pmjs logs for August 2002. Total number of messages: 65

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* Japanese Book Site (Janine Beichman)

* BUNKA 5 (Michael Wachutka)

* Shunki (Jacqueline Stone, Michael Watson)

* financial disclosure (Michael Watson, David Pollack)

* Teika kudai waka (Michael Watson)

* Ki no Tsurayuki question (Dean Brink, Janine Beichman, Susan Klein, Rein Raud)

* kikoeshi (Michael Watson, Lewis Cook, Matthew Stavros, Alison Tokita, Karel Fiala, Susan Klein)

* Unnun (David Pollack, Matthew Stavros, Richard Bowring, Michael Watson, Denise O'Brien, Anthony Bryant, Lewis Cook, William Londo, John R. Bentley, Lewis Cook, Naoko Yamagata)

* yadayada & D'oh (Suzy Styles, Richard Bowring, Anthony Bryant)

* Online dissertations (Gil Schneider, Sharon Domier, Lara Blanchard)

* job announcements (Alberta, UBC [British Columbia], Meiji Gakuin, Stanford, Oberlin College)

* exotic Japan (Jordan Sand, David Olson, Michael Wood)

* Heike Monogatari & exotic Japan (Ingrid Parker)

* AJLS conference program/news 16 (Eiji Sekine)

* new members this month: Helen Sian Elizabeth Parker and Kristina Kade Troost

* Nichibunken Evening Seminar (James C. Baxter)

* Queries (Morgan Pitelka)

* Kojiki quotation --> Nintoku story (Michael Watson, (John Bentley,Richard Bowring, Lawrence Marceau, Rokuo Tanaka)

* position at Michigan State University

* Theatre Nohgaku US Tour (Richard Emmert)

* follow-up on exotic Japan (Jordan Sand)

The Japanese/Chinese characters quoted in a few messages have been removed but will be made available on a linked page.

Pages in Western language encoding (iso-8859-1) can be indexed by Atomz so they can be easily searched.

Date: Thu, 01 Aug 2002 11:19:06 +0900

From: janine <>

Subject: Japanese Book Site

I discovered this site when I was looking for a little book that first said they had, then (after several days) said they
couldn't get for some unspecified amount of time. By that time I needed
it very badly. This site not only had the book, but sent it within a few
days, let me pay by credit card, told me the day it was sent, and then
sent a mail to say it had been delivered and if it wasn't in my hands,
to contact them right away. Even Amazon doesn't take that last step! And
for you guys living outside Japan, it delivers 'kaigai' as well as
'kokunai'. Highly recommended.
Date: Thu, 01 Aug 2002 07:26:46 +0000
From: "Michael Wachutka" <>
Subject: X-Post H-Japan: BUNKA 5

Date: Wed, 31 Jul 2002 18:11:58 +0200
From: Klaus Antoni <>
Subject: BUNKA 5

Dear colleagues,

I hereby should like to announce a new title of our series BUNKA

Klaus Antoni; Hiroshi Kubota; Johann Nawrocki; Michael Wachutka (eds.):
"Religion and National Identity in the Japanese Context".

(BUNKA - Tuebinger interkulturelle und linguistische Japanstudien BUNKA -
Tuebingen intercultural and linguistic studies on Japan, Bd./vol. 5, 2002,
304 S., LIT Publishers, Hamburg, Muenster, London. ISBN 3-8258-6043-4,
Distributed in North America by: Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick
(U.S.A.) and London (U.K.)


The subject of Religion and National Identity in the Japanese Context
focuses upon the relationship between religion and socio-cultural or
socio-political aspects in the history of religions in Japan.
Religious and ideological justifications in the course of forming a
political and national identity, and the mutual relation between political,
national and cultural issues can be noticed in every region of the world
before the onset of secularization processes, but also in modern
nation-states today. In Japan as well, just like in most modern societies,
political, cultural and religious elements are closely interrelated. In a
comparative approach the sixteen papers in this volume elucidate the
intellectual undercurrent in Japanese history of putting positive
perspectives on national achievements and cultural-religious uniqueness into
service of establishing and refurbishing a national identity.


* Introduction / Klaus Antoni 7
* Identity and Nationalism in the 'New' New Religions: Buddhism as a motif
for the New Age in Japan / Ian Reader 13
* War Memorials in modern Japanese context: The transformation of
nationalistic representation / Awazu Kenta 37
* The Quest for Religious and National Identity of Japanese Protestants
before 1945 - Anti-, or Philo-Semitism as the Framework of Reference - /
Kubota Hiroshi 51
* Buddhism and kokutai (National Polity) in Modern Japan: The Case of the
Nichirenist Movement of Tanaka Chigaku / Otani Eiichi 75
* Nishi Hongan-ji and National Identity in Bakumatsu and early Meiji Japan /
Peter Kleinen 87
* Nationalism and Japanese Buddhism in the late Tokugawa period and early
Meiji / Fujii Takeshi 107
* The chinkon kishin: Divine help in times of national crisis / Birgit
Staemmler 119
* Constructing the 'Other Modernity': Religion and 'Indigenous Identity' in
Contemporary Japanese Cultural Discourse / Lisette Gebhardt 133
* Prophets of salvation coming out of the forests of Japan - Introducing
some of the so called "spiritual intellectuals" / Inken Prohl 149
* Hachiman - Protecting kami of the Japanese Nation / Martin Repp 169
* Land of the Kami and Way of the Kami in Yoshida Shinto /
Bernhard Scheid 193
* Matching kami with Modernity: an early Meiji intellectual's thought on
electric light / Michael Wachutka 217
* The Emperor, Shinto Ultranationalism and Mass Mobilization / Walter A.
Skya 235
* The Cosmology of Shinto and National Identity in Modern Japan / Endo
Jun 249
* Shinto and kokutai: Religious Ideology in the Japanese Context / Klaus
Antoni 263
* 'Nihon no kuni wa tenno o chushin to suru kami no kuni' - The Divine
Country Debate 2000 / Johann Nawrocki 289

Date: Fri, 02 Aug 2002 13:36:56 -0400
From: Jacqueline Stone <jst...@...nceton.EDU>
Subject: Re: Shunki

Dear Colleagues,

I have heard that Francine Herail has recently published a translation
into French of the court diary "Shunki." Would anyone be able to give
me the publication information, so that I could order it?

Thank you,
Jackie Stone
Date: Sat, 3 Aug 2002 08:27:04 +0900
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: Re: Shunki

Here you are, Jacqueline. So far just the first volume has appeared.

(accents omitted)
Francine HERAIL.
Notes journalieres de Fujiwara No Sukefusa. Traduction du "Shunki". Tome premier (1038-1040)
Geneva: Droz, 2001
760 pp. ISBN: 2-600-00649-4
96.00 Swiss Francs

The publishers have a web site, but as I mentioned in February, the site is not secure so it is better to fax your order. My copy arrived promptly.

fax + 41 22 347 23 91
When you reach the list of series click
Hautes Etudes Orientales - Extreme Orient

Michael Watson
Date: Sat, 3 Aug 2002 10:56:29 +0900
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: financial disclosure

Dear Colleagues,

Skip this message if you like--a matter of public record. We have no
Treasurer in the pmjs community (as it was so nicely called), so it is up
to me as list owner to make a financial statement.

Sharp-eyed among you may have noted the "pmjsmailinglist" at the end of
the Amazon links given in a recent footer. Since soon after it began, pmjs
has been an "Amazon Associate"and earns referral fees on purchases by those
who use such links (including those in bibliographies on the pmjs site). has just sent a gift certificate for the fees earned in the last
quarter amounting to $23.64. The French sister site has also
paid fees for the first time amounting to 18.32
are regularly credited toward the editor's book bill--for which many
thanks--but a tally is being kept, as promised.

Since October1999 when pmjs became an Associate, the U.S. site has paid
$228.07 in referral fees. So far the only pmjs official "expenditures"have been
on the 2000 bonenkai in Tokyo, subsidizing graduate students, so a tidy amount
remains to spend on future pmjs get-togethers, perhaps at AAS 2003 in New York
or at EASJ 2003 in Warsaw.

(Yes I know that sounds like spending the same sums twice--a bit like the
economics of Chaucer's "Shipman's Tale"--but what it means inpractice is
that the editor enjoys an interest-free loan on book purchases now, and
makes a contribution to the wine bill later...)

Many thanks for those who have visited Amazon via pmjs. You are, of course,
under no obligation to do so. There are many other ways to order
books--publishers' web sites, other online bookstores, and
bricks-and-mortar bookshops. Use whatever method suits the nature of
the book, your place of residence or personal preference.


Michael Watson
Date: Fri, 02 Aug 2002 23:30:18 -0400
From: David Pollack <>
Subject: Re: financial disclosure

As if Enron, Anderson, and weren't bad enough.... now PMJS!
What is the world coming to?

David Pollack
Date: Tue, 6 Aug 2002 14:22:08 +0900
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: Teika kudai waka

Jun Xueyan of Tsinghua University, a Teika specialist and friend of ours, has asked for help with the translation of two of Teika's "kudaiwaka" (waka inspired by Chinese poems) included ina paper she's publishing in the English proceedings of China/Japan comparative literature conference. The English paraphrases she sent us won't do. Can anyone help?

The two poems are as follows--original Chinese, then Teika's waka in Japanese and romanization.

(1) Shui gusou ingai no. 476, also Kankyo ( ä'ãè) 70
akugaruru / kokoro hitotsu zo / sashi komenu
maki no itado no / akekururu sora

(2) Shui gusou ingai no. 486
ookata no / uki yo ni nagaki / yume no uchi mo
koishiki hito wo / mite wa tanomaji

In the (unlikely) event of there being a published translation, the reference would be very helpful.

Yoroshiku... on list or off.

Michael Watson

P.S. Jun Xueyan's book on Teika's reception of Bai Juyi has just been published
Sen Setsuen, _Fujiwara Teika 'Monju hyakushu' no hikaku bungakuteki kenkyu_ Tokyo: Kyuko shoin, 2002. 396 pp. ISBN 4-7629-3442-9.
Note Many thanks to Paul Atkins and Kyoko Selden for separately sending splendid translations of the Teika waka me off list. /Michael
Date: Wed, 6 Aug 2002 23:43 +0900
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: Tenured position in Yokohama


Meiji Gakuin University is advertising a tenured position open to any rank for a native English speaker with PhD in the Kyouyou kyouiku centre,teaching 1st-2nd year students from all departments of the university. Applications are welcome from specialists in Japanese literature and culture. The teaching load is five 90-minute classes a week, including lecture courses in the successful candidate's field of specialization. All classes are to be taught in English.
The deadline for applications is October 10, 2002.
The position is to start in April 1, 2003.

For more information see

If sending to others, please copy just the message above, without my name or address!

I am providing this information to pmjs and j-lit. By all means circulate this to individuals you think might be interested in such a position. It is perhaps *not* suitable for posting to a larger mailing list such as H-Japan. I say this partly out of a chivalrous concern for the search committee, and partly out of a desire to keep low profile myself and not to get involved in answering endless enquiries. If pmjs/j-lit members have specific questions, I will answer if I can. However the position is not in my department, so my information is limited, as is my right to meddle--much as I'd like to seethat the job goes to someone doing interesting work...

Michael Watson <>
Date: Wed, 7 Aug 2002 13:51:43 -0700
From: "Brink, Dean" <>
Subject: Ki no Tsurayuki question

Since first reading the Kokinshuu "Kana Preface" I've been puzzled by the examples Ki no Tsurayuki uses and by what a later editor introduced as better examples of what he meant. Would anyone happen to know where this issue has been explored? Any leads are greatly appreciated (on or off the list).

Dean Brink
Date: Thu, 08 Aug 2002 22:32:45 +0900
From: Janine Beichman <>
Subject: [pmjs] Ki no Tsurayuki question

I hope replies to Dean's question will be on list. I taught the Kana Preface
just this last term and we were all puzzled by those poems so I'd love to be
able to explore it further with my students!
Janine Beichman
Date: Fri, 09 Aug 2002 12:10:28 -0700
From: "Susan B. Klein" <>
Subject: Re: Ki no Tsurayuki question

Dean --

I'm assuming you're talking about the examples given for the rikugi (the "six modes" by which poetry expresses meaning).

I looked into this a bit when I was trying to write about theories of allegory in medieval Japanese lit, and I got interested in whether the definitions for sohe uta, nazorahe uta, and tatohe uta could be used as part of my argument for a medieval Japanese theory of allegory.I ended up cutting it out of my book (after spending more than a month on it) but I may use it for the second volume, when I discuss the influence of esoteric allegorical commentaries on Noh. At any rate, it seems as though readers throughout the ages have been puzzled by it. In English, the only real discussion I can think of is by John Timothy Wixted (I'd love to hear if someone else has written about it). Wixted discusses the influence of the "Major Preface" of the Book of Songs in his essay on "Chinese Influences on the Kokinshu Prefaces" in Laurel Rasplica Rodd, trans.,Kokinshu: A Collection of Poems Ancient and Modern (Princton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1984).

Apparently most contemporary scholars believe Tsurayuki simply borrowedthe six principles of poetry from the Major Preface of The Book of Songs in order to make Japanese poetry look more refined and scholarly, to give it the authority of Chinese poetic criticism. For contemporary scholars, it's therefore not particularly important whether the categories make much sense; they are there simply to help legitimize Tsurayuki's polemical argument for waka poetry. For the medieval Japanese commentators, however, the rikugi were considered absolutely central to Japanese poetic theory, and therefore understanding the meaning of each of these genres/principles was an important part of a poet's education. Fujiwara Kinto is generally thought to be the "editor" who interpolated comments and alternative poems into the rikugi, undoubtedly trying to make it more rational, but this only complicated things for later medieval scholars and poets -- there seems to have been a good deal of disagreement among medieval scholar-poets about whether the interpolated comments were by Tsurayuki or not.

Because the rikugi as presented by Tsurayuki (and further obfuscated by Kinto) didn't make much sense, but was nevertheless considered vitally important to understand, a good deal of interpretive energy was spent (wasted?) trying to make sense of Tsurayuki's somewhat arbitrary listing. It is discussed in Rokujo Kiyosuke's Ogisho, Fujiwara Tameie's Kokinshu Tameie sho, and Fujiwara Tameaki's Chikuensho,and Kokinwakashu jo kikigaki. Zeami transposes it to Noh in his treatise, Rikugi. There are also a couple of secret theories of the rikugi (the "tei ron" and "kei ron"), probably developed by Tameaki, that make absolutely no sense but are kind of fun, if you're into obscure analogical correspondences. Interestingly, although Tameaki is probably the inventor of the absurdity of the tei/kei ron, he also does the best job of making the rikugi rational in Chikuensho.

If you want my line-by-line analysis of the rikugi (when I, like the medieval poets, was struggling to make it make sense) I can send it off list --


Susan Blakeley Klein
Associate Professor of Japanese Literature,
Director of Religious Studies
Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures
University of California, Irvine
Date: Sat, 10 Aug 2002 08:22:53 +0300
From: "Rein Raud" <>
Subject: Re: Ki no Tsurayuki question

One of the few scholars to address the Six Principles in depth is Takeoka
Masao, who discusses them at length in the preface to his Kokinwakashu
zenhyoshaku, Yubun shoin T.1976. I have summarised his argument in my book
"The Role of Poetry in Classical Japanese Literature" (1994, pp.92-103) but
I have to admit I took him much more seriously then than I do now.
Obviously, Tsurayuki had to come up with a pre-established number of
principles, and insert some ideological significance into them as well (as
in positing iwai-uta as a separate category), but Takeoka has devised a
well-made explanatory system for them as different possibilities of
establishing a balance between the "feelings" and the "scene"in a
particular poem.

Rein Raud
Date: Fri, 9 Aug 2002 08:17:22 +0900
From: Janice Brown <>
Subject: Premodern job opening

Cross-posting jlit/pmjs

The Department of East Asian Studies is seeking to fill a vacancy in
pre-modern Japanese language and literature. This is a tenure-track
position at the level of an Assistant Professor to be filled by 1 July,
2003. Salary for entrance-level Assistant Professor is $47,184. The
candidate will have a proven record of excellence in teaching and research
in pre-modern Japanese language and literature, native or near-native
fluency in Japanese and English, and Ph.D. in hand by the time of the
appointment. The normal teaching load consists of four semester courses
including courses in classical Japanese. The field of specialization
within pre-modern Japanese studies is open. The candidate is expected to
make an active contribution to the undergraduate and graduate programs in
Japanese. Letters of application, c.v. including transcripts (or
equivalent), three confidential letters of reference (which should include
biographical details), and copies of recent publications should be sent to
Professor Janice Brown, Chair, Department of East Asian Studies, University
of Alberta, 400 Arts Building, Edmonton, Alberta, T6H 2E6, Canada (ph
780-492-2836; FAX 780-492-7440. The deadline for applications is1
December, 2002. The University of Alberta hires on the basis of merit and
is committed to the principle of equity in employment. We welcome
diversity and encourage applications from all qualified women and men,
including persons with disabilities, members of visible minorities, and
Aboriginal persons.

Janice Brown
Professor and Chair
Department of East Asian Studies
University of Alberta
Edmonton, AB T6G 2E6
Ph. 780 492-2836
FAX 780 492-7440
Date: Sun, 11 Aug 2002 00:28:32 +0900
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: kikoeshi

Don't let me interrupt this good waka discussion, but
I have a question myself. Often in _Heike monogatari_, the phrase
... to zo kikoeshi
comes at the end of a section (shoudan). No less than four of the
19 sections in book (maki) 3 end that way, for example.
It also appears in the middle of sections, sometimes marking a
change of topic, sometimes not.

Now modern Japanese translations render this simply as iu koto de atta.

What I want to know is whether the meaning is as light as this.

McCullough usually ignores it in translating, but once (end of
"Gio" in book one), translates
I have heard that...
(... all of those nuns achieved their goal of rebirth in the Pure Land)

Here the French translator Sieffert renders it "nous dit on"
(one tells us, i.e. "we are told"). He tends to use "dit on" elsewhere too.
A nice epic touch.

How strong is the sense of reporting (hearsay)?
Or should it be regarded a way of making more emphatic statement?
Is there (a conventional sign) of the narrator here?

With trepidation,

Michael Watson
Date: Sat, 10 Aug 2002 20:18:31 -0400
From: "Lewis Cook" <>
Subject: Re: kikoeshi


I know you are aware of this but it might be worth mentioning for the benefit of the list that the single most comprehensivesource for getting a start on answering questions such as this is probably the (Sanseido) Jidai-betsu Kokugo Daijiten. Far as I've heard, the Kamakura volumes have not begun to appear, but the Muromachi-hen is up to at least vol. 4, and vol. 2 offers a finely nuanced entry for the verb in question and its various uses in narrative, reported speech, etc.
My own impression (not that of a specialist by any means)is that the semantic weight of this phrase can indeed be close to nil, that it may (depending always on context) merely serve a grammatical or conventional need for (deflectively <?>) marking a quotation attributed to no one in particular (so they say, so we hear, "...da soo da." etc.)
I hope that may be irritatingly obvious enough to provokea more satisfying response from specialists on the list.

Lewis Cook

(It may be of some interest that analogous formulae close several chapters of Genji, with much variation among differing manuscript traditions; these are often omitted if not suppressed in modern printed editions.)
Date: Sun, 11 Aug 2002 15:09:22 +0900
From: Matthew Stavros <>
Subject: Re: kikoeshi + unnun.

Please let me add to Michael's question with the following:

I'm struggling with the "moral" dilemma of whether or not to translate every single one of the unnun (KANJI) which appear at the end of so many sentences in the 14th and 15th century court diaries I'm reading. Can I assume that diarists are simply reporting hearsay and if so, would it be inappropriate to simply place a "I hear that..." at the beginning of a passage?

Pardon me for interrupting Michael's interruption of the waka discussion.

Finally, a public service announcement:
The August version of Kyoto's massive semiannual used book festival began this morning at Shimogamo shrine and will continue until the 16th. I thought list members in the area might want to know about it. The next one will be at Hyakuman-ben, starting Oct. 30th.

All the best,
Matthew Stavros

Date: Sun, 11 Aug 2002 18:33:26 +1000
From: "tokita" <>
Subject: Re: kikoeshi

As a researcher in the musical and performative aspects of heike narrative,
rather than the literary, I am not qualified to make any authoritative
statements, but it seems clear to me that such a phrase is an example of
_residual orality_, to use Walter Ong's term (Orality and Literacy: the
Technologizing of the Word, Methuen, 1982). Another such phrase which
indicates the oral origin of (at least parts of) the Heike Monogatari is
_saru hodo ni_.
I would be interested to hear of other examples of formulaic phraseology
which are candidates for residual orality in the Heike Monogatari.

Alison Tokita
Date: Sun, 11 Aug 2002 18:59:30 +0900
From: "Karel Fiala" <>
Subject: Re: kikoeshi

Prof. Watson,
As you write, you have noticed that the mentioned words can be found
at the end of a syoudan. I feel obliged to suppose that the scope
of the expression is hypersyntactic, and that the original semantic
meaning is partially suppressed.Of course, the problem is how
light the original meaning is !
Can you find a clear criterion to contrast the content of these four
sections with the others ? What about other positions of "to zo
kikoeshi", not at the end of a section ?
Obviously, the discussed expression seems to function as a kind of
delimiting signal (a signal of a boundary between hypersyntactic
What do you think about expressions like "Asamashiki kotodomo nari",
etc. ? Do they function similarly ? If so, how many sections are
without any signal marking the boundary at the end ?
I have my prejudices about this problem. However,I do not want to
propose any ready-made conclusion.
K. Fiala

By the way, I have described earlier the use of the past morpheme
("zyodousi") -ki with its allomorphs in H.M. as rare and mostly limited
to Kanbun and other old quotations on the one hand, or to subordinate
clauses on the other. This would support the suggestion that the
expression is either only a kind of signal in a fixed, so-to-
say "petrified" form, or that the form is semantically as light asa
subordinate clause, eventually, more or less, both.

P.S. 2
There is a specific type of situation in which -ki- may be used in the
main clause without restrictions - in the case when there would be
a clear semantic contrast if compared with no "zodousi"form. I think
that this is not the case here.
However, the use of -ki and -keri depends on the "ihon" you
analyze, and it is not easy to generalize about it.
-- Karel Fiala originally wrote the postscripts as separate messages. /ed.

Date: Mon, 12 Aug 2002 00:32:26 +0200
From: GS <>
Subject: Online dissertations

Is there a good website which displays the latest dissertations on Japanese Art History ?
Would be most grateful for some help.
Thanks and best regards
Gil Schneider, Zurich
Date: Tue, 13 Aug 2002 08:21:14 -0400
From: David Pollack <>
Subject: Re: kikoeshi

re: unnun:

I imagine that the Japanese usage 'unnun' (Eng. "yadayada") derives from the
same formulaic phrase used by Chinese writers, who appear always to have used
'yunyun' exclusively to indicate where a passage was excised from a text they
were reproducing, or (as the young Matsuo Munefusa parodied it), where older
annotation was being condensed or eliminated.

shochuu mimai mooshiagemasu

David Pollack
Date: Tue, 13 Aug 2002 22:22:49 +0900
From: Matthew Stavros <>
Subject: Re: [pmjs] Unnun.

This is excellent and most encouraging input.

When, however, does unnnun mean " I've hear" or "It is said.."

Is it possible to distinguish from the "yadayada" meaning and if so, how?

This may be far to unspecific of a question. You may need to see the text I'm reading. Still, if you might have any standby rules of thumb, I'dlove to hear them.

Thanks professor Pollack.

Matthew Stavros
Date: Tue, 13 Aug 2002 15:04:52 +0100
From: Richard Bowring <>
Subject: Re: Unnun.

Now I am totally confused. Yadayada is not in my Koujien. Please advise:
Richard Bowring
Date: Tue, 13 Aug 2002 23:39:05 +0900
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: Unnun

"Yadatada" was new to me too, but it appears that David Pollack isusing recent American slang.

"We went to the mall, saw some friends, yada yada yada, the usual stuff."
is given with the meaning of "et cetera" on

Michael Watson
Date: Tue, 13 Aug 2002 10:46:05 -0400
From: "Denise O'Brien" <>
Subject: Yadayada

"Yadayada" was made popular in the States (and
perhaps elsewhere) by the now defunct Jerry Seinfeld TV
show. I would "translate" it as "talk about nothing" or
"blathering". Don't know its origin; Yiddish? a screenwriter?
Regards, Denise O'Brien
Date: Tue, 13 Aug 2002 12:11:20 -0600
From: "Anthony J. Bryant" <>
Subject: Re: kikoeshi + unnun.

Matthew Stavros wrote:

I'm struggling with the "moral" dilemma of whether or not totranslate every single one of the unnun which appear at theend of so many sentences in the 14th and 15th century court diariesI'm reading. Can I assume that diarists are simply reporting hearsayand if so, would it be inappropriate to simply place a "I hearthat..." at the beginning of a passage?

For some reason, I find myself thinking of the Navaho. In Navaho, there is asentence opening phrase that translates "They say" which is used in conversation to transmit information which may or may not be true, or to introduce topics that are unpleasant to talk about in a more personal and direct manner. If you hear or read dialogue from Navaho that's transmitted
with the true feeling of the original, those "They say"s really stand out and make it sound like a foreign language.

Personally, I have no problem with such repetitions in English -- I *know* the original text wasn't English, but I *do* want in English a true reflection of what the writer said, even if the idiom sometimes needs a footnote to explain usage or intent.

Date: Tue, 13 Aug 2002 15:35:22 -0400
From: David Pollack <>
Subject: Re: Unnun

Not so very recent. A famous episode of 'Seinfeld' (April 24, 1997) even featured "yadayada" as a theme. It's commonly and annoyinglyused by the younger set to mean "and so on and so forth."(Elaine: "You yadayada'd SEX?").
But apologies for assuming the universality of American pop cult. If it's any consolation to Richard, I also watch reruns of "Ab Fab"when the weltschmertz is piled too high and deep....


Sorry not to have looked it up earlier, but the trusty Nihon Kokugo Daijiten(old ed., vol 3, p 120) lists both (1) "shouryaku shita" in the second case often customarily to be read as "toieri" Oddly enough, however, no example from Heike iscited for this usage.

The Chinese usage is common in works such as the dynastic histories andhuge collections such as "Sibu beiyao" where theancient governing scheme "classics, histories, philosophers, collections" relegates poetry to the last section, so thatwhenever a "historical" narrative includes a poem, it is excised from the text with "shiyue yunyun" as a conventional formula indicating that the excised poem can befound in the section devoted to "collections of poets' works."This sort of neat and bureaucratic way of dividing up the world, both the genius and the curse of premodern Chinese civ, is parodied variously in George Eliot's "Middlemarch" in the philosopher Casaubon's life's work of creating a universal key to all mythologies, and in the "Chinese Encyclopedia" as attributed to Franz Kuhn in Borges' "The Analytical Language of John Wilkins" (see for example <>)where the category ofall animals is analyzed as:

(a) those that belong to the Emperor,
(b) embalmed ones,
(c) those that are trained,
(d) suckling pigs,
(e) mermaids,
(f) fabulous ones,
(g) stray dogs,
(h) those that are included in this classification,
(i) those that tremble as if they were mad,
(j) innumerable ones,
(k) those drawn with a very fine camel brush,
(l) others,
(m) those that have just broken a flower vase,
(n) those that resemble flies from a distance.

But you'll be thinking, Doesn't he have better things to do?
And you'd be right.

David Pollack
Date: Tue, 13 Aug 2002 15:49:06 -0400
From: "Lewis Cook" <>
Subject: Re: kikoeshi

By way of seconding David's comment, with a little elaboration, "unnun" was often used (at least in 15th c. & presumably earlier texts) as an ellipsis mark or "etc."to close a quotation while indicating that the cited source was deliberately abridged. This can be readily verified by comparing passages thus marked, in commentaries which quote earlier commentaries, with the original -- longer -- passages of the commentaries cited, for example.
In kikigaki-style commentaries which purport to be more or less verbatim transcripts of the master's words, "unnun" may be used quite regularly (in place of its most notable alternative, " zo") to close specific comments, leaving open the question of whether the transcript is indeed abridged, or the scribe / recipient is suggesting that whatever words the master uttered were only inadequately captured on paper. As a rule kikigaki commentaries were countersigned by the master in question and certified to be reliable, unnuns and all, so most likely a compromise in the latter direction.
I can't speak of other diaries, but unnun is frequently used in Sanetaka Kouki in ways which rather clearly imply not hearsay but that the author was abridging his own account of a given conversation or day's events, perhaps to save brushstrokes or avert tedium (and thus indirectly recall any number of 'soushiji'-mode comments by the narrator(s) of _Genji_ defending ellipses of one sort oranother...)
The Jidai-betsu Kokugo Daijiten (Muromachi-hen) offers "to iu koto de aru" as a synonym for a usage of unnun to signify the intent of the author to report only an indirect-speech citation or just the gist of a conversation, which does come closer than the above usages to "I hear that..." or "it issaid that..."

Lewis Cook
Date: Tue, 13 Aug 2002 16:49:29 -0400
From: David Pollack <>
Subject: last unnun ever

Sorry, I evidently managed to erase part of the second dictionary
definition of unnun from my transcription before sending. It's easy
enough to find (NKDJ, 3:120).

David Pollack
Date: Tue, 13 Aug 2002 10:12:52 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Re: Online dissertations

Yes, in fact there a couple of standard databases for dissertations that
libraries use:
1. Dissertation Abstracts International is a subscription database that covers
North American and some European countries. If you are affiliated with a
university, ask your library about it. Most academic libraries that serve
graduate programs have a subscription.

If you need to do this work on your own (i.e. you have graduated, or are an
independent scholar) you might try going directly to UMI (University Microfilms
International) to search their database. You will not get as much information,
but it is a starting point anyway. For instance, I used the Proquest Digital
Dissertations, listed myself as not affiliated with an academic institution,
and did a search on subject=art history AND keyword=Japan, it listed 9
dissertations done between 2000-2001.

2. NACSIS-IR has a Japanese dissertation database. You may now register freeof
charge for NACSIS-IR (either as an individual or have your institution
You can search the dissertation database by school, degree, specialization, etc.

Happy researching,
Sharon Domier (librarian)
UMass Amherst
Date: Tue, 13 Aug 2002 14:10:44 -0400
From: Lara Blanchard <>
Subject: Re: Online dissertations

In addition, for a list of selected dissertations in progress in Japanese art
history, you could visit the Chinese and Japanese Art History WWW Virtual
Library at

and click on Graduate Programs/Students.

Lara C. W. Blanchard, Ph.D.
Henry Luce Assistant Professor of East Asian Art
Hobart and William Smith Colleges
106A Houghton House
Geneva, New York 14456
Date: Wed, 14 Aug 2002 15:01:08 -0700
From: Joshua Mostow <>
Subject: Job Announcement

The University of British Columbia
Japanese Applied Linguistics - Department of Asian Studies

The Department of Asian Studies, University of British Columbia, is accepting applications for a full-time, tenure-track Assistant Professor ofJapanese Applied Linguistics, duties to commence on July 1, 2003. Duties include a) coordinating one of the largest, most dynamic JFL programmes in North America, and b) teaching graduate and undergraduate courses in the area of the candidate's expertise.
Candidates should hold a doctorate in Japanese Applied Linguistics or a related field (ideally with an emphasis on L2/L3 acquisition), and demonstrate native or near-native proficiency in Japanese. Experience teaching JFL and/or coordinating a JFL programme is highly desirable, as is competence in another East Asian language. Salary commensurate with experience. Tenure and promotion will be tied to success in the function of coordinator, research, teaching and service.
Send application letter, curriculum vitae, and names and addresses (with e-mail) of at least four referees to: Dr Joshua Mostow, Head, Department of Asian Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z2 or fax to: 604-822-8937. Deadline for receipt of applications is December 1, 2002.

UBC hires on the basis of merit and welcomes all qualified applicants, especially women, aboriginal people, visible minorities, and persons with disabilities. In accordance with Canadian immigration requirements this advertisement is directed to Canadian citizens and permanent residents. All qualified persons are encouraged to apply.

Joshua S. Mostow
Associate Professor
and Acting Head
Asian Studies
The University of British Columbia
Vancouver, Canada
Date: Thu, 15 Aug 2002 21:00:15 +0900
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: new members

Welcome to two new members: Helen Sian Elizabeth Parker and Kristina Kade Troost.

Helen Sian Elizabeth Parker <>

I am a Lecturer in Japanese in the School of Asian Studies at the
University of Edinburgh. My main area of interest is the traditional
performing arts and the relationships between them. I am also
interested in the use of multimedia resources in research on
Japanese theatre.

I am nearing completion of my current project, Progressive
Traditions, which is a monograph and accompanying CD ROM on
relationships between noh, kabuki and bunraku, examining the
treatment of the Funa Benkei and Ataka/Kanjincho plots in these
genres with reference to their historical background and
contemporary performance.

I maintain a website, Japanese Theatre in the 21st Century,
and a related e-mail discussion list (see website for details). Both
are intended for people interested in Japanese theatre as
academics, performers, theatre-goers or any combination thereof.

Kristina Kade Troost <>

Japanese Studies Librarian and Head, International and Area Studies,
Perkins Library, Duke University.

My research interests are in medieval Japanese social and economic
history, but for now, the focus of my efforts is on building the
Japanese collection at Duke and helping specialists find the information
they need.

1997 "Peasants, Elites, and Villages in the Fourteenth
Century," November 1997 in The Origins of Japan's Medieval World:
Courtiers, Clerics, Warriors and Peasants in the Fourteenth Century.
Jeffrey P. Mass, editor. Stanford University Press.

1996-2002 Japanese Studies Resources,
A comprehensive set of web pages for Japanese studies organized by
subject which combine bibliographies of reference works, basic compendia
and serials for a subject with links to relevant materials on the web.
There are also guides to language and biographical dictionaries, serial
holdings at Duke and serials indexes, East Asian collections in the
United States and cooperative collection development agreements, web
sites and Japan-related listservs with addresses and subscription

1990 "Common Property and Community Formation; Self-governing Villages
in Late Medieval Japan 1300-1600." Harvard University, PhD dissertation.

Date: Thu, 15 Aug 2002 11:47:43 -0400
From: "William Londo" <>
Subject: Re: last unnun ever

"Unnun" comes up everywhere in the things I read, too. As others have
indicated, my experience is that it almost always indicates an ellipsis,
which I usually render "etc., etc." (if at all). Sometimes when I run into
an "unnun," I have the feeling that I'm missing the good parts. I doubt the
Japanese record keepers intended it that way, of course; it is more likely
that, as others have noted, it was a way to indicate that routine
information has been elided. Unfortunately, what was "routine" for
contemporary readers is not routine for me, and I hate being left hanging.
Does anyone else have this feeling?
William Londo
Date: Thu, 15 Aug 2002 20:39:54 -0500
From: "John R. Bentley" <>
Subject: Re: last unnun ever

Unfortunately, what was "routine"for contemporary
readers is not routine for me, and I hate being left hanging.
Does anyone else have this feeling?

Nihon shoki uses this quite frequently, and it drives me
nuts. I'm convinced something that would be very
important has been left out. So I understand the feeling!

John Bentley
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 2002 01:46:30 -0400
From: "Lewis Cook" <>
Subject: Re: last unnun ever

I understand the feeling, too, and don't mean to sound worldlier than thou, but I suspect that very often the point of "unnun" is to conceal nothing much at all while implying that the "miso" remains just behind the curtain. What better way to hold the reader's attention?

Date: Fri, 16 Aug 2002 12:20:26 +0100
Subject: RE: [pmjs] Unnun

It is strange that 'yada yada yada' in the quote sort of makes sense as
Japanese as well. 'Yada' in this case of course will be a common
abbreviation of 'iya da', a rather childish expression of refusal and
complaint (I do routinely hear 'yada!' or 'iyada!' from my five-year-old).
If you are not keen to meet those 'friends' and have those chats, then you
may well use yada yada yada as an expletive for self-disgust or boredom.

But could this be the origin of the Amarican yada yada?

Naoko Yamagata
Date: Sat, 17 Aug 2002 00:11:27 +0900
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: Re: [pmjs] Re: kikoeshi

Thanks to Lewis Cook, Alison Tokita, and Karel Fiala for very helpful
responses to my question about "to zo kikoeshi" in Heike. I hope Alison
will not mind if I cross swords with her once more.

For Alison,
such a phrase is an example of_residual orality_, to use Walter Ong's term
but on closer examination, I can't agree. The phrase "to zo kikoeshi"
appears only infrequently in the earliest variants of the Hogen, Heiji, and
Heike, but increasingly often in later variants.

Of course I am quite willing to grant that the practice of oral recitation
in the fourteenth century will surely have led to changes in wording, but
the increased use of this fixed expression and others like it would seem to
be an innovation of the later (Ichikata-ryu) reciters, and not evidence for
the ral origin of (at least parts of) the Heike Monogatari
if this refers to the earliest stages of its development--much as I
too would like to identify remnants of this sort.

The evidence for increased use of fixed expressions can be found by
comparing the Kakuichi variant (1371) with the Yashiro variant (dated
variously between 1250-1300).

In "Hogen Heiji monogatari no biwa katari" (Kokubungaku Kaishaku to Kansho
4 [1986], pp. 30-35 ), Kusaba Tsutomu counts 35 examples of "to zo
kikoeshi" in the Kakuichi-bon, compared to only 9 in the earlier
Yashiro-bon. I checked through the two texts and did some word-crunching of
my own.

A typical example is the end of the "Kogou" section (Heike, book 6).
In the Yashiro-bon, it ends by describing how Kogou becomes a nun and goes
to Saga at age 23.
The Kakuichi-bon follows this with a narratorial comment:
... kayou no kotodomo ni, go-nou wa tsukase-tamaite, tsui ni on-kakure
arikeru to zo kikoeshi.
"It was because of things such as these that [Takakura] took ill and
finally died, it was said."

On a lesser scale, this tendency is also true of Hogen and Heiji monogatari.
A section in a later Hogen variant, the Kotohira-bon, ends
... Kiyomori moushi-ukete kirikeru to zo kikoeshi (NKBT 31:142)
("it was said that Kiyomori asked for [his own uncle] to be executed")
whereas the early Nakarai variant has no such phrase. (Kusaba argues that
the later variants of the Hogen/Heiji were revised under the influence of
the Heike monogatari.)

Alison's mention of _saru hodo ni_ encouraged me to check how often this
appears at the beginning of Kakuichi-bon sections: 33 times. Again the
expression is used much more often here than in the equivalent places of
the Yashiro variant.

Looking at the Kakuichi-bon from book ten onwards, we find _saru hodo ni_
opens 14 sections
In the Yashiro-bon, only two of these begin with _saru hodo ni_. Twice
there is an expression with similar function (_mata_, _sono koro_), but
otherwise there is no corresponding phrase at all,the section begins
without any phrase to ease us in.

Kusaba notes the figures for sections beginning _saru hodo ni_ in
Hogenvariants: an increase from 3 section-openings in the Nakarai ("kohon")
variant to 25 openings in the Kotohira variant--again, he would argue,
evidence for influence from the Kakuichi Heike.

"Sono koro..." is another obvious example of formulaic phraseology, and one
that often opens a new episode. Again, it gets used with greater frequency
in later texts, making it hard to claim as a sign of residual orality.

"Sate..." and "Somo somo..." sound like promising candidates for oral
formulae, but in fact they are found much more frequently as the opening
phrases in texts of the "read" lineage, the early Enkyou-bon for example.

A tricky business...
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 2002 12:23:15 -0400
From: "Lewis Cook" <>
Subject: Re: kikoeshi


I hope you're not going to leave us in suspense on this. As a very curious onlooker, I can hardly wait to read your conclusions, however speculative. The implication of what you report belowwould seem to be that editors of later texts of Heike, etc., were progressively more determined to amplify and perhaps forge evidence of 'residual orality.' Was some kind of Ongist nostalgia forthe spoken word already at work, then?

Lewis Cook
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 2002 13:02:05 -0400
From: David Pollack <>
Subject: Re: kikoeshi

Any possibility that the formula 'to zo kikoeshi' was influenced by a native
reading of the formulaic expression that begins the chapters of sutras...@...ï
(on reading 'nyoze gamon' - I don't know the customary yomikudashi of that

David Pollack
Date: Sun, 18 Aug 2002 09:17:32 +0900
From: Michael Watson <>
To: Multiple recipients of pmjs <>
Subject: job announcement (Stanford)

xpost from jlit-l

From: Jim Reichert <>

Please circulate this job announcement:

The Asian Languages Department of Stanford University invites applications for an open rank search for a tenure-track or tenured faculty position in Japanese literature beginning in the fall of 2003. Period of specialization is open, although we especially welcome applicants with expertise in pre-Meiji literature and culture. Evaluation of applications begins September 1, 2002. Please send letterof application, CV, brief abstract of dissertation or thesis chapter (junior candidate) or statement of research interests (senior candidate), and a dossier with three letters of recommendation (juniorcandidate) or the names and addresses of three references (senior candidate) to: Japanese Literature Search, Asian Languages Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Stanford University is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

Jim Reichert
Department of Asian Languages tel: 650-725-3436
Stanford University fax: 650-725-8931
Stanford, CA 94305-2034 email:
Date: Sun, 18 Aug 2002 12:26:40 -0700
From: "Susan B. Klein" <>
Subject: Re: kikoeshi

Michael --

I have absolutely no background in Heike, but my immediate response to reading your message was the same as Lewis -- it sounds suspicious to me-- like the later texts are constructing a pseudo-orality. Is this nostalgia for the "authenticity" of performance? I.e., could it be that the further texts get from their oral "roots"the more it was felt necessary to introduce elements that mimic orality? And that the earlier texts, closer to performance, wouldn't need such markers? Just wondering.

And from my readings of commentaries, I'd also agree with Lewis that the feeling of something important having been left out may have been deliberately induced as a way of keeping the reader actively interested, and that what was supposedly hidden may actually have been like the wizard of oz -- when you looked behind the curtain there was notmuch there. In other words, maybe you aren't actually missing much....

Date: Mon, 19 Aug 2002 08:17:38 +0900
Subject: exotic Japan

Premodern friends:

I have recently been wondering who first came down with what I think of
as the "Lafcadio Hearn Syndrome." I mean the foreigner's vision of
Japan as a pristine culture whose purity is threatened by things, ideas
and people from outside. I am aware of Engelbert Kaempfer's
wonderfully-titled essay on "whether it be conducive for the good of the
Japanese Empire to keep it shut up" and I have been looking through
Beatrice Bodart-Bailey's new translation of Kaempfer's History as well
as the reports in They Came to Japan and Michael Cooper's new
translation of Joao Rodrigues for other precedents. Although Kaempfer's
essay seems the best precedent, Kaempfer does not make a cultural
argument, emphasizing simply that Japan is populous, self-sufficient,
and blessed with good autocratic rule. Kokugaku may provide a stronger
lineage of such thinking, but I am particularly interested in non-native
perspectives. Perhaps the problem needs reframing... Any thoughts would
be welcome.

Jordan Sand
Date: Sun, 18 Aug 2002 18:50:43 -0700
From: David Olson <>
Subject: exotic Japan

as the "Lafcadio Hearn Syndrome."

Jordan Sand (JS) is speaking loosely, of course.

Wouldn't it be more accurate to call this the "Lafcadio Hearn paradox"?

(1) "LH Syndrome", without further explanation, suggests a particular type
of japonisme.

(2) In Japanese, "Koizumi Yagumo Shoukougun" (KYS) where "shoukougun"
literally means "a set of symptoms. There must be more than one
characteristic, and the entire defined set must be observable in other
gaijin, and there must be some predictability.

The minimum characteristics of KYS would be (1) japonisme, and (2)
permanently settles in Japan (with likelihood of citizenship, marriage to a
Japanese). But if only these two characteristics are present, then the word
"naturalized japonisme" might be a more descriptive term.

(3) What JS describes is a paradox in that Uncle Lafcadio wants to live in
Japan and write about it while at the same time keeping Japan a closed
society to everyone else. It's possible that many other gaijin or
japanophiles have passed through this paradox -- maybe not everyone has
resolved it.

(4) As far as I know, Kaempfer did not desire to settle in Japan. In any
case, the nature of Kaempfer's situation is different from Uncle Lafcadio
in that Kaempfer's entre into Japan is a result of sakoku. Namely, due to
the sakoku seisaku Japanese medical science falls behind the west, so the
Japanese periodically need to permit medical experts to visit the country.
Kaempfer's acceptance of sakoku is just Realpolitik or acceptance of the
status quo. The only reason that Lacafio was able to stay in Japan is
because the government abandonned sakoku and needed native English teachers.

So Kaempfer's position is the result of a weakness inherent in sakoku
seisaku. By upholding sakoku, he extends the period of time during which
other men in his privileged position (medical doctors) will be able to make
reports back to Europe about a pristine, non-Western culture.

In other words, Kaempfer's locus standi is sakoku, and he defends sakoku;
hence there is no contradiction. Uncle Lafcadko's locus standi is bunmei
kaika, which he wishes to undo and revert to sakoku, so this is a
contradiction or paradox.

("locus standi" --- now it's my turn to speak loosely)

David Olson
Date: Mon, 19 Aug 2002 11:06:48 +0900
From: "Karel Fiala" <>
Subject: [pmjs] Re: kikoeshi

Allow me a private comment.
I think that two different phenomena have to be discussed.
1) Relation between orality and written form.There is enough evidence
that Biwa recitation on historical topics existed before Genpei War,
and possibly such recitation appeared also soon after this war;some
common passages of almost all versions were evidently originally
intended to be oral. On the other hand,descriptions of battles and
contemporary diaries ( most of them are evidently lost) were written
sources which may have been used both in compilation of early and
later versions of the work.
However, plurality of sources is something else than plurality
of "monogatari" versions, and the plurality of versions is again
something else than plurality of "channels" (co-existence of non-oral
and "oralized" forms of an originally more or less identical
version is possible, Yoshida Kenkou may have been referring to something like
this). The development must have been very complicated, including both
real and pretended "oralization" and "de-oralization".Perhaps only a
parallel comparative edition of all existing versions could make these
things clear. That would be a phantastic project, indeed. Due to I.T.,
it is perhaps technically possible.ÅiHowever,it seems that certain
versions are not yet open to public and research.)
2) The function of "to zo kikoeshi" as an expression. It seems to me
that originally the semantic content, referring to actual or pretended
orality, was quite strong. However, later the expression became more
formal and its new function as a hyper-syntactic signal became more
obvious. The statistic data Prof. Watson gives on Yashiro and Kakuichi
are interesting, indeed. However, exhaustive interpretation of such
data may be quite difficult.
Date: Mon, 19 Aug 2002 15:43:39 +0900
From: michael wood <>
Subject: Re: exotic Japan

David Olson's insightful comments on Lafcadio Hearn seem to be an attempt
to "reframe" the problem that is addressed in the original messagesent by
Jordan Sand. However, the original note seems to be more concerned with the
origins of a discourse about Japanese purity, and less about the conditions
for diagnosing a disease. This discourse does develop long before Meiji
ishin. As JS points out, kokugaku scholars are certainly a good place to
look if we are not to limit our discussion to "foreign" perspectives. The
idea of Shinkoku (Land of the Gods) developed primarily by kokugaku
scholars, is probably very much related to the ideas of a pure and pristine
nation. In _Seitou to itan: tennou ama, kami_ (Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy:
Emperor, Heaven, Gods) there is an article by Tajiri Youchirou titled "Kinsei
Nihon no 'Shinkoku' ron," that may be of help. If I remember correctly,
Suzuki Eiichi also has a chapters in _Kokugaku shisou no shiteki kenkyuu_
that deal with kokugaku scholars' attempts to aestheticize the Nation and
'kaikoku ron.' I would have to check my notes to see if he makes a direct
connection between these two themes though.
Some castaway narratives written in the late Edo period could also be
read as particular articulations of this notion of national purity. _Funaosa
nikki_ (1822) and _Tokei monogatari_ (1848) are two examples that
immediately come to mind. Both Ikeda Hirochika (author of the former) and
Ishiguro Senhiro (author of Tokei's preface and one of the main authors of
the text proper) are both kokugaku scholars who seem intent on rewriting the
trials of sailors who experience first hand the conditions on Western ships
and in Western territories to emphasize a metaphysical purity of Japan.
Returning to JS's concerns, a big question seems to be, "What are the
connections between 'native' thought and 'foreign' thought in the
development of this discourse of a pristine nation?" I would certainly be
interested to hear more from others.

Michael Wood
EALL, University of Oregon
History, Meiji University
Date: Mon, 19 Aug 2002 17:00:23 +1000
From: "Suzy Styles" <>
Subject: yadayada & D'oh

Just a quickie in case anyone's still confounded:

'yadayada' is New York slang which came from yiddish and was
popularised by Jewish comedians on TV. It has a spoken discourse
function which doesn't have a neat equivalent in English - Funnily
enough, most people don't actually say "etcetera" or "and so on and
so forth" in casual conversation. This is what probably accounts for
it's being picked up as convenient slang which is slightly more
catchy than "and stuff" or "you know".

Unlike that other TV-popularised expression "D-oh", it wasn't
completely fiction in origin... Although I have heard a rumour that
D'oh actually means something rather rude in Korean - and that it was
actually a joke suggested by the Korean animation staff, AND that it
has subsequently never been dubbed or screened in Korea... Does
anybody of this list know if that'd be true?
Just a rumour, but cute.

Suzy Styles
Date: Mon, 19 Aug 2002 09:31:19 +0100
From: Richard Bowring <>
Subject: Re: yadayada & D'oh

Two comments on this that I cannot resist.
1. It is an interesting point that none of these words like 'unnun' or 'to
zo kikoeru' are actually part of the spoken language. This makes Michael's
observations on their use entirely understandable. It is all part of the
problem Japanese has in dealing with the problem of how to erase the
'narrator' in anything but kanbun, since the pragmatics are so embedded in
the grammar.
2. The putative Korean origin of "D-oh" is a new one on me. Since it was
common schoolboy slang in England in the late 1950s, I somehow doubt this
Richard Bowring
University of Cambridge
Date: Mon, 19 Aug 2002 03:27:57 -0600
From: "Anthony J. Bryant" <>
Subject: Re: yadayada & D'oh

Actually, according to an interview with the writer of the show, the
"d'oh" was a creation of the voice actor, responding to something in the
first script. The script would say "Homer gives a cry of anguish" and
the actor came up with "d'oh!" and the producers liked the sound of it.

Date: Mon, 19 Aug 2002 18:58:46 +0900
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: Re: kikoeshi

Many thanks to Lewis, Susan, and Alison (off list) for encouraging me to
state my conclusions. Never my forte... As Goethe said, I couldn't write
you a short letter so I've written a long one.

Lewis Cook wrote:
The implication of what you report below would seem to be that editors of
later texts of Heike, etc., were progressively more determined to amplify
and perhaps forge evidence of 'residual orality.' Was some kind of Ongist
nostalgia for the spoken word already at work, then?

Not to be Ong-shirazu (couldn't resist that, sorry) but I am skeptical of
the application of Ong to premodern Japan. Literacy is too widespread--at
least in connection with the forms of poetical and prose production that
have survived. Perhaps we should follow Barbara Ruch in distinguishing
between "oral literature" and "vocal literature."

"Oral literature did and does exist in Japan" but "is a product of and
flourishes in a world of illiteracy." Much of the "vocal literature" that
survives has "firm ties to the written language."
Ruch lists "the major vocal literary arts of medieval Japan" including
Heike recitation, and concludes:"none could have existed without
texts."("Medieval Jongleurs," pp. 286-7)

Susan Klein wrote:
like the later texts are constructing a pseudo-orality. Is this nostalgia
for the "authenticity" of performance? I.e., could it be that the further
texts get from their oral "roots" the more it was felt necessary to
introduce elements that mimic orality? And that the earlier texts, closer
to performance, wouldn't need such markers?

Kenneth Butler had an explanation for this: inclusion of progressively more
accurate "transcriptions" from dictations of oral narratives, with
"formulaic detail" not included in the early versions (1966, 47).

Working backwards: the Kakuichi version is the closest we have to a
"libretto" We cannot really know how close the Yashiro text was to
performance, but it represents in some way the performance of a rival group
of biwa hoshi. Texts earlier than this were for reading, at least in my
view. And before that there must have been oral tales--ikusa katari and
the like, but we can have no accurate idea of what these were like.

I tend to a more mundane explanation for Kakuichi's "orality": better
editing, better rewriting. Beginnings and endings of narrative segments in
the Yashiro version can be very abrupt. The Kakuichi improves on this--for
performance when the familiar "saru hodo ni" acts as a kind of prelude.
Obviously there is more to it than just that, but this set me off on a
little paper chase.

The quotation above comes from most radical of Kenneth Butler's still very
readable papers, the one on "Heike monogatari and theories of oral epic
Literature" published in Japan in 1966 (the same year as his influential
"textual evolution" study in HJAS 26.5). In a footnote to "Medieval
Jongleurs" Ruch gives the only citation I have ever seen to this paper.

For those who have not tracked this paper down, here is an outline of how
Butler understood Heike to have evolved (the numbering is mine and onlyfor
convenience). Following Ruch's terminology, what we have is not "oral"but
"vocal literature"--with the exception of the "oral tales"mentioned in (1).

(1) "Yukinaga's written text of the long Heike monogatari in 1221"is based
on oral and written sources, including "oral tales... transcribed as they
were actually sung"
(2) memorization and recitation of this version
(3) "revision and change at the hands of singers proficient in
the traditional art of oral composition"
(4) first revision: Yashiro text, not a dictated version, but using "oral
techniques of theme expansion"
(5) second revision by Buddhist groups at Shoshazan: includes "dictation of
the short oral battle tales"
(6) over 30 year period, Kakuichi combines best oral qualities of (4) and (5)
(7) Kakuichi dictates his final version in 1371 (precise
transcription,techniques of dictation "perfected")
(8) recitation of Kakuichi text, vulgate printed text...

Butler follows Yoshida Kenkou (Tsurezuregusa 226) in positing that the
first written version of the tale combined "a large amount of unrefined
historical data" "Buddhist oral tales" and"oral tales"that circulated
about the war. "Yukinaga hit upon the idea of having some of the available
oral tales concerning the Heike transcribed as they were actually sung in
performances of oral composition." (p. 45)

Heike scholars are no closer now to a consensus on date and authorship of
the Ur-Heike than they were 36 years ago. But much else has changed--see
the Gunki bungaku kenkyu sousho volume cited below.

(1) relies on two assumptions: that an early oral tale survives in the
"Rokudai Gozen monogatari" and that among extant texts, the Shibu kassenjo
version most resembles "Yukinaga's" ur-text. Alas, Heike scholarship has
moved on and Rokudai... is now dated to 1307, considered an independent
Heike spin off [chuusei tanpen monogatari] and thought fairly minor in
importance. The Shibu... variant, though still much studied (there is a
great new kundoku edition), is now thought to be later still. One of the
prevalent new ideas in Heike studies is that versions were not necessarily
just expanded, but in some cases were the results of partial or wholesale
pruning. (UNNUN fans will be glad to note that Shibu... uses the term

What is still accepted today, now that much of Butler's textual evidence is
no longer tenable?
Consensus has swung to the Enkyou-bon as the surviving variants that best
represents the earliest form of Heike. Not much sign of raw transcriptions
there, but certainly a rich collection of materials of all kind. And very much
the centre of attention: far more papers have been published on this variant
than on any other, according to a survey of the 3804 (!!) papers concerning
Heike variants written between 1945-1995.

Butler may emphasize the influence of oral composition, but gives plenty of
credit to editors at all stages. Scholars today are even more included to
emphasize the importance of "desk work"-- KANJI
as someone has described the creation of variants.

The status of the Yashiro text (4) is also much discussed. It was once even
considered the earliest surviving version of any kind. Now at best it is the
earliest surviving *recited* version.

Karel Fiala is right to say about my Yashiro-Kakuichi comparison that
the proper interpretation of these data may require another study.
There is a large problem with Yashiro-Kakuichi comparisons, and that isthat
the surviving manuscripts are imperfect and late in the case of Yashiro.
(The surviving Kakuichi texts differ substantially too.)The Yashiro used to
be admired for its "epic" plainness and brevity, but some now argue this is
the result of cuts. All in all, it is still considered "showing more signs
of antiquity" than Kakuichi (no one says"older" any more, theword is åë'ê´

For a clear and well-balanced treatment of Heike textual questions see
David Bialock, "Heike monogatari." In Steven D. Carter, ed., _Medieval
Japanese Writers_ (1999).
*This also contains a translation of the important Kakuichi colophon.

A final note.
And I'm equally skeptical of the radical Parry-Lord approach. It has had
only limited success in application to medieval European literature, and
that in Old English verse when there are strict metrical rules that make
oral composition plausible. However I have a feeling that Butler has been
misinterpreted because of his use of the term"oral composition." In "...
Theories of Oral Epic Literature" he goes to considerable lengths to
explain just what aspects of Parry-Lord might be applicable to case of
Heike, and how the theory might be modified in light of the Japanese case.

Sorry to have gone on at such length,

Michael Watson

David Bialock, "Heike monogatari." In Steven D. Carter, ed., _Medieval
Japanese Writers_, Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vol. 203 (Detroit,
Washington, London: Gale Research, 1999), pp.73-84.

Kenneth Dean Butler, Jr. "The Heike Monogatari and Theories of Oral Epic
Literature." Bulletin of the Faculty of Letters. The Seikei University
[Seikei daigaku bungakubu kiyo] 2 (1966), pp. 37-54.

Kenneth Dean Butler, Jr. "The Textual Evolution of the Heike monogatari."
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 26.5 (1966), pp. 5-51.

Kenneth Dean Butler, Jr. "The Heike monogatari and the Japanese WarriorEthic."
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 29 (1969), pp. 93-108.

Barbara Ruch. "Kakuichi's Complaint: Homer and the Heike Hazards,"The Japan
Interpreter, 11:2 (1975), pp. 229-236. [Review article of Kitagawa and
Tsuchida (1975).]

Barbara Ruch. "Medieval Jongleurs and the Making of a National Literature."
In John W. Hall and Takeshi Toyoda, eds., Japan in the Muromachi Age
(Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1977), pp.

Barbara Ruch. "The Other Side of Culture in Medieval Japan." In Yamamura
Kozo, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, Vol. 3: The Middle Ages,
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 500-43.

Yamashita Hiroaki, ed. _Heike monogatari no seisei_. Gunki bungaku kenkyu
sousho vol. 5. Yuseido, 1997. (Start with Hayakawa's summary of 3800 papers
on textual variants since 1945...)

For views on Parry/Lord in current Homeric studies see
Ian Morris and Barry Powell., eds., A New Companion to Homer ( Leiden,
New York, Koeln: Brill, 1997)
Date: Mon, 19 Aug 2002 10:58:21 -0400
From: Suzanne Gay <>
Subject: job listing

Art Historian, East Asian Art.

Oberlin College's Department of Art and East Asian Studies Program
seek a specialist of East Asian art history for a full-time, continuing
position. Primary teaching responsibility in Chinese and Japanese art;
secondary or tertiary expertise in Korean, contemporary East Asian, or
Southeast Asian art history is desirable. Qualifications: Ph.D. in hand
expected) by August 2003; college teaching experience desirable. Please

send letters of application, including a curriculum vitae, graduate
academic transcripts, course syllabi if available, and at least three
letters of reference to Professor Susan Kane, Department of Art, Oberlin

College, Oberlin, OH 44074 by December 1, 2002. Salary will depend on
qualifications and experience. AA/EOE

See for full description.

Suzanne Gay
Director, East Asian Studies Program
Associate Professor, East Asian Studies
Oberlin College
Date: Mon, 19 Aug 2002 14:28:28 EDT
Subject: Heike Monogatari & exotic Japan

I have followed with great interest these two topics lately. Since I'mno
scholar of Japanese history/literature, but a writer of fiction and a former
English prof., my comments may well be off base.
1. The western tradition also has its oral conventions in the narrative
language (formulaic repetition, epithets, etc) which lend a certain elegance
and solemnity to the style, but it struck me that the examples Michael gave
as (loosely rendered): "Kiyomori had his own uncle executed" in the early
version, and "They say that Kiyomori had his own uncle executed" in the later
one are quite different in meaning. The first asserts a fact. The second
does nothing of the kind. It seems to me that for political reasons or
because of the uncertainty/doubt that distance in time brings the later
writers were more cautious about making this accusation.

2. Since I write fiction set in 11th century Japan, precisely because of
the attractions the exotic setting has for westerners, I can relate to the
issues about Japanese and foreign attitudes towards a closed Japan. Very
early on in my research into Japanese history it struck me that the Japanese
are astonishingly open to foreign influences. I'm aware of the fact that
there were periodic reactions to this, but the wholesale importation of
Chinese culture and Buddhism suggests that the early Japanese were ready to
imitate other cultures from the start. I think we see this again in the the
late 19th and in the 20th century when Western culture became extraordinarily
influential on the Japanese arts. Lafcadio Hearn loved Japanese culture
sentimentally and passionately. Kaempfer was a scientist observing the
differences between the west and the east.
For a westerner writing fiction set in Japan for westerners, it must be
possible to do so without falling into either extreme.

Date: Tue, 20 Aug 2002 11:22:38 +0900
From: eiji sekine <> (by way of pmjs)
Subject: ajls conference program/news 16

Dear Netters,

Our apologies for cross-listing. Here is a copy of AJLS Newsletter, no.
16, which includes the program of the AJLS Meeting for 2002.

If you are an AJLS member, you are welcome to send a copy of your
recently published book(s) for the conference's book display. Please
mail your books to: AJLS/Eiji Sekine, Purdue Univ., 1359 Stanley Coulter
Hall, W. Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

If you are interested in hosting our conference for 2004 and later,
please contact Professor Ann Sherif: or
440.775.8827 (Tel).

Thank you for your attention and I am looking forward to seeing many of
you at the conference.


Eiji Sekine
2002 AJLS Conference Chair



AJLS Newsletter
Association for Japanese Literary Studies

No. 16 (Fall, 2002) Edited by Eiji Sekine

AJLS Purdue University 1359 Stanley Coulter Hall W. Lafayette, IN
47907, USA
765.496.2258 (Tel) 765.496.1700 (FAX) (E-mail) (website)

Eleventh Annual Meeting Program

Japanese Poeticity and Narrativity Revisted

Purdue University, October 4-6, 2002

After last year's tenth annual meeting at Boston, we will return, this
time, to Purdue, a location where our activities started. By featuring
the theme, "Japanese Poeticity and Narrativity Revisted," we will go
back to the basics of our interests in Japanese literature in such a way
as to stress the beginning of our next ten years. The old topics of uta
and monogatari will be examined from new and different standpoints and
approaches. Our call for papers has particularly solicited papers to
discuss the issues in relationship with such underdeveloped topics as
translation, comedic/playful writings, critical and theoretical
writings, and general literary concepts of visuality and fictionality.
Eight panels of presentations, together with two keynote addresses by
Professors Kojima Naoko and Mizuta Noriko and a poetry reading concert
by Professor Yoshimasu Goozoo and his wife Marilya, will extensively
examine these topics and other fundamental topics related to the
understanding of Japanese literature.

REGISTRATION: Registration is required of all conference participants.
The fee will cover all the following meals: Friday dinner, Saturday and
Sunday breakfast, Saturday lunch, and Saturday reception. Please see and
mail the form included in this newsletter by September 30, 2002. For
more information about registration, contact our coordinator, Kathy
Hyman: 765-494-2758 (Tel); 765-494-0567 (Fax); and

LODGINGS: A block of rooms are held at University Inn and Conference
Center; 3001 Northwestern Ave., West Lafayette, IN 47906: 800-777-9808
(Tel); 765-497-3850 (FAX); (website). Single rooms are
$89 and double rooms are $96. For an extra person in the room it is an
additional $7 with a 5 percent sales tax and 5 percent innkeepers tax.
You need to identify yourselves as being with the group of the Japanese

TRANSPORTATION: By Air: Air travelers can either come to the Purdue
Airport in West Lafayette, IN or to Indianapolis International Airport
and take a shuttle bus (Lafayette Limo) that will drop you either at the
hotel or near conference site. Lafayette Limo departs from the
Indianapolis Airport at 6:30 a.m. and continues its service every two
hours until 10:30 p.m. It is a 90-minute ride to the Purdue campus and
hotel. Fare is $19 for one way and $33 for round trip. For reservations,
call 765-497-3828 or FAX 765-497-4106. By Car: Travelers by ground have
access to the city by I-65; exit at Indiana 26 West, which will take you
to Purdue and the hotel.

PROGRAM: Japanese Poeticity and Narrativity Revisited

Toshiba International Foundation, NEAC of the AAS, and Purdue University

Friday, October 4, 2002
Stewart Center, Room 202

11:45 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.
Welcoming Remark/Registration
Paul Dixon, Head of Foreign Languages and Literatures, Purdue University

12:00 p.m.- 2:00 p.m.
Aspects of Modern Poetry and Narrative: Feminism, Experimentalism, and

Jeffrey Angles, The Ohio State University, "The Visual Heritage of
Symbolism: Visuality in Kitahara Hakushuu and Murayama Kaita"

Annika A. Culver, University of Chicago, "Modernity and Ethnographic
Eye: Images of Subversion and Anachronism in the Poetry of Kitagawa

Kumiko Sato, Pennsylvania State University, "The Subject of Femininity
and Poeticity: A Comparative Approach to Contemporary Japanese Women's
Writings and Feminist Theory"

Tanaka Mitsuko, Josai International University, "Unsealing Yamakawa
Tomiko's Tanka: Construction of Tomiko's Gendered Image in Contrast with

Horiuchi Kimiko, Josai International University, "Meioo Masako and

2:10 p.m. - 3:30 p.m.
Poeticity and Narrativity in Tokugawa Poetry

Cheryl Crowley, Emory University, "Humor in the Haiku of Yosa Buson:
Shinhanatsumi (New 'Flower Gathering') and Kokkei"

Lawrence Marceau, University of Delaware, "'Chooka for Our Time':
Shimizu Hamaomi's Sedge Root Collection"

Roger K. Thomas, Illinois State University, "Poetry Fit to Sing:
Tachibana Moribe and the Chooka Revival"

3:40 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.
Literary Space in Prewar Japan: Redefining the Narrative of Modern

Melek Ortabasi, Hamilton College, "Sketching Out the Critical Tradition:
Yanagita Kunio and the Reappraisal of Realism"

Rachel DiNitto, The College of William & Mary, "Bungei Shunjuu and
Literary Freedom in the Age of Publication"

Ted Mack, The University of Washington, "Social Realism: Exteriority and
the Modern Literary Canon"

5:15 pm - 6:15 pm
Keynote Address I: Kojima Naoko, Rikkyo University,
KANJI (Construction of Gender in Meiji
Shintaishi: 'A Song of Shiragiku the Faithful' and Monogatari)"

Saturday, October 5
Stanley Coulter Hall, Room 239

8:30 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.
Waka, Buddhism, and the Medieval Commentarial Tradition

Esperanza Ramirez Christensen, University of Michigan, "Emptiness and
Medieval Poetics"

Keller Kimbrough, Colby College, "Nomori no kagami and the Perils of
Poetic Heresy"

Susan Blankeley Klein, University of California, Irvine, "Down the
Primrose Path: Narihira as Love God in Medieval Poetic Commentaries and
the Noh"

Lewis Cook, Queens College, CUNY, discussant

10:10 a.m. - 11:50 a.m.
Contemporary Intertextuality and Practices of Deconstructive Rewriting

Atsuko Sakaki, University of Toronto, "With Traces: The Iterability of
Memory and Narration in Contemporary Japanese Literature"

Davinder L. Bhowmik, University of Washington, "A 'Lite' Battle
Narrative: Medoruma Shun's 'Suiteki'"

Mikiko Iwana, Columbia University, "Intermingling Voices: Nakagami
Kenji, Tanizaki Jun'ichiroo Murasaki Shikibu, and William Faulkner"

Irena Hayter, University of London, "Wagahai wa neko dearu satsujin
jiken as a Postmodern Sequel"

1:30 pm - 3:10 pm
Women and Translation: Subversive Textuality

Eve Zimmerman, Wellesley College, "Girl at the Window: Koono Taeko and
Wuthering Heights"

Nakagawa Shigemi, Ritsumeikan University, "Crossroads of Poeticity and
Narrativity in Modern Women Writers: Wakamatsu Shizuko, Adelade Ann
Procter, Hayashi Fumiko, and Jean Lhys"

Judy Wakabayashi, Kent State University, "Out of the Shadows: Applying a
Feminist Framework to Translation in Meiji and Modern-Day Japan"

Sarah Strong, Bates College, "Whoever Said Springtime was for Blossom?
Kokinshuu Poetics, Ainu Orality, and Chiri Yukie's Preface to the Ainu

3:20p.m. - 4:40 p.m.
Theorization of Poetry and Narrative: Tradition and Modernity

Rein Raud, University of Helsinki, "Narrative and Poetic Progression:
The Logic of Associativity"

Stephen D. Miller, University of Colorado, "Shinbutsu shuugoo and
Medieval Poetics: Waka as Ritual in the Jingi-ka and Shakkyoo-ka of the
Senzaishuu and Shinkokinshuu"

Aiko Okamoto MacPhail, Indiana University, "From the Pages of Classics
to the Fantastic Tales: Kyokutei Bakin and Seven Rules of Fiction"

Michael F. Marra, University of California, Los Angeles, "Worlds in
Tension: Kuki Shuuzoo's (1888-1941) Poetry and Poetics"

5:00p.m. - 6:00 p.m.
Keynote Address II: Mizuta Noriko, Josai International University,
"Beyond Ie and Metropolis: Modern Japanese Women Poets' Imagination
toward Outside"

7:00 p.m. - 10:00 p.m.
Reception at the home of Teresa and Eiji Sekine

Sunday, October 6
Stanley Coulter Hall, Room 239

9:00 a.m. - 10:20 a.m.
Politics of Literature: Reality, Literarism, and Nativism

Adam L. Kern, Harvard University, "Nativism and Far-Fetched Explanations

Dean Brink, Saint Martin's College, "Transforming the National Poetry:
The Kokinshuu 'Kana Preface' in Early Shintaishi"

Mike Sugimoto, University of Puget Sound, "Japanese Poeticity and
Aestheticism; The Shi Shoosetsu (éç)è¨ê¦"

James Dorsey, Dartmouth College, "'Bungaku' 1946: The Reification of the
Wartime Paradigm"

10:30 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.
Poetry Reading Concert
Yoshimasu Goozoo, Josai International University, and Marilya Corbot


AJLS Membership
Membership fee: $25 (North American members); $35 (members from outside
the region). Student members can receive a free copy of our proceedings.
Please send the membership form and your check (payable to AJLS) to the
AJLS address. All annual meeting panel participants must become members
in order to present.

AJLS Publications
"Japan from Somewhere Else," PAJLS, vol. 3 (2002) is in the process of
editing. The volume will be published in the fall of 2002. The following
back issues are available: "Poetics of Japanese Literature" (1993),
"Revisionism in Japanese Literary Studies" (1996), "New Historicism in
Japanese Literary Studies" (1998), "Love and Sexuality in Japanese
Literature" (1999), "Issues of Canonicity and Canon Formation in
Japanese Literary Studies" (2000), and "Acts of Writing" (2001). Each
issue can be purchased at the cost of $15 by non-members ($10 for
members). Add $10 for Air Mail.

UCLA for 2003
Professor Michael F. Marra will chair our AJLS meeting for 2003 at UCLA.
We are now calling for possible chair(s) to host our 2004 and later
meetings. If you are interested, please contact Professor Ann Sherif: or 440.775.8827 (Tel).


AJLS Newsletter Sponsor: FLL, Purdue University

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for information not included in the plain text message above.
Date: Thu, 22 Aug 2002 12:33:11 +0900
From: "James C. Baxter" <>
Subject: [pmjs] Nichibunken Evening Seminar

Although it will not treat premodern matters, an upcoming talk at the
International Research Center for Japanese Studies in Kyoto may be of
interest to some members of this list:

Nichibunken Evening Seminar on Japanese Studies (73nd Meeting)

September 5 (Thursday), 4:30-6:00 PM

Speaker: Alexia BORO, Assistant, Ca'Foscari, University of Venice (Italy),
and Visiting Research Scholar, International Research Center for Japanese

Topic: "Compromise and Eclecticism: Modern Illusions in Meiji Tokyo

Language: English

Place: Seminar Room 2, International Research Center for Japanese Studies,
3-2 Oeyama-cho, Goryo, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 610-1192
Date: Thu, 22 Aug 2002 13:46:21 +0900
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: [pmjs] Kojiki quotation

I received an unusual question out of the blue from an Alaskan artist wanting to include a Kojiki quotation in her installation (a sculpture ofsorts, I imagine). It wasn't hard to locate the quotation in the electronic text of the NKBT Kojiki and confirm it in the printedition, but she seems to be quoting from a different version (whatis a "Shinto translation" I wonder). I'd assumed it was Chamberlain, but I don't have my copy of Chamberlain or Philippi

I'd thought of asking John Bentley off list, but finally decided to bother all of you--I know that quite of few people on the list have aninterest in Kojiki.

At 12:49 -0800 2002.08.21, Sharlene Packer wrote:
I'm an Alaskan artist. My installation "Moving Towards Center" tackle tolerance for other's beliefs. Twenty three religions are represented. Besides a painting of a ritualfrom each religion I have a compassion quote from their sacred texts in English and the originallanguage. I am missing the original writing from my Shinto translation. I have been avoiding having someone translating it from English back into Japanese. I know the exact location of my quote: Kojiki, Volume 3, Chapter 2. The Sovereign said to his ministers, "From a tall tower I looked abroad andbeheld in all the land no smokearising from which I assume that the people be remitted and no labor be compulsory, but the people given leisure. The great palace buildings became ruined and were not restored. So after three autumns of plenty, the people praised the Sovereign's virtues. When labor was finally compelled the people worked willingly, without overseers, night and day, till the palace was quickly finished. So, in praise of that august reign, he is to this day called "the Sage Sovereign."

The beginning corresponds to p. 267 in NKBT 1 (Kojiki Norito), except for:
"So after three autumns of plenty, the people praised the Sovereign's virtues. When labor was finally compelled the people worked willingly, without overseers, night and day, till the palace was quickly finished."

I've transcribed the bit that corresponds below--with a scattering of errorsto keep you on your toes. The parts in square brackets differfrom the the English--where the "three autumns of plenty"come.

The Japanese text is from ugly but invaluable the NIJL (Shiryokan) e-text of NKBT 1. The black circles are non-JIS kanji, L=line numbers.

Kore ni tennou, takayama ni noborite, yomo no kuni o mi-tamaite mikotonori-tamaishiku, "Kuni no naka ni keburi tatazu. Kuni mina mazushi. Yue, ima yori mitose ni itaru made, kotogotoku ni tami no mitsugi,edachi o yuruse." to nori-tamaiki. Kore o motte ootono (?) yare-koborete, kotogotoku ni ame moredomo, katsute osame-tsukuru koto naku,

[utsuwamono o mochite sono moru ame o ukete, marazaru tokoro ni utsuri-sakemashiki. Ato ni kuni no naka o mi-tamaeba, kuni ni keburi michiteri.Yue, tami tomeri to omooshite,]

ima wa to mitsugi edachi o oose-tamaiki. [..] yue, sono miyo o tataete,hijiri no mikado no yo to iu nari.







Michael Watson
Date: Thu, 22 Aug 2002 08:45:42 +0100
From: Richard Bowring <>
Subject: [pmjs] Re: Kojiki quotation

This is clearly from the second section on Nintoku but it does not
correspond to either Phillipi (who uses 'emperor' and calls it Book Three,
Chapter 110) or Chamberlain (who uses 'Heavenly Sovereign' and calls it
Volume 3, Section 121). Perhaps it comes from a partial translation by
either Satow or Aston (but I don't have those to hand). Or does Sansom quote
it somewhere? It is certainly not from Aston's Nihongi.
Richard Bowring
Date: Thu, 22 Aug 2002 17:18:29 +0900
From: Kate Wildman Nakai <>
Subject: [pmjs] nintoku story

I wonder if this passage (about Nintoku) it is not a paraphrase rather than
translation; I don't have Chamberlain at hand, but I wonder if he would omit
the wonderful touch in the Kojiki version of the story about the palace
becoming dilapidated and the rain dripping in, and this truncated version
seems rather to have a couple of touches of the Nihon shoki version. In
Philippi it is p. 303; in Aston, vol. 1, pp. 278-79. NKBT Nihon shoki, joo,
pp. 390-91. Ironically (for a "Shinto" account), this is one of the most
blatantly Confucian and "Chinese" passages in Kojiki. In fact, though,
perhaps that says much about the history of "Shinto."
Kate Wildman Nakai, Prof. of Japanese History, Sophia University,
and Editor, Monumenta Nipponica
Monumenta Nipponica, Sophia University
7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554
Tel: 81-3-3238-3544; Fax: 81-3-3238-3835
Monumenta Nipponica home page:
Date: Thu, 22 Aug 2002 10:10:43 -0700
From: Morgan Pitelka <>
Subject: [pmjs] Queries


I would like to pass on two unconnected queries from one of my colleagues
here, an anthropologist whose diverse interests have stretched my feeble
knowledge to the limit.

1) Which (if any) Japanese deities are affiliated with tsunami?

2) Among the Tang courtly dances "preserved" in Japan, do any involve long
sleeves that nearly touch the floor, known in Chinese (or so I hear) as
"water sleeves"?

Many thanks,



Morgan Pitelka
Asian Studies Department
408 Johnson Hall
Occidental College
1600 Campus Road
Los Angeles, CA 90041
Date: Thu, 22 Aug 2002 20:59:04 -0500
From: "John R. Bentley" <>
Subject: [pmjs] Re: Kojiki quotation

I have little to add from what others have
already said. The English translation that
is given is very loose (and I wonder if
Satow would have been that loose with
the original).

There is no tower (it is a high mountain), and
no ministers are mentioned to whom Nintoku
would have said these words. On the other
hand, the 'three years' mentioned in the
original (regarding the relaxing of taxation)
is not found in the translation.

So it is very odd. I wonder if this
translation she gives comes from an English
translation of one of the many popular
MODERN translations of the original.

Sorry that I can only offer speculation.


John Bentley
pmjs footer

From: Kate Wildman Nakai <>
Date: Sat Aug 24, 2002 12:26:26 Asia/Tokyo
Subject: [pmjs] Re: Kojiki quotation

The tower and the ministers seem to me to be some of the elements that point
to a paraphrase based as much on Nihon shoki as Kojiki. The last sentences
about the people voluntarily repairing the palace (mentioned by Michael as a
disparity in his original post) is another.

Kate Wildman Nakai

From: Lawrence Marceau <lmarc...@...l.Edu>
Date: Wed Aug 28, 2002 07:31:53 Asia/Tokyo
Subject: [pmjs] Re: Kojiki quotation

This is rather dated now, but I believe I have found the source of Sharlene
Packer's truncated quote. It is in Post Wheeler, _The Sacred Scriptures of the
Japanese_ (New York: Henry Schuman, 1952), page 232 (omitted portions in

[Now] The Sovereign said to his ministers, "From a tall tower I looked abroad and
beheld in all the land no smoke arising[,] from which I assume that the people
[are in poverty and cook no rice." So he issued a decree that forthree years
taxes should] be remitted and no labor be compulsory, but the people given
leisure. [From that time his imperial robes and footwear were not renewed sae when
they wore out, also the cooked food and drink were replaced only when they became
sour.] The great palace buildings became ruined and were not restored[, but rain
everywhere leaked through the unrenewed thatch, and wind and starlight entered by
the cracks and wet the exposed quilts. Yet repairs were not made,the rain being
caught in boxes and the people removing to where were no leaks.] So after three
autumns of plenty, the people praised the Sovereign's virtues [and the smokeof
cooking rose plentifully. Then, seeing the people prosperous, he said to the
Empress, "In Our prosperity, there is now no cause for complaint." She replied,
"What is prosperity?" Said he, "Surely when much smoke rises in the Land and the
people grow rich." She answered, "When your palace goes to ruin unrestored, and
its buildings are so worn that the quilts are exposed, is this what you call
prosperity?" Yet, although petition was made by all the provencesthat labor be
again made compulsory in order to restore the palace, the Sovereign for a whil
longer delayed; and] When labor was finally compelled the people worked willingly,
without overseers, night and day, till the palace was quickly finished. So, in
praise of that august reign, he is to this day called "the Sage Sovereign."

End of quote.

It seems that the quote is a combination of material fromthe Kojiki and the
Nihon shoki together. It reads quite a bit like Hirata Atsutane's compendium,
_Koshichou kaidai ki_ (which might be where it was taken from). It's unfortunate
that people still draw from flawed popularized translations that probably were
best sellers in their time, and are still on public library shelves.

Lawrence Marceau
From: Rokuo Tanaka <>
Date: Wed Aug 28, 2002 16:44:36 Asia/Tokyo
Subject: [pmjs] Re: Kojiki quotation

FYI: Reprint of _The Sacred Scriptures of the Japanese_ by Post Wheeler
(1869-1956) is also available from Greenwood Press (Westport, Conn. 1976,
ISBN 083713936). The text quoted is in the same page - 232.

Rokuo Tanaka

From: Michael Watson <>
Date: Wed Aug 28, 2002 11:37:46 Asia/Tokyo
Subject: [pmjs] position at Michigan State University

A&L 390

Assistant Professor, tenure-stream position, Ph.D. required. Advanced ABDs
will be considered. Primary research interest in pre-19th century Japanese
history or Northeast Asia's trans-regional history. Demonstrated
commitment to research and teaching. Undergraduate and graduate teaching
responsibilities in Asian history and the Center for Integrative Studies in
the Arts and Humanities. MSU is an affirmative action, equal opportunity
employer. Applications from women and minority candidates are strongly
encouraged. Persons with disabilities have the right to request and
receive reasonable accommodation.

Applications must include a cover letter addressing research and teaching
interests, a vita, graduate transcripts, and a writing sample demonstrating
research abilities. Also, please arrange for three confidential letters of
recommendation to be mailed. All material should be mailed to Lewis
Siegelbaum, Chairperson, Department of History, 301 Morrill Hall, Michigan
State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. Application deadline is December
15, 2002. The academic year position begins August 16, 2003.

From: Richard Emmert <>
Date: Tue Aug 27, 2002 19:36:25 Asia/Tokyo
Subject: [pmjs] Theatre Nohgaku US Tour

Theatre Nohgaku is a new theatre company created two years ago and made up largely of Americans who are experienced foreign practitioners of Japanese classical noh drama including several who have been studyingin my on-going Noh Training Project workshops in Tokyo and in my intensive summer Noh Training Project workshops in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania. The troupe was formed with the idea of performing noh in English and the first tour of the company will take place in September. Theatre of Yugen of San Francisco is producing this tour. The feature play to be performed is W.B. Yeats' "At the Hawk's Well," the most significant non-Japanese written play which has found itself into the noh repertory as a shinsaku (newly composed) noh. Theatre Nohgaku will not be performing the Japanese version but aversion based on Yeats' original English text with music and direction by me. Japanese noh hayashi instrumentalists will accompany theperformance and Noh master performer Akira Matsui will take the lead role of the Hawk. All other roles including the chorus members will be played by Theatre Nohgaku performers. Also on the program will be short shimai dances from other English noh plays, a short noh hayashi instrumental piece, and the kyogen Bo-shibari (Tied to a Stick) played by Theatre of Yugen members and directed by Yuriko Doi. The following is the tour schedule. Please feel free to print it out and post it or send it on to any interested parties. Thank you.

Theatre Nohgaku/Theatre of Yugen Hawk's Well 2002 Tour

September 10
Hampden-Sydney, VA.
Theatre Nohgaku will be in residency
at Hampden-Sydney College Sept. 2 -

September 13 & 14
San Francisco, CA
Presented by Theatre of Yugen
USF Presentation Theater
For tickets call 345-7575 (CBON)
online sales coming soon!
Tickets also available in person at
Kinokuniya Bookstores in Japan
1581 Webster St # 111

September 17
Duke University - Raleigh, NC
Reynolds Theater
For tickets call: 919-684-4444
or visit
Prices: $22 Preferred Rows
$18 General Seating;
$12 Students

September 19
Williamstown, MA
Presented by Williams College
Adams Memorial Theatre
For tickets call: 413.597.2342

September 21
Amherst, MA
Presented by U of Mass. at Amherst
Bowker Auditorium
For tickets call: 413.545.2511
Prices: general public $20, $15;
17 and under $10;
College Students: $10, $7;
Reserved seating.

September 23
Wellesley, MA
Presented by Wellesley College
with The Japan Society of Boston
Alumni Hall Theater
For tickets call: 617-451-0726
Prices: $30 general;
$20 members of Japan Society;
Students/Seniors discount

September 24
Portsmouth, NH
Presented by NH Humanities Council
The Music Hall Theater
For tickets call: 603-436-2400
or visit
Prices: general public: $20, $17
Students and Seniors: $10

For Further Information on the Hawk's Well tour see:
For information on noh workshops
in Japan and the United States see:
Richard Emmert

Tokyo Addresses:
Hon-cho 2-27-10, Nakano-ku
Tokyo 164-0012 Japan
tel: 81-(0)3-3373-0553
fax: 81-(0)3-3373-4509

Noh Research Archives
Musashino Womens University
Shinmachi 1-1-20, Nishi Tokyo-shi
Tokyo 282-8585 Japan
tel: 0424-68-3147 (archives)
tel: 0424-68-3229 (office)

Date: Fri, 30 Aug 2002 21:15:10 -0400
From: Jordan Sand <>
Subject: [pmjs] follow-up on exotic Japan

My thanks to colleagues who responded to my open-ended question a couple
of weeks ago about what I called "Lafcadio Hearn Syndrome" and David
Olson re-dubbed KYS (Koizumi Yakumo Shoukougun). I asked because I am
trying to imagine a lineage for my own profound preservationist impulses
toward all material and cultural things Japanese. As I had hoped, my
question was variously interpreted, revealing that there are several
aspects to the problem. For my own purposes, I discern three features,
emerging at different points in history:

1. the foreigner's adoption of "Japan" as a personal object of love, and
accompanying desire to "go native" (found among some Jesuit
missionaries; I had thought of Rodrigues, but as Robin Gill suggested to
me off-list, the interesting figure here appears to be the Italian
Jesuit Organtino, who is described in Schutte's study of Valignano's
mission principles); 2. belief that Japan is a pristine whole and
better unvitiated by outside contact (held by Kaempfer and kokugakusha,
in different senses); and 3. infatuation with the minutiae of Japanese
daily life, anxiety about their fragility, or, alternatively, about the
threat that one's private fantasy may be disturbed or may evaporate
(quintessentially expressed by Koizumi/Hearn).

I myself have been afflicted with each of these symptoms of KYS at one
time or another. I suspect they are fairly common among other
Japanophiles. Historically speaking, they form only an imaginary
lineage, since Hearn was presumably not much influenced by 16th or
17th-century European visitors, and certainly not by native kokugakusha.
As David Olson pointed out, each position must be situated in the
politics of its time. The three are not a developmental sequence, but
configured by political circumstances: Jesuit missionaries, many stuck
in Asia for their lives, were committing themselves to Japan, and
assimilating in order to make converts. This provided a strong
incentive to go native and to believe that Japan was a worthy "bride" of
the church (Organtino's term). Kaempfer's exposure to the "closed"
country was carefully controlled, and he visited in a time of peace and
prosperity. He was also an admirer of autocratic government. Hearn's
romantic perspective derived in part from the fact that he was a
wandering anti-Western Westerner in a country where the state's
modernization policies were threatening the survival of many of the
handcraft industries and everyday-life customs that made Japan look
different from the West.

Now as I write this out, it all looks rather obvious, leaving unanswered
the deeper historical questions concerning the particular circumstances
of each vision of Japanese culture. Still, perhaps there is something
to be learned from comparing various eras' "Japonismes" anyway. Any
further comments would be welcome.

Jordan Sand

pmjs footer

Genji monogatari kochushaku data base:
Two maki available so far. An interesting project.

recent publications by pmjs members

Janine Beichman
Embracing the Firebird; Yosano Akiko and the Birth of the Female Voice in
Modern Japanese Poetry

(U of Hawai'i Press, 2002)

John R. Bentley, Descriptive Grammar of Early Old Japanese (Leiden; Brill, 2001).

John R. Bentley, Historiographical trends in early Japan (Edwin Mellen Press, May 2002).
See online Table of Contents for both publications.

Lucia Dolce, Nichiren and the Lotus Sutra: Esoteric Patterns in a Japanese Medieval Interpretation of the Lotus (Leiden: Brill, forthcoming Nov. 2002).

Bernard Scheid, Der Eine und Einzige Weg der Götter: Yoshida Kanetomo und die Erfindung des Shinto (Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2001).
See link for English abstract .

Haruo Shirane
Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900
(Columbia University Press, 2002)

Michael Wachutka --
Klaus Antoni; Hiroshi Kubota; Johann Nawrocki; Michael Wachutka (eds.),
Religion and National Identity in the Japanese Context, (Tuebingen, Germany, 2002)
(BUNKA - Tuebinger interkulturelle und linguistische Japanstudien BUNKA - Tuebingen intercultural and linguistic studies on Japan, Bd./vol. 5, 2002, 304 S., LIT Publishers, Hamburg, Muenster, London. ISBN 3-8258-6043-4, Distributed in North America by: Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick (U.S.A.) and London (U.K.)

MORE books on the pmjs books page.

Cornell East Asia Series has reprinted
Japan in the Muromachi Age, Edited by John Whitney Hall and Toyoda Takeshi

recent publications by pmjs members

* John R. Bentley, Descriptive Grammar of Early Old Japanese (Brill, 2001)
* John R. Bentley, Historiographical trends in early Japan (Edwin Mellen
Press, May 2002)
* Andrew Gerstle, Chikamatsu: Five Late Plays (Columbia University Press,
* for pmjs amazon links see:
Also online: Table of Contents for both works by John Bentley

There is a link for "Kunstchronik: searchable index of 26,000 German
dissertations, 1985-1998" at

Information from Hotei Publishing

Hotei Publishing has been taken over by the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) in
The new website will be ready in the course of September. Books announced in
the Spring/ Summer 2002 catalogue are now due to appear next Autumn/Winter.
They include:

Kawase Hasui. The complete woodblock prints.
By Ken Brown and Watanabe Shoichiro
2 volume set in slipcase
ISBN 90-74822-46-0
Euro 265.00 (trade discount before publication 40%, after publication 30%)
Due December 2002

Japanese export porcelain. Catalogue of the collection of the Ashmolean
Museum, Oxford.
Oliver Impey
ISBN 90-74822-39-8
Euro 149.75
Due November 2002

Fine & Curious. Japanese export porcelain in Dutch collections.
By Christiaan Jorg
ISBN 90-74822-16-9
Euro 147.50
Due December 2002

Dismissed as Elegant Fossils. Konoe Nobutada and the Role of Aristocrats in
Early Modern Japan.
By Rikki Kersten
Japonica Neerlandica Vol. 9
ISBN 90-74822-52-5
Euro 61.50
Due December 2002

Titia. The first Western woman in Japan
By Rene Bersma
ISBN 90-74822-53-3
Euro 17.50
Due November 2002

Japan verwoord. Nihon door Nederlandse ogen, 1600-1800
By Peter Rietbergen
(in Dutch)
ISBN 90-74822-54-1
Euro 27.00
Due October 2002

For further information or review copies contact
Erik Rasmussen <>

H-Japan book reviews index

European Association for Japanese Studies
27-30 August 2003
University of Warsaw, Poland
Call for papers deadline: October 31, 2002

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