) in front of the Shinobazu Pond (see C. Guth: Japanese Art
in the Edo Period for a reproduction--- but she misses the connection) which
has her shrine.

Not knowing how far Yumiko Hulvey wants to pursue the significance of the
botan as opposed to its significance in the work in question, I will not
explore the rich galaxy of significance any further (I can provide much more
information about botan sub-themes I have worked out of old haiku), but the
mention of Buddhism in the work reminded me of an aspect of the botan which
I suspect but cannot prove:

Namely, some Buddhist art I have seen from China and Tibet (sorry, I have
nothing at hand to be more specific) seem to depict the peony where I would
have expected the lotus to be THE flower. Have I been imagining things? Or
is there a Buddhist connection I have missed?

robin d. gill

Date: Sat, 03 Nov 2001 09:13:36 -0800

From: Robert Borgen <>

Subject: Shakkyo

I read with interest the messages concerning Shakkyo upon my return from a
brief visit to Japan. Although I have nothing to contribute to the
discussion, I would like to note that my translation of the play is
forthcoming (I think) from the Journal of the Association of Teachers of

Robert Borgen
Date: Sun, 04 Nov 2001 20:25:16 -1000 (HST)
From: Rokuo Tanaka <>
Subject: botan and buddhism

On Fri, 2 Nov 2001, robin gill wrote:

While the king/ruler is the leading metaphorical peony (hana-no-o^), Issa
treated it more like a talisman for bringing wealth (appropo for this
"fuki-no-hana) and Shiki thought of it more like a kamuro than a king! . The
shishi connection appears in many haiku and shishi-mai costumes are often
adorned with them. And, because Benzaiten combines wealth with beauty, the
artist Odano Naotake depicted a pot of them (one white and one mixed
red-white blossom) in front of the Shinobazu Pond (see C. Guth: Japanese Art
in the Edo Period for a reproduction--- but she misses the connection) which
has her shrine.

More on botan:

The ideogram botan in Japanese and 'mutan' in Chinese is same, but
Japanese created a dozen of synonyms (vide _Haikai Saijiki,v.3 Summer_
Kaizo^sha, 1933, pp 580-584.) in addition to 'hua wan' (ka o^,)
'bai hua wan'(hyakka no o^), both mean "The King of Flowers" in a
metaphorical expression for the peony in China.

The synonym "Fu^ki no hana" ('fu gui hua') derives from a very short 'yi
wen,' posthumous writings, entitled 'Ai lian shuo' ("Ai ren no setsu"
[Theory of love for a lotus flower] by Zhou Dunyi (1017-1073),
a scholar of the Confucian School in the Bei Sung Period.

Zhou writes:

"In this world there are a numerous kinds of grasses,
plants, and trees that one would favor. Tao Qian loves only the
chrysanthemum. Since Tang Dynasty, everyman favors the peony.
As for me I love the lotus flower only.
The lotus grows in the mud but never gets soiled....
I say the chrysanthemum is like the man of solitude; the peony is
like the man of riches and wealth ('mutan hua zhi fu gui zhe ye'
[botan wa kore fu^ki no hana nari]); the lotus flower is like the man of
complete virtue....
(from _Zhou Lianxi Chi (Chou Lien-hsi chi), V.2_ [1936] p139).

So far I can not find a single poem on a topic of the peony in the
twenty-one royal anthologies or private collections. My assumption is that
the peony is too large in size, its hue too brilliant, its fragrance too
heavy, consequently the delicate sensibility of court poets must have
rejected this flower as a topic. Compare the peony to cherry blossoms,
plums flowers, bush clovers, yamabuki (Japanese yellow rose?),
and chrysanthemums.

More on Shakkyo^:

The opening line of yo^kyoku Shakkyo begins (NKBZ. V.34, p523):

Waki: Kore O^e no Sadamoto to iwareshi Jakujo^ Ho^shi nite so^ro^.

O^e no Sadamoto, a Heian poet, is also known as Priest Jakusho^ (?-1034)
who went to China where he died. The anecdotes on his pilgrimage in China
are recorded in _Konjaku Monogatari_, _Jikkinsho^_, _Imakagami_, and
_Genpei Jo^suiki_, and more.

The author of Shakkyo^, however, was said to be inspired by a story on
Priest Jakusho^ in the _Genko^ Shakusho_ (1322), the history of
Buddhism in Japan in thirty volumes, compiled by Priest Kokan Shiren
(1278-1346). These history books are not available at our library, so I
cannot find the detail of the source.

Lastly, a tanka by Shiki:

Akaki botan/shiroki botan o/taorikeri
Akaki o kimi ni/ide okuraba ya.

Date: Mon, 05 Nov 2001 10:52:52 -0500
From: "Denise O'Brien" <>
Subject: Akazome Emon shu

I am currently working with Howard S. Levy's 1994 translation of the Akazome Emon shu. Privately printed in Yokohama, the collection is in six pamphlets and appears to be based on the Japanese version that is chronological rather than topical in structure. A JSTOR search turned up no journal reviews of this translation and I am curious to know what others think of it. Both Levy's "introduction" (a collection of 146 "easy-to-remember facts about the Poetess Akazome Emon") and his poem translations seem eccentric to say the least. As far as I know, this is the only English translation of the AE shu.
Regards, Denise O'Brien

Date: Mon, 05 Nov 2001 11:23:54 -0500

From: "Denise O'Brien" <>

Subject: PS re HS Levy & AEmon

I should have mentioned in my previous post that I am aware of some of Levy's other publications and his predilection for the erotic and titillating. He takes somewhat of a wink, wink attitude toward AE in his introductory list of "facts" and imputes an affair between her and Fujiwara Michinaga on the basis of a poem exchange that is ambiguous at best. But, by eccentric I mean that the English in the poems and sometimes in the headnotes is stilted---perhaps Levy is striving to be too literal. His renderings are not elegant.
Regards, Denise O'Brien

From: "robin gill" <>

Subject: peony before haiku

Our botan discussion is fast becoming a yae-zakura!

Thank you, Rokuo Tanaka, for the Zhou quote. I also have the kaizosha saijiki (my hands-down favorite) and it only gives the single "fuki-ni-hana" line. I must admit, however to being curious asto whether the idea of the peony as a flower of prosperity was "derived" --- i.e. coined --- from Zhou's essay. How do weknow? Is there any source we can count on as we count on the OED (or, do we?) for giving first instances?

Your hypothesis that the peony was too gaudy for "the delicate sensibilities of the court poets" is both bold and familiar --- Ithinkof Tanizaki Junichiro's view of Japanese taste --- but, I can't help wondering if it is correct.

Is it possible that the Chinese, for all those names, didn't create a poeticmodel useful to the court poets?Of the flowers/blossoms RT mentionsfor comparison, plum was the calender blossom, cherry, with its heavy bloom (didn't the court appreciate yae-zakura?) the veryembodiment of spring, bush-clovers, covered with dew=tears, what lovers hadto walk through, and mums connected with the sages and longevity --- i must confess to confusion about the yamabuki which i will not elaborate here. My (wild) guess is that the low physical stature of the peony did not jive with the Chinese metaphor of peony-as-ruler (haiku later praised the humility of this literallylow-down wealthy blossom) and that this, rather than gaudiness, doomed the peony to obscurity.

Or, is a name problem involved? Eg., could it have been sung as a tachibana ("yama-tachibana" is one of the names listed in the kaizo-sha saijiki)?

Or, is it possible that the peony was thought of as gross? I have always wondered why there aren't more haiku on the abundant vermiform innardssullying the petals with pollen . . .

Or, is it possible, the peony didn't arrive --- or wasn't cultivated --- as early as the other plants mentioned? If Sei Shonagon could putdownthe inside of a cat's ear (which is to say, the hair?) as a squalidthing and argue at length on the aesthetic pros and cons of the pear blossom, one might expect to find comments on the peony, had it been around.

Enough, already, if I may close with a Hawaiinism.

robin d gill

ps: sorry to be late in replying, having no shutters, i had to put all my books in double-bags and closet them for the hurricane which didn't come!

Date: Fri, 9 Nov 2001 20:12:44 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: ASCJ co-panelists wanted

More about the Asian Studies Conference Japan, held June 22-23, 2002, in Tokyo.

Those of you who have looked at the ASCJ call for papers recently
would have seen that a number of panel organizers are looking for co-panelists.

I'm putting together a panel on "Genji Monogatari: Reception and Translation" and have three speakers lined up so far. I am looking for a fourth. Please contact me off-list if you are interested

[P.S. 11/11
Since writing the above I have two excellent proposals from pmjs members. The panel is full, nay over full, perhaps. There is always the possibility of proposing TWO linked panels, however, if there is strong enough interest. Please let me know soon if you are interested.]

More information about the conference can be found on the website, but let me give the information about the other panels looking for participants. [Rest omitted]

Date: Fri, 9 Nov 2001 18:16:50 -0500

From: Barbara Nostrand <>

Subject: History and Culture of Japanese Food

Dear list members.

Has anyone seen a copy of:

Naomichi Ishige "The History and Culture of Japanese Food"

Does this book actually exist, or is it the figment of someone's
imagination? I've had it on order for well over a year now.
Columbia University Press claims that it was published about a
month ago, but I have heard that they are sold out and that they
have a backlog of several hundred orders.

Best Wishes
Barbara Nostrand

Date: Fri, 09 Nov 2001 16:44:53 -1000 (HST)

From: Rokuo Tanaka <>

Subject: History and Culture of Japanese Food


It does seem to exist.

Go to <>
The screen says: ISBN: 0710306571, Published February, 2000 by Kegan
Paul, cloth, 280 pages, $110.00.

The book is not available at our library, unfortunately.

Rokuo Tanaka

Date: Sat, 10 Nov 2001 13:55:29 -0700

From: wordfield <>

Subject: History and Culture of Japanese Food

Hi All.

When I tried Rokuo's URL for this book, it came
back with an error 404. However, on CUP's search

I entered

"History and Culture of Japanese Food"

which took me right to the correct page.


PS: Rokuo, thanks for the earlier discussion of
saijiki in relation to botan.
William J. Higginson

Date: Fri, 9 Nov 2001 23:24:05 -0500 (EST)

From: Mike Smitka <>

Subject: university press backorders

I've had a book on order for some time from Columbia University Press ...
another Paul Kegan title. I know it exists because I've read the copy my
library has. My guess is that Paul Kegan ought to get another distributor.

But maybe this time CUP isn't the one at fault. In general, though,my
sense is that the editors / managers at university presses this side of
the Atlantic get kudos for book prizes and the like, not for actually
selling books.

Michael J Smitka
Professor of Economics
Williams School of Commerce
Washington and Lee University
Lexington, VA 24450 USA

Date: Sat, 10 Nov 2001 10:43:38 +0000

From: Morgan Pitelka <>

Subject: Sainsbury and Handa Fellowships

Sainsbury Institute Research Fellowships, 2002-2003 -->an2001.11

Date: Sun, 11 Nov 2001 09:34:54 +0000

From: Mikael Adolphson <>

Subject: Symposium announcement

Dear list members,
I am forwarding the below announcement to the list, hoping that it will be
of some interest. The occasion is Tokyo University's Historiographical
Institute's centennial anniversary. Those interested in the symposium should
pre-register by November 30 (see info below).

Besides the symposium in January noted below, there will also be an exhibit
at the Tokyo National Museum, running from early December to late January.
The exhibit will feature not only rare documents and some hi-tech hands-on
features, but also objects relating to the early history of the institute
itself. Has anyone heard of G.G. Zerffi, for example, who was commissioned
(yes, he was actually paid) to write a volume on the Science of History for
the institute? He apparently did so in about six months...

I would be happy to answer any questions regarding either of these events,
and I am sure that Professor Kondo at the Institute (
would as well.


Mikael Adolphson
Assistant Professor, Japanese History
Harvard University (on sabbatical in Japan until August of 2002)
PH: (03) 5520-6983

[For program in Japanese see:]

Date: Tue, 13 Nov 2001 14:36:07 -0500

From: Yumiko Hulvey <>

Subject: Shakkyo

I would like to thank those who responded to my query about Shakkyo and the related questions about Oe no Sadamoto and peonies.
Yumiko Hulvey
Dr. S. Yumiko Hulvey
Associate Professor of Japanese
African & Asian Languages & Literature
431 Grinter Hall
University of Florida

Date: Wed, 14 Nov 2001 07:34:16 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: new members

We welcome five new members to pmjs: Barbara Cross, Brett de Bary, James Dorsey, Sachie Noguchi, and Gaynor Sekimori.

Barbara Cross <>

I have just begun a PhD at SOAS (London) under the supervision of Professor Gerstle on the relationship of gesaku fiction (focusing on the writer Shikitei Sanba) and kabuki. I also recently completed an MA in Edo literature at Kyushu University.

Brett de Bary <>

Professor of Asian Studies and Comparative Literature.
Department of Asian Studies, Cornell University.
Articles on modern Japanese fiction, Japanese feminism, Japanese film, postmodern criticism, Karatani Kojin, tenko; translations of works by OeKenzaburo, Miyamoto Yuriko, Karatani Kojin.
Books :_Longtime Californ': A Documentary Study of an American Chinatown_ (with Victor Nee);
_Three Works by Nakano Shigeharu_; _Origins of Modern Japanese Literature._
Areas of research: post-modern criticism, Japanese film, translation of Karatani Kojin, subjectivity in early postwar Japanese literature, the construction of the body in Meiji poetry and naturalist fiction.
* profile from Cornell web page (ed)

James Dorsey <>

Assistant Professor, Japanese, Dartmouth College. Research interests include modern Japanese fiction and criticism, literature during the1930s and 1940s, medieval noh drama.

Sachie Noguchi <>

Japanese Bibliographer and Coordinator of the Japan Information Center
(, East Asian Library,
University of Pittsburgh. Also Co-director of the Japanese Text Initiative

Gaynor Sekimori <>

Associate Professor, Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo.
Appointed November 1, 2001.
Managing editor of new journal of Asian Studies to be published by the
Institute in 2003.
Completed PhD at the University of Cambridge; dissertation on Haguro
Shugendo and shinbutsu bunri, July 2000. Research Fellow in the Centre for
the Study of Japanese Religions at SOAS October 2000-September 2001.
Reseach interests: Shugendo, history and ritual. History of Haguro Shugendo,
particularly kasumi system. Shinbutsu shugo, shinbutsu bunri. Shugo/Shugendo
art. Female exclusion (nyonin kinsei).

Date: Tue, 13 Nov 2001 17:55:03 -0500

From: Karl Friday <>

Subject: Gates to Heian-kyo

An acquaintance working on a novel recently asked me about the following:

Would the Tokaido leave from the Rasho gate or
at the (I think it would be) Sanjo gate? I know the Rashomon is the
"official" gate, where foreign deputations would arrive, so that they could
get the full effect of the main road
and the Vermilion Sparrow gate. But it looks as though the gate which
links directly to the Tokaido is on the east side of Heian. Another
possibility is that the Tokaido snaked around to the south of the
capital and entered at the Rashomon; but that almost everyone entered at
the east via an unofficial but universally used shortcut.

Can anyone help her out?


Date: Tue, 13 Nov 2001 16:22:15 -0800

From: "Andrew Goble" <>

Subject: Gates to Heian-kyo

Until Tokugawa the Tokaido came into the capital close to Kiyomizu. In
Tokugawa the entrance was changed to route people from Yamashina, through
the now-Keage, and coming out on Sanjo.

I imagine that Tokaido or whatever preceded it as a road didn't even go to
Rashomon (likewise for any roads and "entrances" to north and west).

Hope this helps.

Andrew Goble

Date: Tue, 13 Nov 2001 19:27:49 -0500

From: Matthew Stavros <mstav...@...nceton.EDU>

Subject: Gates to Heian-kyo

It is questionable as to whether the Rasho gate (properly: "Rajo")was actually ever completed. The Chitei-ki (circa 982) makes only passing reference to it, and even then does so only to define where it was (past tense) that the great Suzaku road ended in the south.The Rajo gate, or the Rajo itself (mound of earth that is said to have surrounded the capital) is not mentioned even once in the entire Heian-ibun.

Recent excavations have uncovered the remains of embedded oxcart tracks at the location where the Rajo gate was suspected to have stood but that does not necessarily prove a gate existed there.

My sense is that a Rajo gate was in fact completed, however, due to the factthat the southern entrance of the capital was hardly ever used, it quickly fell into disrepair and soon disappeared.

Concerning the Tokaido, this ended (or rather, began) at what was then and still is called Awataguchi. Awataguchi was a barrier site standing east of the capital along what is now Sanjo avenue; very close to where the Miyako Hotel stands today. This was one of the capital's imaginary "nanakuchi" (or, seven mouths). (Imaginary in that there were in fact more entrances to the capital then seven). Keep in mind that those who approached the capital from the east alongthe Tokaido, once passing through the Awatakuchi barrier (sekisho),would have been unable to cross the Kamo river at Sanjo. A permanent bridge did not span the Kamo river until Hideyoshi's time. Travelers would have had to cross at either the Shijo bridge, or, I believe, the Nijo bridge. Shijo was by far the most common, enabling travelers to pay a visit to the Gion shrine (Yasaka) on their way.

Concerning whether "foreign deputations" would have entered in thesouth or the east, I'm afraid I have no concrete basis for forming a thesis. We might consider investigating where, exactly, such embassies landed in Japan. Was it Shimanoseki, or rather, the Sakai area in the Inland sea? Or perhaps the Kobama bay area? The answer to this question might lead us in the right direction. I would guess however, that there was no special importance placed on passing through the Rajo gate itself due to the fact that, as I have suggested, it was probably out of commission by as early as the firstdecade of the 9th century. By that time, the entire southern and western portions of the capital's urban landscape had fallen into disuse as people gravitated toward the higher and cooler north and east.

For more information on this topic, see a great book by my mentor, TakahashiYasuo, Zushu Nihontoshi-shi. UNESCO will be coming out with a book on Kyoto's urban history soon too. This should be rather informative (at least I hope it is).

Matthew Stavros

Date: Tue, 13 Nov 2001 17:34:37 -0700

From: Bill Higginson <>

Subject: Gates to Heian-kyo

If Hiroshige's Tokugawa-Era prints are any
indication, #55, last of the Tokaido series,
depicts the "Great Sanjo Bridge" over the Kamo
River. Others probably know the Heian-Era
geography much better than I.

Bill Higginson

Date: Tue, 13 Nov 2001 22:28:06 -0500

From: Barbara Nostrand <>

Subject: Gates to Heian-kyo

Wouldn't directional "taboos" have played a significant role in gate traffic
during the Heian period? Even with the population center shifting during
the Heian period, these might still take precedence over economy of

Date: Tue, 13 Nov 2001 23:25:21 -0500

From: Matthew Stavros <mstav...@...nceton.EDU>

Subject: Gates to Heian-kyo

As we see in Makura no shoshi (Susamajiki mono), taboos may indeed have beena factor in movement in and around the capital as late as the 11th century. However, didn't the taboos change daily? If we are makingbroad statement about which gates were used more frequently, I wonder how useful consideration of the taboo-factor might be.

Also, let me clarify. I don't think there were any gates to speak of around Heian-kyo besides the short-lived Rajo. Sekisho were not necessarily "gates" in any architectural sense.

Matthew Stavros

Date: Wed, 14 Nov 2001 23:11:28 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: Position Announcement

I'll be cross-posting elsewhere this announcement of an opening in my own department, but let me begin with pmjs, even if the position is well outside our usual time-range. Do pass it on as you see fit. Anyone with questions can contact me.

Contemporary Japanese Culture and Society

[Omitted. See]

Date: Wed, 14 Nov 2001 09:07:52 -0500

From: David Pollack <>

Subject: Gates to Heian-kyo

Two matters here, 'taboos' and 'gates':

The impression I have always had of taboo (imi) in Heiankyo is that it
was a system of enough complexity that it required the professional
skills of a priestly class for its proper application. Courtiers however
were sufficiently well versed in the generalities of such matters that
they were able to manipulate them for their own purposes. In Genji, for
example, imi often seems to be used as an excuse for not having to go
where one doesn't want to go (home), and instead for going where one
does want to go (elsewhere). in other words, it functioned as a socially
acceptable system of 'reasons' for one's own desired actions (or
inaction), rather than as hard-and-fast requirements independent of
interpretation -- though money could always buy the right
interpretation. I gather that death taboos were somewhat less flexible
in their application.

As for the idea of the rashomon as a main entrance, Murai Yasuhiko
(Heian to Kyotoo, 1990), besides noting its immediate decline also notes
that there was a "Chinese bridge" (karahashi) that spanned the 'moat'
south of the rashomon . However, another karahashi is found at the rather
unlikely location of Kujoukamogawa-jiri, a swampy area bordering the
Kamogawa at Kujo and the location of Fujiwara Mototsune's Horikawa-dono
mansion. (The Sandai jitsuroku records two items relating to it: burned
9.25.879, two supervisors appointed 5.14.887). Since there were no
bridges across the Kamogawa in the early Heian, says Murai, it couldn't
have spanned the river, but instead extended from the end of
Kujou-boumon-jiri to the river. It was at this place, Murai says, that
boat traffic on the river arrived from and left for the south. Asking
why such a "bridge" should have been erected at such an unlikely
location, Murai conjectures that, due its common use as a landing-place,
this area had in fact become the real "front entrance" (omote-genkan)
of Heiankyo a major reason for the rashomon's having so quickly fallen
into disuse. With the city's southeast corner early on replacing the
central gate, he claims, the name "karahashi" that had been attached to
the rashomon came to be used there as well. It was the importance of the
area that is the reason for a Fujiwara regent building a mansion there,
in an area so remote from all the others.

David Pollack

[note from editor]

*Circumflexes were originally used in the message above. These turn into kanji for those of us using Japanese system, and for this reason are better avoided completely on this list. The same is true of "smart" quotation marks and apostrophes (i.e. the curved rather than the straight ones). Obviously you may sometimes want to indicate long (or rather "doubled) vowels. As I now tell new members:

There are four possible ways of writing a word like "mujo" (impermanence):
(1) mujo -- not marking the vowels in question. Fine as long as there is no ambiguity.
(2) mujo^-- Adding circumflex AFTER o, u, etc. Ugly perhaps, but clearand unambiguous.
(3) mujou -- Using Japanese typist style, as it were. I prefer this myself when not opting for (1)
(4) mujoo -- Using -oo- rather than -ou-. Preferred by some (linguists?), hated by others.

From: eiji sekine <>
Date: Wed, 14 Nov 2001 14:11:01 -0500
Subject: pajls vol.2

VOL. 2 (SUMMER 2001) -->an2001.11

Date: Fri, 16 Nov 2001 10:45:37 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: tenure-track position at Pomona College


Date: Fri, 16 Nov 2001 14:02:52 -0600

From: Elizabeth Oyler <>

Subject: One year position posting/Washington University


Date: Wed, 21 Nov 2001 20:19:56 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: Marius B. Jansen Memorial Conference


Date: Fri, 23 Nov 2001 11:41:35 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: new profiles

A number of members have written to me with changes in address and/or affiliation:
Alari Allik, Amanda Stinchecum, Stefania Burk, and Daniel Gallimore (joining us again). Congratulations to Stefania and Daniel on completing their dissertations.

If you haven't updated your own profile lately, do have a look at
and see whether there is anything to add (publications?) or change (tenses?).

Alari Allik <<>>
University of Helsinki

Stefania Burk <>

Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies, Harvard.
Postdoctoral Fellow 2001-2002
I just completed a dissertation entitled, "Reading between the Lines: Poetry and Politics in the Imperial Anthologies of the Late Kamakura Period."(U.C. Berkeley). 2002, I'll be heading to the University of Virginia in a tenure-track
position in premodern Japanese language and literature.

Daniel Gallimore <>

Lecturer in Japanese, Oxford Brookes University. I have recently completed a D.Phil thesis at Oxford University on rhythm, rhyme and wordplay in Japanese translations of Shakespeare's 'A Midsummer Night's Dream', and am interested in conducting researching the life and worksof the pioneering Shakespeare translator Tsubouchi Shoyo (1859-1935).
Although I am basically a modernist therefore, I have long felt the pull of such pre-modern phenomena as the tea ceremony, ceramics, haiku etc.

Amanda Stinchecum <>

I am an independent scholar specializing in the history of textiles in Ryukyu/Okinawa (and, to a lesser extent, of mainland Japan). Although trained in art history and classical Japanese literature, my work spans a number of disciplines, including history, anthropology and archaeology.

Since 1999, I have been working on a project examining the ritual context ofikat textiles in Yaeyama (southern Okinawa). In February I returnedfrom a year as a Japan Foundation Fellow. I was a research associate at the Ishigaki Municipal Yaeyama Museum in southern Okinawa, where I pursued the history of an ikat-patterned sash to which ritual uses have been ascribed. A second, ongoing project deals with textile production as part of the taxation system of Kinsei Ryukyu. Fewtextiles from this region predate the 19th century, but documentarysources exist from the 14th century on. Although no early textile evidence has been found, excavated remains in Yaeyama suggest ties to SE Asia and Micronesia.

Recent publications include: "Yaeyama ni okeru kasuri no gishiki-teki youto--sono jittai to Tounan Ajia kyouryuu no kanousei," Okinawa bunka kenkyuu 25 (1999), 33-41; "The Mingei Aesthetic,"Orientations 29:3 (March 1998), 90-96; "Irony in Textile Design: Sue no Matsuyama--Images of Fidelity and Infidelity,"in Amy Heinrich, ed., Currents in Japanese Culture: Translations and Transformations: 337-351. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997; "Zaibei Ryukyu/Okinawa senshokuhin chousa: chuukan houkoku" (Survey of Ryukyun/Okinawan textiles in America: interim report), Okinawa Bunka Kenkyujo,ed. Okinawa bunka kenkyu 21 (Tokyo: Hosei University, 1995), 235-256; Mingei: Japanese Folk Art, with Robert Moes, Alexandria, Va.: Art Services International, 1995.

*Amanda has asked me to give out these contact details:
39 Remsen Street, #3A
Brooklyn NY 11201 USA
Tel. 718-875-1615

Subscribers for pmjs now total 330
(A few subscribers with more than one address are counted twice.)

Date: Sat, 24 Nov 2001 11:14:07 +0000

From: Morgan Pitelka <>

Subject: _Bulletin of Portuguese/Japanese Studies_


Date: Sat, 24 Nov 2001 10:09:27 -0800

From: "Susan B. Klein" <>

Subject: Chiyome query

I'm forwarding a note that was posted on H-Japan. Since I'd be interested to hear about Chiyome myself, could you post any replies to PMJS as well as cc Charles Cabell at thanks! Susan Klein

An adult student at the University of Montana has asked me relay her question about Mochizuki Chiyome. The student is preparing an article for New Moon: The Magazine for Girls and Their Dreams ( about Chiyome and her girl-assassins, kunoichi. She learned about Chiyome in Vicki Leon's book, Uppity Women of the Middle Ages, a popular, non-scholarly book that does not cite the sources of any information.
According to what I have been able to find in a couple of decidedly non-academic Japanese websites on ninja, Chiyome was a leader of wandering shamanesses who practiced in the domain of Kai under the rule of Takeda Shingen. As the story goes, Takeda ordered Chiyome, a widow of his nephew Mochizuki Moritoki, to organize and lead the shamanesses of the domains of Kai and Shinano. She built a house in Shinshuu Chiisagatagun Nezumura Furuodate under whose roof she gathered orphans and abandoned girls to be trained in the arts of the ninja before being sent into service as shamanesses (in actuality female ninja) to various localities in the region.
There is a comic-book like quality to the story, which raises doubts to its credibility. Are kunoichi, like bushido, another invented tradition? Are there any reliable Japanese or English sources that substantiate the information, and elaborate upon it? I would be very grateful to any members who could offer any information, or point me toward appropriate sources.
Charles Cabell
Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures
318 Liberal Arts Building
Missoula, MT 59812-6192

Date: Sun, 25 Nov 2001 16:29:54 +1300

From: Rolf Giebel <>

Subject: OT: Embeddable Japanese Fonts

I realize this is somewhat off-topic, but perhaps someone can help me all the
same (and I hope it will be of interest to at least some other list members).
As many of you are no doubt aware, Japanese font makers do not usually allow
their fonts to be embedded, and this can cause problems when, for instance,
you want to create PDF files containing Japanese because the Japanese
characters will not display properly. I am therefore looking for information
on Japanese fonts (for the Macintosh) that can be embedded. I have managed to
track down one company that produces such fonts (Enfour), but I wonder if any
one knows of any others or (even better) if there are any such fonts available
free. Any more general advice or comments on creating PDF files containing
Japanese would also be much appreciated.

Thanks in advance,

Rolf Giebel

Date: Sun, 25 Nov 2001 13:11:04 +0900

Subject: 4th International Conference on Okinawan Studies

From: "Bureau of the Okinawa-Conference, Bonn" <>
Subject: Conference announcement: New schedule of the 4th International Conference on Okinawan Studies, Bonn venue
Date: Fri, 23 Nov 2001 15:24:29 +0100


Date: Sun, 25 Nov 2001 13:08:54 EST


Subject: Chiyome query

Dear Charles Cabell,

If your student reads Japanese, I might suggest starting with Kouyou gunkan. This is a relatively reliable chronicle compiled by one of Takeda Shingen's generals, and has recently appeared in gen'yaku. It has information on more doubtful things like Uesugi Kenshin's "Nuki-zaru" (lit. roof-monkeys) spies. If the student wants to search other chronicles, I have a short list of reliable ones for the region in that time period. Some of them might have Chiyome. I kind of doubt it though.

I thumbed through Nihon-shi Koujiten (a general encyclopedia of Japanese history), and Kuronikku Sengoku zenshi (one on the Warring States period), and I was unable to find anything on kunoichi, Mochizuki Chiyome, or even Mochizuiki Moritoki.

Finally, it is sometimes possible to find sources on things like this by reading some of the better documented popular histories (in Japanese),but at this stage such sources probably will be more or less oral histories that were set down when the Tokugawa called for the lords to submit genealogies in the mid-17th century. In other words, they will be about as truthful on ninja as movies are on the subject of Old West gunfighters.

I have collected one interesting story from the Gempei Wars about a woman who led the defense of her castle, and who was wounded, captured, andbrought before Minamoto Yoritomo (this from the Azuma-kagami). Admittedly this is not as cool as Chiyome, but I offer it byway of an apology.


Brian Goldsmith

Date: Sun, 25 Nov 2001 23:22:05 -0800

From: William Bodiford <>

Subject: Chiyome query -- "Kunoichi"


The word "ku-no-ichi" is merely the spelling for the kanji used to write
"onna" (i.e., katakana "ku" + katakana "no" + kanji "ichi" = "onna"). It is
also the title for a series of soft-core porno films made by Shochiki
Productions beginning in the 1960s. I think the series might have beenrevived
in the mid-1990s. (At least I saw one Kunoichi movie on late night TV in Japan
at that time in which a female ninja would drink a flammable liquid, then bare
her breasts, squirt the liquid out of her nipples and ignite it so that she
became human flame thrower.)

The notion of "ninja" as specific kinds of people who belong to "ninja
clans" is largely a modern invention. Premodern texts on the artsof
espionage, such as Mansenshukai (ca. 1676), are completely unrelated to popular
images of ninja as men in black. Evidence for actual female spieswho worked
as ninja as a profession is even more doubtful --- although no doubt women
provided valuable intelligence information on many occasions just as would any
other human sources.

For information on the creation of the modern "comic book" image of
ninja and ninjutsu, see the following book:

Title: Taishuu geijutsu no fukuryuu (undercurrents of popular arts)
Author: Adachi Ken'ichi
Date: 1967
Publisher: Rironsha (Idealism)
Place: Tokyo

When I first encountered this book I thought it might be about crafts.
Actually, it is about Japanese pulp fiction. The first section is all about
ninja stories. Adachi traces the history of ninja characters and ninjamyths
from the Edo period down to the early 1960s. I just glanced through it, but it
seems fascinating. For example, he mentions that the word "ninja"did not
enter the vocabulary of ordinary Japanese until the 1950s. Before thattime,
the pulp novels used other terms like "shinobi" or "ninjutsu tsukai" (etc.).
He also discusses the kinds of skills ninja were supposed to possess and how
public expectations evolved over time. I have to go back and read it in full
some time.

I hope this helps.

.........William Bodiford

Date: Mon, 26 Nov 2001 10:13:57 -0500

From: Lawrence Marceau <lmarc...@...l.Edu>

Subject: Chiyome query

Back on November 7, I wrote the following to Prof. Cabell,
based on the original posting onto the Humanities Japan
list, Nov. 6:


As you may already know, "ku" in hiragana, "no"in
katakana, and "ichi" in kanji combine to form the character
"onna". The Nihon kokugo daijiten states that "kunoichi"
was an underground term for women, used by "corrupt
priests." The dictionary also quotes a senryuu on the

I'm not a 20th century popular culture expert, but I
believe that thenotion of a band (or bands) of female ninja,
called "kunoichi-ryuu," operating in medieval and early
modern Japan, was the invention of popular story tellers in
the 20th century. Their stories would have then been taken
up by early filmmakers, and, most recently, by manga writers
and video game creators, where they now have a huge

If you find a medieval (or any) reference to a "Chiyo"
or a "Chiyo-me,"please let me know.

The 3 great "women warriors" of Japanese history are now
considered to be
Hangaku (c. 1201), Tomoe Gozen (12th-13th c.), and Jinguu
Kougou (5th or 6th c.).

At that time, the query mentioned "Chiyome" without the
"Mochizuki." Since then, apparently, the query has been
expanded to include the surname, as well as the reference to
Takeda Shingen.

The most detailed discussion of the possible existence
of "kunoichi" on the web is found here:

There is also mention of two 17th-century texts dealing
with "ninjutsu." The first, Fujibayashi Yasutake's
"Bansen/Mansen shuukai"(KANJI), 22 kan, 1676,
and Tou Issui (Fujibayashi Masatake)'s Shounin-ki KANJI), 3 kan, 1681. The term "kunoichi" is
found, apparently, in kan 8 of Bansen shuukai.

Another website mentions 3 famous female ninja,
Mochizuki Chiyojo (or Chiyome, Kouga-ryuu, c. 1550), who
could scale walls; "Iwao no Aizen Myouou," (Iga-ryuu, c.
1560) said to be able to hold her breath under water for as
long as 15 minutes, and Momochi Kochou (KANJI, Iga-ryuu,
c. 1690) said to have skill with smoke and fire (not to the
degree that William Bodiford mentions, however).

The URL is:

Bansen shuukai and Shounin-ki seem to be available in
printed editions.

Lawrence Marceau

Date: Tue, 27 Nov 2001 21:28:07 +0900

From: Philip C. Brown [forwarded by editor]

Subject: OT: Embeddable Japanese Fonts (fwd)

Date: Mon, 26 Nov 2001 20:34:52 +0900

You should be able to download Japanese fonts for Acrobat from the Adobe website.
I have done this in the past. If you have a CD with Acrobat, it probably includes
the Asian font set on the CD. Choose the "Explore CD" optionwhen the install
program first boots after you insert the CD.

Don't know about other applications, unfortunately.

Phil Brown.

Rolf Giebel wrote:

I realize this is somewhat off-topic, butperhaps someone can help me all the
same (and I hope it will be of interest to at least some other list members).
As many of you are no doubt aware, Japanese font makers do not usuallyallow
their fonts to be embedded, and this can cause problems when, for instance,
you want to create PDF files containing Japanese because the Japanese
characters will not display properly. I am therefore looking for information
on Japanese fonts (for the Macintosh) that can be embedded. I have managed to
track down one company that produces such fonts (Enfour), but I wonderif any
one knows of any others or (even better) if there are any such fonts available
free. Any more general advice or comments on creating PDF files containing
Japanese would also be much appreciated.

Thanks in advance,

Rolf Giebel

Date: Tue, 27 Nov 2001 12:45:13 +0000

From: Peter Kornicki <>

Subject: Union Catalogue of Early Japanese books in Europe


The project for the compilation of a Union Catalogue of Early Japanese booksin
Europe was launched by myself and Professor Hayashi Nozomu more than a decade ago,
but the results are now, somewhat belatedly, becoming available on the internet.
Thanks to the efforts of Professor Ito Tetsuya and with the kind cooperationof
the Kokubungaku Kenkyuu Shiryoukan, a preliminary searchable version is now
available on the Kokubungaku Kenkyuu Shiryoukan website at the following address:
You will need to click on [oushuu shozai kosho] to access the catalogue.

This is a trial version, so I should be grateful for any comments. The database is
being built up by inputting data gathered on cards at Cambridge; data inputted at
Cambridge is being loaded onto the site while a team of graduate students under
Professor Ito's direction is inputting more at a rapid pace.

Please try it out! You will find that many books not listed in Kokusho
soumokuroku, and others listed but with no accessible copies available, are to be
found in European libraries such as the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, the
British Library in London, the Russian State Library in Moscow, the Biblioteca
Nazionale in Rome, the Staatsbibliothek in Berlin, the Ostasiatiska Biblioteket in
Stockholm and many other libraries and museums.

Professor Peter Kornicki, FBA
Professor of Japanese history and bibliography
Faculty of Oriental Studies
Sidgwick Avenue

Date: Tue, 27 Nov 2001 16:54:00 -0500

From: Matthew Stavros <mstav...@...nceton.EDU>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

Dear Members,

Can anyone offer some insight as to where people might have been buried (or otherwise disposed of) in pre-1600 Kyoto or any other urban centerin premodern Japan? There were undoubtedly different practices for different sectors of society. Mostly, I would be curious to know if there were any particular stipulations about burial within the city or not. I'm thinking mostly about the many people who died in the Onin war or any one of the many Warring States conflicts that rocked the capital.

Really, any insight on this at all will be appreciated. Even if it be a reference for me to look further.

Much appreciated,
Matthew Stavros

Date: Tue, 27 Nov 2001 22:13:42 -0500

From: David Pollack <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

I don't have any references to hand at the moment, but the name Toribeyama comes to mind as the usual Kyoto suspect. In Shishigatani, no? Lots of sad smoke being said to waft from that direction.

David Pollack

Date: Tue, 27 Nov 2001 22:23:23 -0500

From: David Pollack <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

This from
(with apologies to Royall)

Selections from The Life Of Genji Poems translated by Jane Reichhold
from The Tale Of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu
available in autumn 2001 by Stone Bridge Press, Berkeley, California.

12 - 1
Due to changes in the palace politics, Genji abruptly decides to leave for exile to the remote coast of Suma. Before leaving he visits his deceased wife's residence, where his friend, the First Secretary's Captain lives. While there, Genji, visiting with the women who had served his wife, decides to stay the night with one of them. At dawn, the traditional time of parting was made even sadder by knowing Genji might never return here again. When the Great Princess sent him a note saying it was a pity he could not stay to see his son, Lord Evening Mist, Genji whispered as if to himself while he wept:

moe shi keburi mo
magau ya to
ama no shio yaku
ura mi ni zo yuku

if going to
shores where fisherfolk's
salt fires burn
there is smoke rising
as from the cemetery

Poor people, usually women, living along the coast derived some income from boiling sea water down for its salt or burning gathered sea weeds for minerals contained in the ash to be used as fertilizer. Though the work was hard, wet and dirty, poets found a wealth of images in the process: dripping wet sleeves, briny tears, fires on lonely beaches, smoke like that of the crematoriums. Mount Toribe (toribeyama) was the customary place of cremation and burial for Kyoto.

D Pollack

Date: Wed, 28 Nov 2001 22:09:46 +0900

From: "Philip C. Brown" <>

Subject: Union Catalogue of Early Japanese books in Europe

Hello Peter,
Congratulations on getting this set up -- even as a trial version.
I have attempted to use the site, and although my browser is set to use the fonts in
the document and Japanese, all Japanese comes up mojibake. I did not find advice on
the site as to optimal settings. Have others had similar difficulties?I'm using
Netscape Communicator 4.75 on a Win98 Japanese OS.
Best regards,
Phil Brown
Ohio State University

Date: Wed, 28 Nov 2001 07:37:57 -0600 (CST)

From: Carol Tsang <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

For what it's worth...

The many bodies of those who died in Kyoto during the massive famine of the 1430s were disposed of in at least two ways: Many were abondoned on the riverbanks, and in the river itself; there were also some mass graves dug by monks tending to the dead. It seems that a nuber of bodies rotted where they lay, if one reads the sources, but it is hard to imagine that would be. I would think it more likely that people who died on the roads were dragged to the riverbanks.

A good source for this is the Hekizan nichiroku.

The higher aristocrats, presumably, mostly could afford cremation. The problem with using this example as a general one is that many of those who died in Kyoto at the time of the famine were not locals, but rather refugees from provinces where conditions were even more severe.

I know this is a bit earlier than you have asked about, but it is reasonable to think that the corpses from the Onin War were disposed of in similar fashion.

Carol Tsang
Assistant Professor
Department of History
Uniersity of Illinois at Chicago

Date: Wed, 28 Nov 2001 09:53:57 -0500

From: Royall Tyler <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

There was also the Otagi burning ground--I think it was on the other side, toward Atago. (Actually I think it was written with the same characters as Atago.)

Royall Tyler

Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 00:59:45 +0900

From: Haruko Wakabayashi <>

Subject: part-time teaching position at Tokyo Denki University

Dear members:

The Tokyo Denki University is seeking for part-time instructors who can teach courses on Japanese history and other Japan-related subjects in English for their foreign exchange students (mostly Americans). Classes will be held
at the Chiba New Town Campus (about 50 minutes from Nihonbashi) during the fall semesters.

If you are interested, please write to Professor Iwasaki Akio, who is in charge of the exchange program, and mention to him that you heard about the position from Haruko Wakabayashi. His e-mail address is I've been teaching this semester, and would be happy to answer any questions, too.

Haruko Wakabayashi

Date: Wed, 28 Nov 2001 16:10:55 -0500

From: Hank Glassman <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

In respone to Matthew Stavros' query:

It seems the Onin War marks an important shift in urban burial practices in Japan. While the Bakufu tried to forbid funerals and graveyards "in town", from the sixteenth century on people increasingly wanted to be buried near temples in the capital.

For Kyoto, famous funeral grounds are Toribe-no (Toribeyama), Rendai-no, andAdashi-no. Note the distinction between cremation site and burial place. (People were buried at Toribe, but my sense is that many more had funerals there and then were buried elsewhere.)

For general information on pre-modern burial, take a look at:

Chusei no soso, bosei : sekito o zoritsu suru koto / Suito Makoto Tokyo : Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1991


Sogi no rekishi/Yoshiga Noboru Yuzankaku, 1987.

For a detailed account of another urban situation in Iwata-shi (Shizuoka), see the excellent:

Chusei no toshi to funbo : Ichinotani iseki o megutte / Amino Yoshihiko, Ishii Susumu hen. Tokyo : Nihon Edita Sukuru Shuppanbu, 1988.

hope this helps.

Hank Glassman

Date: Wed, 28 Nov 2001 19:57:23 -0500

From: Lawrence Marceau <lmarc...@...l.Edu>

Subject: Union Catalogue of Early Japanese books in Europe

Phil and other potential pmjs users,

I had the same problem on Netscape 4.78, and e-mailed thepeople in the Shiryoukan.
They told me that if I use Internet Explorer 5.x or above, or Netscape 6, itautomatically
sets the character set to Unicode (UTF-8). When I manually set my Netscape to UTF-8 it
worked fine. It also worked fine on IE 5.

The writer told me that eventually they would have a Shift-JIS encoded version out.

Congratulations again on a fine new research tool.

Lawrence Marceau

Date: Wed, 28 Nov 2001 19:55:18 -0700

From: Karen Brock <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

Hi all,

Just an aside to the Toribeno thread, when the Kyoto National Museum was being built in the late 19th century at Shichijo and Higashi-oji many graves and small stone markers were excavated there. Some of these markers are located within the grounds of the museum, and every year during obon a small kuyo is carried out attended by the staff of the museum. I don'tknow what the dates of these stones are, but I was told that the site was part of Toribeno.

An important cemetary for late 15th and 16th century aristocrats is the temple of Nison'in in Saga. There is an extensive area filled with large stone markers, many of them inscribed and some dated. The graves of Sanjonishi Sanetaka can be found there, among many others.

Karen L. Brock
Independent Scholar
Albuquerque, NM

Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 05:48:51 -0500 (EST)

From: Esperanza R-Christensen <>

Subject: UMichigan Japanese Literature Position


Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 03:06:27 -1000 (HST)

From: Rokuo Tanaka <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

Professor Pollack's mention of Toribeyama prompted me to go to _Kadokawa Nihon Chimei Daijiten, Vol. 26, Kyoto-Fu, Pt.1_ (1991, pp 1016-17).

Voila! Two entries under Toribeno (now in Higashiyama-Ku) and Toribe no go^ (now in Higashiyama-Ku) detail the location of burial sites for royal families and aristocrats such as Fujiwara clan with citation of literary and documentary sources.

The wild field in Toribe at the foot of Mount Toribe (thus,Toribeyama and Toribeno are synonymous) was considered to be a site for burial services since the archaic days. From the mid Heian and on, Toribeno was recorded as such, e.g., Chu^gu^ Teishi, a consort of Emperor Ichijo^, for whom Sei Sho^nagon was a Lady-in-waiting, was buried there.

Toribe no go^ (now in Higashiyama-Ku), one of twelve go^ (villages) of Otagi (now read as Atago) District in Yamashiro Province was also known as a burial site for royal families and Fujiwara clan. The first instance was recorded in _Nihon Kiryaku_ (ca, mid 11th C-12th C) regarding the death of Prince Ko^sei (Tsunetsugu?), a son of Emperor Jun'a (786-840) on Tenth Day of Fifth Month in Third Year of Tencho^ (826).

The death of Fujiwara no Michinaga on Fourth of Twelve Month in Fourth Year of Manju (1027) and cremation and burial of his ash on Seventh Day were recorded in _Eiga Monogatari_ (Book XXX, Tsu ru no hayashi, NKBT V. 76, Pt.2, p331) reading:

"Keburi tae yuki furishikeru Toribeno ha (wa) tsuru no hayashi no kokochi
koso sure to nam arikeru."
This part of the Monogatri alludes to Priest Hokyo^ Chu^myo^'s poem in
_Goshu^i Wakashu^_ (Book Ten, Aisho^, No. 544) which reads:

Takigi tsuki yuki furishikiru Toribeno ha (wa) tsuru no hayashi no kokochi
koso sure.

Followed by Michinaga's burial at Toribeno, the burial services of Heian aristocrats were frequently held at this location, Thus, Kenko^ writes in _Tsurezuregusa_ "Adashino no tsuyu kiyuru toki naku, Toribeyama no keburi tachisarade..." (If man were never to fade away like the dews of Adashino, never to vanish like the smoke over Toribeyama....[Tr. by D. Keene].

Rokuo Tanaka

Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 11:35:00 -0500

From: Hank Glassman <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

Hello All,

William Bodiford was very kind to point out to me off list that I mistakenly rendered Haga Noboru sensei's family name as Yoshiga in my last posting. Please take note of my error. The reference should be:

Sogi no rekishi/Haga Noboru (Yuzankaku, 1987)

Rokuo Tanka wrote that Michinaga was buried at Toribe-no. Not to contradict Mr. Tanaka, but I if I am not mistaken Michinaga was interredat Kohata in Uji with rest of his family, where he founded Jomyoji as a memorial temple. As I said in the my last message, many funerals were performed at Toribe, while the remains were more likely buried in places like Kohata, Shirakawa, etc. or even divided among multiple locations (bunkotsu). (Talking mid-Heian period, here.) Again, I feel it's useful to make a distinction between burial site and the location of the funeral, since this distinction was quite important to the actors themselves.


Hank Glassman

Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 17:47:16 +0000

From: Richard Bowring <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

Most of the correspondence to date on this topic has concentrated on the aristocrats, who could afford the services that surrounded cremation and subsequent burial. But I think the initial question was geared more to non-aristocrats, warriors and the like. Yet again this an earlier reference than the Onin wars, but it is clear from works like the Hojoki that 'those of no note' were just left to die on the streets and then dragged down to the river beds. But it takes quite a long time for a body to decompose and one begins to get a picture that the capital must have always been full of rotting corpses. I find this hard to believe. Is there no record of mass burial grounds outside the city?

Richard Bowring
Cambridge, UK

Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 12:13:21 -0800

From: "Andrew Goble" <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

As to non-Toribeno burials (and perhaps see Eiga monogatari for references to where people were disposed of):
1. Kyoto as "city" probably masks the fact thatit seems to have been surrounded by (and maybe was dotted with) non-built-up areas.
2. "Open-air" burial was very common (and see a depiction of this in Gaki zoshi), and in such cases the fact that animals devoured the flesh probably meant that the "aesthetics of decomposition" would have been less of an issue. Internment (in-ground burial) doesn't seem to have been that common in Heian.
3. On death and graves, perhaps there may be some useful Heian references in Suito Makoto's Chusei no soso, bosei : sekito o zoritsu suru koto.

ate: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 10:26:22 -1000 (HST)

From: Rokuo Tanaka <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

On Thu, 29 Nov 2001, Hank Glassman wrote:

Rokuo Tanka wrote that Michinaga was buried at Toribe-no. Not to contradict Mr. Tanaka, but I if I am not mistaken Michinaga was interred at Kohata in Uji with rest of his family, where he founded Jomyoji as a memorial temple. [...]

I am humbly speaking under correction. I should have read more carefully and thoroughly Eiga Monogatari, Book 7 Torinobe, Book 17 Omgaku, Book 18 Tama no utena, and especially Book 30 Tsuru no hayashi (page 331).

When Michinaga became gravely ill, he wished to stay in the Muryo^juin (Amida Do^,) one of the halls of Ho^jo^ji, a gorgeous temple Michinaga founded in near Kamogawa in Kyoto. He died in this Hall. The Ho^jo^ji was burned down and no longer exist. Michinaga also founded Jo^myo^ji in Kohata, Uji, which had traditionally become the graveyard for Fujiwara clan since Michinaga's death.

Eiga Monogatari writes the cremation should be held at Torinobe on Seventh Day of Twelve Month. At the dawn of Eighth, the lords and high priests picked up Michinaga's ash, put it into a jar and took it to Kohata. (p.331).

No mention of "bunkotsu" in this Book 30, though.

Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 16:39:37 -0800 (PST)

From: "Janet R. Goodwin" <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

IIf you're interested in burial practices in locations other than Kyoto, you might want to look at the article by Ishii Susumu entitled "Toshi Kamakura" in Amino Yoshihiko, Ishii Susumu, Kasamatsu Hiroshi, & Katsumata Shizuo, Chuusei no Tsumi to Batsu (Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1983). The article isn't about burials per se, but contains some interesting information about 13th century burial practices. For example, people were forbidden to throw corpses (of human beings, oxen & horses) into the city streets, indicating that this might have been a frequent practice. Gravesites within the city were prohibited, but Ishii mentions the area of Myouetsu, probably in the outskirts, where gravesites known as yagura were located, and commoners were buried. (You can visit yagura, which are actually shallow caves that often contain stone buddhist images and grave markers.) Ishii also refers to information about burials in Nichiren's Risshou Ankokuron.

--Jan Goodwin

Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 23:10:00 -0500

From: "Conlan Tom" <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

In the late 1950s, graves at Zaimokuza, in Kamakura were excavated. Theremain most probably represent members of the Kamakura bakufu who were killed in 1333, as sword wounds can be found on some of bone. Ibelieve that approximately 800 people were buried in the sands right by the ocean, and some evidence exists of the bodies being gnawedat by animals (or crabs?). Furthermore, a few skulls have the remains of sanskrit letters, just as described in the Hojoki. (An old Iwanami Shoten book called Nihonji no hone, I believe, provides some information regarding this discovery). A number of skulls were discovered in Fukuoka as well, and they too probably date from 1333.

Although I am not familiar with the situation in the Heian era, in the fourteenth century some noted individuals had fragments of their bodies distributed to several temples. I know that the hair, bones (and ashes) of Ashikaga Yoshiakira were sent to several temples, following the precedent of his father, Takauji. I imagine Yoshimitsu (at least) did the same.

Tom Conlan

Date: Fri, 30 Nov 2001 14:11:33 +0000

From: Robert Khan <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

A very useful resource for information on death and burial in early Japan is

Mace Franois. La mort et les funerailles dans le Japon ancien. Paris: Publications Orientalistes de France, 1986.

[Do the e-acutes and cedilla come through OK Michael?]
{accent-free rendering substituted above /ed.}

This is a substantial 'tome' - 660 pp. including sections on 'La mort,'Le mogari,' 'La tombe, 'Caractre et evolution des funerailles,' about fifty pages each of illustrations, translated documents, and bibliography, *and*, chose rarementvue dans les publications franaises, really substantial and multiple indexes.

The chronological focus is primarily up to mid-Heian, but since this thread has generated a fair bit of interest, perhaps others may find thisinformation more useful than the poser of the original request will.

Best wishes,

Robert O. Khan

Assistant Professor of Japanese
Department of Asian Studies
University of Texas at Austin

(Currently on leave in England)

Date: Fri, 30 Nov 2001 09:37:54 -0500

From: "G. Cameron Hurst" <>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

Dear All:

I haven't been following the discussion on burial as closely as I ought (end of the semester rapidly approaching), but I perked up at the mention of the death of Michinaga. I want to confirm Hank Glassman's recollection that Michinaga's funeral and cremation were carried out atToribe-no, and then the next day the urn containing his remains wastaken off for internment at Kohata, where most Northern Branch Fujiwara nobles were buried. The matter is covered in both <Shoyuki>and <Eiga monogatari>.

G. Cameron Hurst

Date: Fri, 30 Nov 2001 16:36:11 -0500

From: Jacqueline Stone <jst...@...nceton.EDU>

Subject: Death and burial in pre-1600 Kyoto

For another overview of medieval burial practices, see Katsuta Itaru, "Buraku no soosei to kazoku," in _Chuusei o kangaeru kazoku to josei_, ed, Minegishi Sumio (Yoshikawa Koobunkan, 1992).

--Jackie Stone

This final section includes some of pmjs footers added to the end of pmjs mail by the editor.

International symposium in Tokyo, Nov. 16-17
Speakers include Donald Keene, Kabayama Koichi, Murai Shosuke, Ronald Toby,
and Tzvetana Kristeva.

Autumn is a busy season for conferences in Japan. To learn what academic
associations are meeting where, see

Another link of interest to some:
Tuebingen University: German Dissertations online
Mayer, Almut
"Yomeigaku im Japan der fruehen Meiji-Zeit: Yamada Hokoku (1805-1877)"
Summary with link to full pdf file

Japan Research Career Information Network

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