pmjs logs for June 2003. Total number of messages: 61

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* Formal noun yuwe (ni) (Janick Wrona, John Bentley, David Lurie, Rein Raud)
* viruses, spam, diacritics, formatting (Antony Boussemart, Michael Watson)
* Hyakuza query (Charlotte Eubanks, Matthew Stavros, Michael Jamentz, Lee Butler, Niels Guelberg)
* gi" / lexical query 'senshaku' (Thomas Howell, Rokuo Tanaka, Lewis Cook, Noel Pinnington, Niels Guelberg)
* Shinsenseishiroku (Barbara Nostrand, Brian Ruppert, Joan Piggott, John Bentley, William Wetherall)
* position in Nagoya
* July 27 symposium at Meiji Gakuin (Michael Watson)
* Hino Tatsuo, 1940-2003 (Lawrence Marceau)
* Buddhist hermeneutics and Kokinshuu (Aileen Gatten, Thomas Howell, Niels Guelberg, Keller Kimbrough) ...and diffusionist theory (Niels Guelberg)
* Electronic Taisho Tripitaka (Niels Guelberg, Michael Watson, Nobumi Iyanaga)
* Elimination of East Asian Studies Program at Durham University, UK (Philip Brown, Janine Beichman)
* Ansai's Bunkai hitsuroku (Bernard Scheid, James McMullen, Rokuo Tanaka)
* Two Breakthrough Exhibition Catalogues (Barbara Ruch)
* Heian poisons (Ingrid Parker, Thomas Howell, Michael Watson, David Pollack, Ingrid Parker, Andrew Goble, Lawrence Marceau, Aileen Gatten, Beatrice Bodart-Bailey, Rokuo Tanaka)

For proper names and technical terms you may find it helpful to refer to the translation sent out to subscribers as Japanese-language digests 01-04 (index). The pmjs editors would be grateful for any comments and corrections.

Date: Thu, 5 Jun 2003 15:31:37 +0100 (BST)

From: Janick Wrona <>

Subject: Formal noun yuwe (ni)

I'm looking at formal noun (keesiki meesi) constructions in Old Japanese at the moment. In Old Japanese the formal noun *-yuwe (ni)* appears to be able to construct with a modifying clause through the mediation of *ga*. Thus the reading tradition dictates "...to2 omoposu ga yuwe ni" in Senmyoo 26:9 (Kitagawa's edition), but *omoposu* is logographically written, and in fact there are no examples of phonographically written [Adnominal+ga+yuwe(ni)] in the OJ corpus. There are a few examples of [Adnominal+yuwe ni] without *ga* as in M 3.411 and M 16.3814, but none with *ga*.

Now, I seem to recall from my Classical Japanese classes that there are cases in EMJ literature of [Adnominal+ga+yuwe(ni)], but I have been looking high and low for some time now in indices of EMJ texts and Heian grammars, but drawn a complete blank.

Does anyone on the list remember an [Adnominal+ga+yuwe(ni)] example from Early Middle Japanese?

Thanks alot

Janick Wrona
Hertford College
University of Oxford

Date: Thu, 05 Jun 2003 19:48:40 -0500

From: "John Bentley" <>

Subject: Re: ?Formal noun yuwe (ni)

Hi all,

but *omoposu* is logographically written, and in >fact there are no
examples of phonographically >written [Adnominal+ga+yuwe(ni)] in the OJ

There is a partially phonographically spelled
example in the liturgies:

siro2sime1su ga yuwe ni
because (the four quarters) are ruled....

This is from the Tatsuta no kaze no kami no matsuri.

Does anyone on the list remember an Adnominal+ga+yuwe >(ni)] example
from Early Middle Japanese?

Unfortunately, I can't think of any examples to
help you with the last part.

John Bentley

John R. Bentley
Assistant Professor of Japanese
Northern Illinois University

Date: Thu, 05 Jun 2003 23:59:31 -0400

From: David Lurie <>

Subject: Re: Formal noun yuwe (ni)

This sounds like a kundoku usage, which would explain its being scarce in those concordances and grammars. I haven't looked into other, more up-to-date resources, but Tsukishima Hiroshi quotes a phonographic example of "...[shita]maferu ga yuwe ni" from the Ishiyamadera-bon Konkomyo saisho-o kyo (the kunten are late Heian), and also mentions the Utsubo monogatari, Eiga monogatari, and Senzaishu preface in a list of so-called wabun texts that have examples of "no (ga) yuwe ni" (_Heian jidai no kanbun kundokugo ni tsukite no kenkyu_, Tokyo daigaku shuppankai, 1965 [rev. ed.], p. 762 and p. 782).

David Lurie
Assistant Professor of Japanese History and Literature
Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures
Columbia University

Date: Sat, 7 Jun 2003 12:18:38 +0300

From: "Rein Raud" <>

Subject: Re: Formal noun yuwe (ni)

Here are some more examples:

Akahito shu No 217
aiomowazu/aran ga yue ni/tama no o no
nagaki haruhi o/nagekikurashitsu

Sanjo sadaijin-dono senzai utaawase (Jog
en-2, 977) No 47
adanami no/tachiukikishi no/hotori kana
hana no kusagusa/niou ga yue ni



Date: Fri, 6 Jun 2003 11:34:02 +0200

From: "Antony Boussemart" <>

Subject: Ordinateur visite par un virus / virus infected computer

Avec mes plus vifs regrets je dois vous avertir que mon ordinateur a probablement ete visite par un virus. Surtout n'ouvrez aucun message avec une pece-jointe du type "ar505fra.exe.scr"!!!!

Desole pour les inconvenients eventuellement generes.

I am terribly sorry to inform you that my computer has probably been visited by a virus. Please do not open any messages sent supposely by me that has an attachment named "ar505fra.exe.scr"!!!!

Sorry for all the inconveniences.

With all my apologies

Antony Boussemart
EFEO - Library
22, Avenue du President Wilson
75116 Paris France

//French diacritics removed.

Date: Fri, 6 Jun 2003 22:37:17 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: viruses, spam, diacritics, formatting

Dear members,

I'd like to thank Antony Boussemart for his prompt warning. You may be relieved to know that the software used to receive and send out pmjs messages blocks all messages with attachments. My university server does a good job at identifying and removing known viruses, so that they don't even reach my computer (a Macintosh, and therefore at much reduced risk from viruses.) Nonetheless, I continue to take every precaution to protect members from the tedious and potentially dangerous stream of viruses and spam. The maximum size of messages has been set low, at 25 kb, to block HTML (formatted) mail that can contain undesirable images as well as viruses.

Vigilance is important: pmjs members ("standard" and "digest" subscribers alike) should always be cautious of messages with attachments even from a known person or institution (like the virus supposedly from

Spam has never been a problem on this list, touch wood. Although the publicly-listed p...@.... address receives any number of spam messages a day, they are never sent out to you because the senders are not subscribers and only subscribers can send to pmjs.

The only-subscribers-can-post rule is why some of you find a delay in the appearance of messages when you inadvertently sent it from a different address--such mail is diverted to a special account, and sent on to the list only after I have checked the identity of the sender. In many cases I register this second mail account so that you can post directly using it. (This is possible without doubling your pmjs mailbag.)

Spammers get your address by using software to scan web pages for email addresses. The monthly logs of pmjs messages are all password protected. This is also why I operate a strict "opt-in" rule for addresses listed in the pmjs members' database, with the default selection for new subscribers being "opt-out."

While on the problems of email, however, I would like to remind users of a smaller irritant. The use of diacritics is not encouraged on this list--whether of circumflexes or French/German accents. Although they sometimes come through correctly on Japanese systems like the one I run, they frequently turn into kanji. The same is true of the long dash and "smart" (curved) quotation marks and apostrophe. (The kanji CHI of chikan is the unpleasant result of the curved apostrophe.)

For me as editor, diacritics are a nuisance because I cannot send out digests with diacritics AND kanji without using Unicode. Many subscribers are likely to be using older mail software that cannot read Unicode messages. I edit out all diacritics when producing the digest versions. It is a simple enough chore, but I'd be happier not to do it. Please use -ou- -oo- or -o^- if the lack of circumflex would make a romanized term ambiguous--or write the word in kanji too.

I also prefer members to send plain mail not HTML (formatted). This means indicating italics and bold by the usual internet work-arounds (_italicized title_ and *bold emphasis*). One reason is security (again). HTML mail can hide viruses in a way that plain text cannot. Quite innocent messages are sometimes blocked by the 25 kb rule, but this seems a price worth paying. Such messages are diverted to a special account where I can check them before sending them on to the list.

Now back to work!

Michael Watson

Date: Mon, 9 Jun 2003 15:25:00 -0600


Subject: Hyakuza query

Dear List Members,

I am currently working on a translation of the _Hyakuza Hodan Kikigakisho_, a
setsuwa collection dating to the year 1111. In connection to that work, I have
a quick question for the list.

Is anyone aware of other, specificially religious, events that (commonly or
not) were scheduled to last for 100 consecutive days? In the religious sphere,
certainly the hokke hakko, over 8 days, were fairly common. Alternately, in
the realm of folkore, the Ono no Komachi legend (in which she demands that her
would-be suitor appear for 100 consecutive nights) was quite popular. But I
can't think of any religious events that required such a schedule. Any ideas?

Many thanks,
Charlotte Eubanks
ABD, University of Colorado

Date: Tue, 10 Jun 2003 12:20:26 +0900

From: Matthew Stavros <>

Subject: Re: Hyakuza query

100 Days?

Dear Charlotte,

The only thing that comes to mind immediately is the memorial service which honors the departed 100 days after their death. I haven't seen it in many cases but the one I'm most familiar with is that of Emperor Godaigo (Ryakuo 2/11/26). This doesn't have, however, a duration of 100 days.

Best of luck,
Matthew Stavros

// Ryakuo 2 =1339 (Northern Dynasty)

Date: Tue, 10 Jun 2003 21:31:29 +0900

From: Jamentz <>

Subject: Re: Hyakuza query

Hello All,

In regard to the word hyakuza, I would like to suggest a translation of
one-hundred sessions (or more literally seatings).

Such one-hundred-session lecture services seem to have been held fairly often in the 12th century. A cursory check of those led by priests of Agui revealed two occasions when they led services during a fifty-day gyaskushu lecture service (since each day included a morning and evening sessions, there were hyakuza). I also noticed one-hundred day rites for shoukonsai, harai, Sonshou dharani, and nenbutsu rites, but I am not sure whether those would have entailed more than one session a day, or whether the sessions would have been called za. I wonder if it is possible if the word za might imply an audience and suggest an exoteric service rather than an esoteric ritual. Anyone know?

Long ago I did some work on the Hyakuza houdan kikigakisho and think it would be better to avoid calling it a setsuwa collection. It seems to be more of a verbatim record of lectures/sermons on the Lotus Sutra, if memory serves correctly.


From: Lee Butler <>

Date: 2003.Jun.11 00:26:01 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: Re: Hyakuza query


There are examples of 100-day "devotional" (or "good works") baths performed during the medieval era. These were most commonly referred to as seyoku 施浴, though they went by a number of other terms as well. I can give you more details, if you're interested.

Lee Butler

Date: 2003.6.10 23:16:43 Asia/Tokyo

From: Thomas Howell <>

Subject: Re: lexical query: 'senshaku'

Hi all,

Lewis Cook wrote, on the problem of understanding the word senshaku:

I'm still puzzled by the question mentioned above: what other kinds of "gi" might there be than those which are 'interpreted' or a product of interpretation. One possibility is that "shaku-su" in this instance is an abbreviation for 講釈 (koushaku -- an explication delivered aloud, i.e. a 'lecture' in the pre-modern sense of this word) rather than for 解釈 (kaishaku). In that case, the "shaku-suru gi" could perhaps be situated midway between a straightforward grammatical reading of the poem (KKS No. 1) and the more arcane allegorizing interpretation offered in the remainder of the comment in which this phrase occurs.

A few tentative notes on this question, comparing with another commentary text, and assuming they are roughly similar:

In the KKS commentary, the Bishamon-dou KKS chuu I am reading, gi usually refers to the meaning of an individual word in the poem.

Example: KKS 55: 見てのみや人にかたらむさくら花手ごとに折りていえづとにせむ
how can we convey what we have seen, to people in the capital? let us each break off a branch of the flowering cherry, and bring it back as a gift

The commentary says, "iezuto," toiu wa, futsuu no miyagi no gi nari (iezuto ni semu equals "miyagi ni shiyoo," take these as a gift).

This is typical. To give the gi of a word seems to be to give the accepted definition, or definitions. Gi here indicates a different operation, then what we usually mean by interpretation.

When the commentary expresses the meaning of the whole poem, it uses not gi but kokoro. (KKS 34, 54)

When it refers to the historical facts behind the poem, this is koto . Or, secret facts, higoto 秘事. (KKS 501)

When it refers to and quotes an explanation of, or reference to, a word or phrase in the poem, usually from a textual source (named or not), this is setsu, hisetsu, (both 449) honzetu (522). 説、秘説、本説 It seems to me that usually what we mean by "interpretation" falls into this grouping -- giving a basis for stating there is something other in the poem beyond the surface meaning of the words. For instance, an allegorical interpretation.

In light of this, why shaku suru gi? Is it gi because it refers to an individual word in the poem (not the whole poem)? If so, why not just,... toiu gi nari? It does sound like shaku suru wants to indicate, not an act of interpretation, but a specific process or mode of transmission, perhaps oral, like the koushaku Lewis suggests.

Since the commentary passage in question is about Nintoku, I would expect it to be identified as a setsu instead, not a gi. So,, why isnt it a setsu? Because there is no textual source to quote from? No "Nihongi iu...." --?

Tom Howell

From: Rokuo Tanaka <>
Date: 2003.Jun.11 06:54:14 Asia/Tokyo
Subject: Re: lexical query: 'senshaku'

The text _Ryoudokikigaki_ which Prof. Lewis Cook quoted in his initial
query should have read _Kokin Wakashuu Ryoodo Kikigaki_ (6 v. 1472). The
text is a verbatim notes written by Renga Master/Nativist Soogi
(1421-1502) upon having received twice (thus, 'ryoodo') in 1471 oral
transmission of the interpretation of the entire Kokinshuu poems by his mentor
Too no Tsuneyori (1401-ca.1484). This Kikigaki was certified by Tusneyori
in 1472. This process is so-called "Kokin Denju," esoterical transmission
of the 'chuushaku' of the Kokinshuu poems.

So far I am unable to locate Soogi's Kikigaki at our library, except
Katagiri Yooichi's _Kokin Wakashuu Zenhyooshaku_ (3 v. Koodansha, 1998),
v.1, pp 319-326 which touches a bit upon the Kikigaki and Poem number one.

My interpretation of "gi" is as adnominal noun, 'koto,' 'wake,' or
'sujimichi' (reason, logic, circumstances), instead of as plain noun,
'koogi,' 'seppoo' (lectures), 'imi' (meaning), or 'igi' (definition).

Hence, my interpretation (assumption) of the initial query is
"Mazu, kono yoo na wake de kooshaku suru wake (or shidai) de aru..."

Rokuo Tanaka

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Date: 2003.Jun.11 08:54:36 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: Re: lexical query: 'senshaku'

Thanks for these very interesting comments.
I'm pressed for time, so I'll simply forward to the list, in case there is further interest in this topic, a separate message I sent last night in reply to an off-list query, which touches on some of the issues raised below.
(That query, referring to a 15th century text by Zenchiku, suggested that "gi" may have been used by Zenchiku to refer rather broadly to "traditions" associated with specific usages, and I am replying in part to that from the point of view of Ryodokikigaki and associated Joen / Sogi commentaries.)
In forwarding my reply I'll make every effort to delete the original recipient's name / address in case he wishes to remain anonymous, though there is nothing in the query calling for anonymity.

And if I may take this opportunity to make a modest appeal, I wish the membership would feel less inhibition about posting replies or comments to the list. More than half of the pmjs-related messages I receive are off-list. I am guilty of doing the same, especially when writing in haste I prefer not to have impromptu remarks subjected to public scrutiny. But our public here is reasonably limited and generally amicable, and the purpose of this list is after to foster discussion.

With that in mind, a couple of quick comments / queries to Thomas Howell re: KKS Bishimondo-chu: My understanding is that this commentary is rather earlier than Ryodokikigaki (from which my citation came: late 15th c.) -- it was originally billed (when first introduced early 20th c.) as a late Kamakura-era text, though I don't think anyone accepts that today. Still, it does not seem to reflect any direct affiliation with the Nijo or Reizei lineages of the 14th -- 15th c. (and was not cited by them as far as I know), and that would bear out the impression that it is a somewhat idiosyncratic commentary (even or perhaps especially if as the editors of the honkoku suggested it reflects a late Rokujo-ke lineage). Which is just to say that its usage of critical terms such as "gi" may diverge from that of the mainstream. .
I don't mean to deny that this is a fascinating text. I'm encouraged to hear it is receiving careful scrutiny.
May I ask if you are you working with the facsimile edition from Yagi Shoten? If so have you compared that against the old (Taisho era?) honkoku published in the _Mikan kokubungaku kochu taikei_ ? I ask just because the latter is said to be very unreliable, and I wonder if that turns out to be true (since it's the only text readily available to those without the means to buy the high-priced facsimile edition).
I will try to find time to reply to the substance of your comments very soon.

Lewis Cook

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Date: 2003.Jun.11 09:05:55 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: "gi" / lexical query 'senshaku'

(Sorry for cropping some context but I'd just as soon not take the time to retype this, while I also want to preserve the original recipient's anonymity.)

.... I have not read much of Zenchiku, at least not at all recently, but he is closely contemporary with the authors of Ryodokikigaki (and I gather was familiar with some of the same exegetical literature they were), and your suggestion [that this means something close to "tradition" in Zenchiku's usage] makes good sense for a frequent use of "gi" in RDKG.
RDKG (forgive the acronym) is a commentary on Kokinshu, transmitted by To no Tsuneyori (Joen) to Sogi, which purports to (and to some extent clearly does) build upon Nijo Family traditions passed down from Tameyo and after.
One of the puzzles in this text is the usage of "gi." There is a regular distinction in usage between "kokoro" and "gi." The former refers to the intentions of the poet, or of the editors (in placing such and such a poem where they do in KKS), anyway with whatever intentions appear to be embodied in the poem, and to its apparent literal sense (roughly speaking). Every poem thus has a "kokoro" and one form of minimal comment in RDKG (which comments on every poem in KKS whether there is anything to explicate or not) is "kokoro arawa nari" -- 'the sense [of this poem] is manifest (no explication or interpretation called for).'
In some cases, however, another minimal form of comment is used: "gi nashi." Or sometimes these forms are combined: "gi nashi, kokoro arawa nari." So it seems clear that in this text, "gi" is not referring to the grammatical sense or intended (or explicable) meaning of the poem, but to something else.
One complication is that on two occasions (at least) RDKG uses the phrase "gi aru uta" -- and in one of these contexts the implication is that there is a legend or allegorical interpretation attached to the poem which distinguishes it from 'ordinary' KKS poems.
This seems very close to your "tradition that..." -- which I think is a good way of handling "gi" in such cases. (One problem is that there also poems identified as"narai no aru uta" -- these tend to be poems regarding which there are teachings handed down which must be learned, meanings which cannot be inferred from grammar or conventional usage -- and this is certainly one form of tradition.)
My tentative conclusion has been that "gi" typically refers either (a) to a more or less esoteric interpretation which is 'attached' or assigned to a poem, not derived from its literal sense but from context, association or attribution (poems attributed to deities, e.g., or emperors) which can only be known through a transmitted teaching (or legend, or indeed tradition), or (b) to an interpretation which is for some reason disputed or open to debate (in a way which the grammatical sense of a poem is not, ideally at least). So that "gi nashi" can either mean there is no such esoteric interpretation, or there is nothing in dispute or debatable (beyond the grammatical sense fo the poem).
It is clear how (a) and (b) could converge, since (a) would represent interpretations held exclusively within one or another transmission or lineage, while (b) would represent the differenda among those lineages. At least, this is my conjecture for now. (I've been meaning to write a paper on the subject for many years, but can't imagine much of an audience for such a paper in English...)
I'd be grateful for further thoughts or comments.

Best regards,

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Date: 2003.Jun.11 12:06:59 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: Re: lexical query: 'senshaku'

Mr. Tanaka has inadvertently (I suppose) raised a question of considerable interest, to me, at least, regarding the putative title of the Joen - Sogi commentary now conventionally referred to by specialists (concisely) as _Ryodo kikigaki_ (or even "RDKG"), and (verbosely) by bibliographers, booksellers, and others as _Kokinwakashu Ryodokikigaki_: namely, when did this text -- which was almost certainly referred to by its primary authors by the generic title "Kokin[waka]shu kikigaki" (as reflected in the 'naidai' to the earliest known manuscript) -- acquire the colloquial designation "RDKG"?
This problem is pervasive. (The so-called _Bishamondo Kokinshu-chu_ referred to earlier in this thread, for example, was not likely known by that name before the 20th c.) We have to give titles for the benefit of the LOC et al. to texts which were not published nor meant to be made into books but to be transmitted discreetly, to recipients for whom generic titles were sufficient because even if there were a dozen other similarly or identically named commentaries in circulation elsewhere (as there apparently were at any given time from around the mid-14th to early 16th centuries), the only one which mattered was one's own "received" text, which required no title because it was as a matter of definition (or affiliation) the sole authoritative KKS commentary.
It is not only librarians who need worry about such matters. I don't think it could have meant much to refer to 'RDKG' as book (a text in need of a standardized -- if there is any other kind -- title) until it was published in woodblock format early in the 17th century, and we should (I think) keep in mind that that book is not at all the same entity, much less the same text, as the thing Joen transmitted to Sogi in 1471.
(I'm assuming -- I hope this much is clear -- that digressions are allowed on pmjs...)

Lewis Cook

From: Barbara Nostrand <>

Date: 2003.Jun.12 15:41:14 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: Shinsenseishiroku


Does anyone know of a published version of the ninth century
document: Shinsenseishiroku ?? There appears to be a number of
studies about this work, but they are not local and they are
rather too numerous and expensive to go after blindly. Thank
you very much.

Barbara Nostrand

From: "Brian Ruppert" <>

Date: 2003.Jun.12 20:43:20 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: Re: Shinsenseishiroku

Dear Barbara,

I imagine you're referring to Shinsen shouji roku, compiled in 815. It's a
very famous lineage chart on the clans of the Kyoto region, including almost 1200 families.

One interesting thing about it is that it indicates directly the extremely
large number of clans of recently immigrant origins. It's in the "miscellaneous" section of the Gunsho Ruijuu collection (no. 448, vol. 3; note versions often differ in terms of the vol. #), Shinchuu kougaku sousho (新注皇学叢書) 4 and more recently in Shinto Taikei koten hen 6; the classic work on the subject in Japanese is by Saeki Arikiyo 佐伯有清, called "Shinsen shouji roku no kenkyuu," although I think that a major study has recently been conducted (a search of the Kokkai toshokan database could probably help here). Perhaps one of our other colleagues knows about an article in English or a Western language on this? There are presumably large numbers in Japanese, as you suggest in
your note.

Good luck!

Brian O. Ruppert
Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures
University of Illinois

The 9th-century work is often (and perhaps more correctly) read "Shinsen shoushi roku" but WebCat reads the title of Saeki's study as "Shinsen seishi roku no kenkyuu" <>

新撰姓氏録の研究 / 佐伯有清著

--pmjs editor

From: Joan Piggott <>

Date: 2003.Jun.12 23:25:44 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: Re: Shinsenseishiroku

Hello Barbara,

I don't use it much but I know the extensive series by Saeki Arikiyo includes the text and his ample research thereon. Cornell has it as do many other research collections. I should think that is what you want.


Joan Piggott

From: John Bentley <>

Date: 2003.Jun.12 23:39:42 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: Re: Shinsenseishiroku

Hi Barbara,

Tanaka Takashi also has a one-volume book
on Shinsen shoujiroku, titled
Shinsen shoujiroku no kenkyuu (popular title,
I assume).

I would highly recommend Tanaka's edition of
Shinsen shoujiroku found in Shintou Taikei,
which includes the text from Kurita Hiroshi with
his copious commentary. Saeki's nine-volume work
is great, but if you would like something in a
one-volume edition, then perhaps the Shintou
Taikei edition is the best choice.


John R. Bentley
Assistant Professor of Japanese
Northern Illinois University

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: 2003.Jun.13 00:07:28 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: position in Nagoya

The Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nagoya City
University (and the Department of Intercultural Studies, School of
Humanities and Social Sciences) is recruiting an associate
professor/lecturer of Japanese studies or comparative culture (including
Japanese culture) as follows:

Position: One permanent associate professorship or lecturership in Japanese studies or comparative culture including Japanese culture in the Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nagoya City University (and the Department of Intercultural Studies, School of Humanities and Social Sciences)

Salary & Others: Annual Salary: Between approx. 5 million and 7 million
yen, depending on experience (Tax included). In addition, there are: 1)
annual increase in salary, and 2) allowances: transport, housing and others

Qualifications: 1) MA (Ph.D. preferred)

2) A native speaker of English or a person with an equal English ability
with a strong commitment to English education

3) A Japanese ability good enough to participate in faculty activities

4) Up to 42 years of age at date of employment (April 1, 2004)

Application Deadline: September 5, 2003

Date of Employment: April 1, 2004

Inquiries: Akira Morita, e-mail:

From: Noel John Pinnington <>

Date: 2003.Jun.13 04:31:09 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: Re: "gi" / lexical query 'senshaku'

(By the way, some portion of Thomas Howell's valuable message would not
display on my Macintosh until I tried to reply to it! This kind of thing has
happened before, I wonder why.)

Just a brief question (on, rather than off, list this time) - what then is a
setsu? Ichijo Kanera refers to the rokurin ichiro diagrams as a "setsu." One
would normally think of it as an object requiring a setsu (ie interpretation
or explanation) and indeed Kanera uses calls his own (Confucian)
interpretation "kyouoku no setsu." Was he just unclear himself what to call
the diagrams, or was he using the term within some contemporary
terminological convention?

Noel Pinnington

// We've had moji bake trouble of different kinds recently.

So far I haven't found the cause--it may be a combination of factors. / mgw

From: William Wetherall <>

Date: 2003.Jun.13 08:15:35 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: Shinsenseishiroku

The following book is the most useful study in English of the Shinsen
shojiroku. It gives very detailed breakdowns of the clans recorded in the
peerage by uji and kabane and is an excellent guide when turning to texts
and studies in Japanese.

Richard J. Miller
Ancient Japanese Nobility
(The Kabane Ranking System)
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974
University of California Publications
Occasional Papers
Number 7: History
Paper, xii, 209

Bill Wetherall

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Date: 2003.Jun.13 11:05:18 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: Re: "gi" / lexical query 'senshaku'

Forgive me for being terse. My own preference is to translate "setsu" -- another technical term frequent in medieval commentary -- as "gloss" or, more precisely, "scholium." In my experience people under 50 don't get the latter at all, but it's a close fit, since it refers to interpretations identifiable with one or another school. In RDKG, the most common usage of "setsu" is either "taryuu no setsu ..." (other school's glosses... -- almost invariably cited for dismissal) or "mata no setsu" (referring to an alternative gloss entertained within the Nijo School) There is certainly some overlap with "gi" (the terms are not mutually exclusive) though none with "kokoro."

Lewis Cook

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Date: 2003.Jun.13 14:29:13 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: Re: "gi" / lexical query 'senshaku'

Replying in haste to Thomas Howell's most recent message, let me cut and snip:

Katagiri does say there are a number of copying errors in the Mikan
edition which led him to prepare the Yagi shoten ed., but I didn't get the
impression that it went so far as to be "very unreliable,"

Two items, briefly: (1) the Mikan ed. honkoku of the Bishamondo-bon KKS-chu has long been regarded as unreliable. This is not something that awaited Katagiri's notice. The point is that back in the early 20th c. such medieval (i.e., pre-Kokugaku) commentaries were not taken too seriously, and thus were transcribed rather freely.
(2) What led Katagiri to prepare the Yagi Shoten facsimile ed. was not concern about transcription errors but the fact that (unless I am mistaken) he is the proud owner of the unique manuscript of the Bishamondo KKS-chu,, which had been missing for decades after being sold to an anonymous buyer at auction.

The problem of the distinction in meaning of gi and kokoro your >correespondent wrote to you, reflects much of what I was trying to

Not to sound proprietary, but it was not my correspondent who made that distinction...


In the interests of space, and time, I won't go on further, except to say
that in B, for KKS 409, the commentary begins with this expression, 此歌
当流に別義なし. In this lineage there is no particular dispute over meanings of words(?)

KKS 409 is a touchstone for the whole complicated tradition of KKS commentary so it's important to get this right. "In this lineage no other [esoteric] interpretations of this poem [are accepted]." would be my approximation. In fact, almost every lineage holds in reserve multi-level allegorical interpretations of this poem and yet most deny that any such things exist until you've paid your tuition ( -- sort of like graduate school, no?)

L Cook

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: 2003.Jun.13 23:49:21 Asia/Tokyo

Subject: July 27 symposium at Meiji Gakuin

Like a good many people on this list, I am looking forward to the European Association of Japanese Studies (EAJS) conference this summer in Warsaw (Aug. 27-29, details at

A number of speakers in the literature and performing arts sections have kindly agreed to give their EAJS papers--or other work-in-progress--at a small symposium at the main Tokyo campus of Meiji Gakuin. Any pmjs members who would like to come are cordially invited. Pass on the information as appropriate.

Title: Gender kenkyu to nihon kenkyu
Date: July 27 (Sunday) from 1:00 p.m.
Place: Meiji Gakuin University Shirokane Campus
(Minato-ku). Honkan 10F.

As the final order of presentations has not been decided, speakers are listed in alphabetical order. Some presentations will be in Japanese, some in English.

Monika Dix (University of British Columbia)
"Women, Myth,and Buddhism: Transformed Representations of the Legend of Chujohime in Medieval Japanese Narratives"

Ii Haruki (Osaka University)
"Poetry in the Tale of Genji"

Jinno Hidenori (Waseda University)
"Fact and Fiction in Utsuho monogatari: The position of the Genji in Heian monogatari"

Kanechiku Nobuyuki (Waseda University)
"Waka and Customs in the Meiji Era - The Tosei fuzoku goju ban uta-awase (1905)"

Kido Kuniko (Tokai Women's Junior College)
"Fictional tradition and historical reality - Narihira and Lady Ise in medieval commentaries of Ise monogatari"

Rajyashree Pandey (LaTrobe University)
"Desire and Disgust: Meditations on the Body in Hosshinshuu and
Kankyo no tomo"

Roberta Strippoli (Universita di Napoli "L'Orientale")
"Utau, Kazou, Fumu: Fragments of Shirabyoshi Performance in Historical and Literary Documents"

Takakuwa Izumi (National Research Institute for Cultural Properties,Tokyo)
Takemoto Mikio (Waseda University)
"The Reconstruction of Sotoba Komachi"

Michael Watson (Meiji Gakuin University)
"How Gio Saves her Father's Life: Innovations to the Gio Legend in Noh"

Yamanaka Reiko (Hosei University Noh Research Institute)

Other participants include:

Joshua Mostow (University of British Columbia)
Machiko Midorikawa (Kanto Gakuin University)
Niimi Akihito (University of Waseda) [shinkouyaku / in charge of introductions]
Waseda kochuu kenkyuukai

[diacritics omitted]

The conference itself is free, but participants are requested to sign up using the form at
so that we can make up name tags and the program, and work out numbers for the refreshments.

Best wishes,

Michael Watson

Date: Sun, 15 Jun 2003 21:08:30 +0900 (JST)

From: Lawrence Marceau<>

Subject: [pmjs] Hino Tatsuo, 1940-2003

I have just learned that Hino Tatsuo, Professor
Emeritus of Japanese literature at Kyoto University,
passed away on the morning of June 15, 2003, after a long
illness. He was 63. The author of _Sorai gakuha_,
_Norinaga to Akinari_, and _Hattori Nankaku ron_, among
other studies, Prof. Hino also edited, annotated, and
contributed to a large number of scholarly editions. As
an educator, Prof. Hino directed scores of students, both
Japanese and international, in the fundamentals of
research in Japanese literature and literary thought.

Lawrence Marceau

Date: Mon, 16 Jun 2003 18:07:12 +0900


To: Multiple recipients of pmjs <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: lexical query: 'senshaku'

I checked my electronic Taisho Tripitaka and got several hundred hits
for senshaku. As Lewis Cook noted, there are lot of examples in Chinese
Tendai texts (in Tannen's Gengi shakusen I found 149 examples).
Most of these examples may be interpretated as "mazu wa (or: saki
ni) .... wo shakusu", but I had at least two examples which should be
interpreted as a binom. I list them up:
妙法蓮華經義記卷第六 光宅寺沙門法雲撰
大般涅槃經疏卷第十二 隋章安頂法師撰

I do not specialize in Chinese Buddhism, but it seems possible that
senshaku was used as a hermeneutical term. (You have to get more
examples to prove this.)

This brings me to a different question: Is there any evidence that
there was a use of hermeneutical patterns from the Holy Scriptures
in waka hermeneutics beside terminology?
In European medieval studies, we had a long debate in the 60s and
70s about the use of typology, which is in the strict sense a method to
interpret the Bible (to interpret the New Testament through the Old
A group around Friedrich Ohly from Muenster University postulated the
use of half-biblical and extra-biblical typology, in which one or both
of the two parts of the typology are not from the Bible but from secular
literature. I found their arguments very convincing, and every time
I came around one of these funny medieval interpretations of Kokinshuu
poems, I wondered if there was a pattern behind it which may come from Buddhist
hermeneutics. (No one of my Japanese collegues could give me a hint,
because the people who are specialized in buddhist hermeneutics do not
read medieval poetics and vice versa.)

Niels Guelberg

Date: Mon, 16 Jun 2003 18:15:21 +0900


Subject: [pmjs] Re: Hyakuza query

There is a german dissertation on the _Hyakuza Hodan Kikigakisho_ by
Joachim Glaubitz, submitted to Hamburg University. I have seen only a partial
extraxt of this unpublished work, but there should be a complete translation.
Religious events are scheduled even up to one thousend days. I'm
working on the _Koumyou shingon_ belief, and there are often sessions lasting for
hundred (ore several hundred) days.

Niels Guelberg

Date:: Tue, 17 Jun 2003 08:51:06 -0600


Subject: Hyakuza query

Thank you to everyone on the list for your kind and informative responses to
my query about the _Hyakuza_! I will be leaving the country, and will not have
regular access to email again until July 20th. I hope the discussion continues
without me.

Charlotte Eubanks

Date:: Mon, 16 Jun 2003 13:15:47 -0700

From: Noel John Pinnington <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: lexical query: 'senshaku'

Referring to the cross application of hermeneutical patterns onto secular /
artistic matters, an example may be the interpretative model closely related
to the honji suijaku conception of reality (that is the theory of
structurally similar temporary manifestations of deep realities) that was
widely applied in medieval discussions, including those of waka, sarugaku
and perhaps renga.

It is worth noting that the conception of honji suijaku has both what might
be thought of as a strictly Buddhist reading (absolute reality is manifest
in the phenomenal world) a more problematic personal reading (the historical
Buddha manifests an ancient absolute Buddha (the problem being the nature of
this ancient Buddha - is he an individual and what is his relationship to
the whole of absolute reality?) to a non-Buddhist view of the world
(particular deep spiritual realities appear at different places in
apparently different particular guises as indicated by structural
similarities - the non-Buddhist element being the multiplicity of deep
realities) (This non-Buddhist aspect of some uses of honji suijaku is
discussed by Alice Matsunaga in her book on honji-suijaku). This last
version is used to absorb local religions into the Buddhist world-view as
well as to argue for the unity of the three creeds in China and Japan. (A
typical argument operates by relating the 5 Confucian classics to 5 types of
Buddhist scripture. The numbers (as well as other apparent coincidences)
point to deep identity). This type of honji-suijaku is also seen in artistic
discussions, particularly where an attempt is being made to indicate deep
identity between religious and cultural phenomena - for example the Kyorai
Futeisho argument about Tendai and waka, or attempts to identify dharani and
waka. You can read such arguments as a mere setting up of analogies, but
certainly some thinkers adopt the position that, for example, waka is not
only like Buddhism, at a deep level it is identical to Buddhism, differences
being phenomenal ie superficial.

In the fifteenth century we see similar arguments in Zenchiku's work - that
sarugaku is a manifestation of the same mind that gives rise to waka, that
the sarugaku path is structurally identical to Buddhist and non-Buddhist
accounts of cosmological manifestation (this follows arguments similar to
those used in discussions of the unity of the three creeds), and that
sarugaku tradition is in effect a Shinto tradition. Zenchiku both explicitly
and implicitly uses the (debased) honji suijaku metaphysics to discover and
argue for hidden / secret identities of various kinds. Shinkei, like
Zenchiku, uses quotations from Confucian, Taoist as well as Buddhist works
to support - or reverberate with - theories being presented about renga, and
it may be that his reasoning is similar: the renga path at some level is
equivalent to other profound accounts of reality.

What we see then are arguments developed in Buddhism to deal with certain
theoretical problems converted into an interpretative method related to a
particular model of reality - not necessarily strictly Buddhist - which is
then applied on the one hand to problems of the legitimacy of Buddhism in
the face of Confucian claims (three creeds), and on the other to solve
incompatibilities between Buddhism and local religions. This interpretative
model is then used to legitimize and deepen literary and artistic theories.

Noel Pinnington

Date: Mon, 16 Jun 2003 17:19:31 -0400

From: Aileen Gatten <>

Subject: [pmjs] Buddhist hermeneutics and Kokinshuu

With regard to Niels Guelberg's query about those quirky medieval interpretations of Kokinshuu and other Heian poetry collections, I recommend Susan Blakeley Klein's "Allegories of Desire: Esoteric Literary Commentaries of Medieval Japan," Harvard Monograph Series, 2002. It focuses on Tachikawa Shingon readings of Ise monogatari and Kokinshuu.
Aileen Gatten

Date:: Tue, 17 Jun 2003 14:41:33 -0700

From: Thomas Howell <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Buddhist hermeneutics and Kokinshuu

In Susan Blakeley Klein's book, see especially pp 21-22, which takes up the issue of typology in Bible interpretation which Niels Guelberg described, and compares it to the Japanese case.

Tom Howell

On Monday, June 16, 2003, at 02:19 PM, Aileen Gatten wrote:

With regard to Niels Guelberg's query about those quirky medieval interpretations of Kokinshuu and other Heian poetry collections, I recommend Susan Blakeley Klein's "Allegories of Desire: Esoteric Literary Commentaries of Medieval Japan," Harvard Monograph Series, 2002. It focuses on Tachikawa Shingon readings of Ise monogatari and Kokinshuu.

Date: Wed, 18 Jun 2003 03:45:18 -0400

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: lexical query: 'senshaku'

Thanks very much, Niels, for looking into this and offering such promising suggestions. (I did not I'm afraid myself note any examples in Chinese Tendai texts since I've never found any, was just speculating.)
I am grateful for your report of these two instances, the second of which appears unambiguously to be using "senshaku" as a binomial, possibly a technical term, to refer to distinctions among graduated levels or stages of interpretation of a kind which could well have been a precedent for the schema of segregated levels of interpretation, understanding, preparedness for initiation, etc., that are so much a part of Kokindenju textbooks (of which RDKG was one).
Let's allow there is some room for ambiguity (and thus for further investigation). I've never encountered "senshaku" in Muromachi KKS commentaries elsewhere than in the RDKG note cited.... But I am very much encouraged to pursue the lead you have offered.
(Could you divulge by the way how obtainable the CD-ROM version of the Taisho Tripitika might be?)
In response to your different question (if I may assume that by 'Holy Scriptures' you refer inter alia to Tendai texts), there can't be any question that at least in the field of waka hermeneutics as of the 14th and 15th centuries (and after) the application of patterns (if I correctly understand this to mean relatively concerted, synthetic schemata of interpretation as opposed say to the more or less contingent analogical or figurative uses of Tendai terminology encountered for example in the opening pages of Shunzei's _Koraifuteisho_) becomes a critical element in the enterprise of allegoretic interpretation. (And not only Tendai -- do read, as others have advised, Susan Klein's recently published, henceforth indispensable study of these matters, with special reference to Shingon and Tachikawa Buddhism.)
To cite one example from _Kobun_ 古聞 (1481 --)., Sogi's more or less personal retake on RDKG, commenting on KKS 983 ("waga io wa miyako no tatsumi..."), we are told, 「裏云、我庵とは王舎城也、我とは 心王也、天台に王即心王舎即五蘊と釈す.... This is one of a great many such interpretations in Nijo School readings of KKS which are clearly based on something more than transposed terminology.
On the other hand, ironically enough, you can find very early in the same text (_Kobun_) the assertion that one great virtue of KKS is that it (or its editors, as opposed by implication to its later readers?) had no need to 'borrow' the doctrinal or practical dharmas (if I am getting this right) of Tendai.
Quoting a fragment from a lengthy comment on the titular graphs "Kokin": 「混沌未分之処教禅之二法を不借して知事は此集之徳也、尤大切之 理也」
(I suspect this may amount to a none-too-subtle claim of the absolute originality of KKS, against which Buddhistic [and neo-Confucian, & Taoist] hermeneutical schemata were not to be taken as more than expedient / heuristic supplements, but I'm not at all sure whether such proto-nativist motives are yet at work here, or whether this is just another manifestation of the prevalent syncretic 'one size fits all [if properly stretched]' logic of hoben [upaya], another lesson Muromachi hermeneuts learned from Mahayanist teachings.)
re: your further question, I'll try to offer suggestions from what little I know soon. I've heard varying accounts of a 'diffusionist' theory according to which a fourfold typological scheme for exegesis of sacred or gnomic texts was ported from India westward, way back when, facilitated by Alexander's conquests, and thence eventually became the model or at least inspiration for the medieval patristic 4-level typological scheme of Biblical interpretation., and otherwise to China, with the diffusion and propagation of Buddhist doctrine there. (But then there are also three-fold, four- and five and 7 and 8 and 44 [Midrashic] and 84-level [Buddhistic] and more such schemes; the sheer prevalence and abundance of these seems to undermine diffusionist explanations.).
Some of this speculation was imparted to me by Ishigami Hidemi, the one Japanese scholar I know of who is well acquainted with both medieval Japanese Buddhism and Muromachi waka glossographics (an ambidexterity which seems to have cost him his academic career). Ishigami once attributed one version of the diffusionist theory to a German scholar writing in the 70's but could tell me nothing more specific. (I believe I once read a suggestion close to this in the classic _Homer the Theologian_ [Robert Lamberton], but not sure).
The most persuasive versions of such fourfold Buddhistic typologies I've run into -- well enough exemplified by the 解深秘経 -- seem oriented by an ironic assurance that at the deepest level of profundity the initiate is led (or ejected) back to the surface, only now equipped to know there is nothing to be had but the requisite experience of overcoming illusions of an elsewhere (reminiscent of late Wittgenstein, maybe Sartre, or Deleuze, not to mention Frank Baum or Lewis Carroll?) No telling whether the masters of the Kokindenju took such matters as literally as they did the business of collecting tuition. Perhaps they were enlightened enough not to worry about such fine distinctions..
And do you also have that CD-ROM of the Tendaishu Zensho? (I believe it was advertised some years ago on pmjs.) That would be another place to look for occurrences of "senshaku." (I've been meaning to try getting a copy.)

L Cook

Date: Mon, 23 Jun 2003 12:46:31 +0900


Subject: [pmjs] Re: Buddhist hermeneutics and Kokinshuu

Many thanks to Aileen Gatten and Noel Pinnington. Noel
has pointed out a very interesting question, with which I
would heartly agree, but it is a very broad understanding of
the concept of hermeneutics.

It was my own fault, because my question was too general,
but I am mainly interested in buddhist hermeneutics in the
strict sense, i.e. the art of interpreting Holy Scriptures.
For example, most of the interpretations are divided into three
steps: (1) exposition of the general meaning (述大意), (2)
explaining the title of the work (釋題目) and (3) showing the
partition of the text (判文段).

This is a general hermeneutic pattern in Chinese Buddhist
scriptures and it is also widely used in Japanese writings.
Such a pattern is a relatively objective one, you can check
a text if there is such a pattern in it or not, and there is no
necessity to ask about it's meaning in the first.
(The senshaku problem is linked to that: most cases of a
termological use of senshaku can be found in the Chinese
commentaries on sutras, so it may be linked to a specific
hermeneutical pattern.)

Coming back to Noel's comments on the honji-suijaku
pattern, it would be necessary to show that honji-suijaku
had developed as a hermeneutical pattern, i.e. that it was
first used to explain Buddhist scriptures. (As far as I know,
there are not many studies about late Heian commentary
literature on buddhist scriptures.)

On June, 08th, we had a very interesting presentation of a paper
at the Bukkyou bungakkai by Watanabe Mariko, in which she
argued, that Sonshun used waka in his 16th century commentary
on the Lotus sutra (_Jurin shuuyoushuu_, 1512) not as houben
to make the sutra more comprehensible, but as texts equivalent to the
Holy scriptures.

I have for a long time studied with Yamada Shouzen, so the idea
of waka as houben is quite natural for me, for example the use
of waka as means to explain the Lotus sutra in Takamichi shuu
or in the Houmon hyakushu of Jakuzen. In these cases, you can
hardly argue like Watanabe, but in the case of Sonshun it seems
to be a little bit different.

If Watanabe is right in her opinion, it would be quite natural to
explain these non-_houben_ _waka_ with the same hermeneutic
methods than the Holy scriptures.

Sicerelly yours,

Niels Guelberg

Date: Mon, 23 Jun 2003 13:04:56 +0900


Subject: [pmjs] Electronic Taisho Tripitaka

To all members on the list:

The electronic Taisho Tripitaka is a project which was for a long time
a job of Charles A. Mueller (member of the pmjs-list).
There is an online-database in Taiwan (the CBETA project),
which has the complete Indian and Chinese part of the T. (vols. 1-56
and 85).

It is in BIG5-Code and was completed in 2001. For a long time it was
downloadable, but recently you can only check it through a search

CD-ROM: Some years ago, the publisher of the Taisho tripitaka published
five (or six) CD's, all about 20,000 Yen. It was sold before the CBETA-
project (and I bought it), but it is quite expensive.

The Tendaishu has published a two volume CD-ROM, mainly containing
the works of Chih-I. The texts are for Japanese computers, so you
can read it in SJIS-code. Each of the CD-ROMs is about 3,000 Yen.
The texts are in APP-formate (named after Urs App, who published
the Zentext database), so you have a lot of stars in your text (for the
_gaiji_ not in the SJIS-code), but you can check the text easily.
Niels Guelberg

Date: Mon, 23 Jun 2003 14:13:03 -0400

From: "R. Keller Kimbrough" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Buddhist hermeneutics and Kokinshuu

Hello everyone,

Although I have not seen or heard Watanabe Mariko's paper, Sonshun's
_Hokekyo jurin shuuyoushou_ is a text that I have been doing some work on
for the past couple of years. Niels Guelberg explains that Watanabe posits
that Sonshun uses waka in his commentary not as houben, but as "texts
equivalent to the holy scriptures." This is certainly the case, considering
that Sonshun's work is written from the perspective of medieval Tendai
Original Enlightenment thought, which ultimately allows for no distinction
between scriptural and non-scriptural texts. Futhermore, in the "Dharani
chapter" of his work, Sonshun discusses at some length the platitude that
"waka are the dharani of Japan" (an idea that begins to show up in Japanese
commentarial works from around the thirteenth century). In _Jurin
shuuyoushou_ and other fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Tendai Lotus Sutra
commentaries (_Ichijou shuugyokushou_ [1488] and _Jikidanshou_ [1546], for
example), waka are often (mis)interpreted according to the conventions of
medieval Tendai hermeneutics (what Jacqueline Stone has so well described as
kanjin-style hermeneutics) as a means of explicating the Dharma.


Date: Mon, 23 Jun 2003 09:46:21 -0400

From: "Philip C. Brown" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Elimination of East Asian Studies Program at Durham University, UK

I forwarded the following to H-Japan yesterday, but thought I
would also send it to PMJS. Note that this department includes
Professor Gina Barnes, eminent archeologist of Japan/Korea.
Material with which I am familiar suggests that only the language
positions in the department will be assigned to other parts of the
university. There are no explicit plans currently circulating for
retention of other faculty in other parts of the university. Note
that the vote is scheduled for Tuesday GMT although, technically,
a discussion period supposedly began a couple of days ago, in
principle to last for about three months. I can't reconcile in my
own mind the difference implicit in these two approaches.

Philip Brown
Ohio State University

Forwarded message:

From: Naomi Standen <>

Dear Colleagues,

The management at the University of Durham (UK) is proposing to
close the Department of East Asian Studies, chiefly on the grounds that
it is not cost-effective (grounds that the Department energetically
disputes). It seems inevitable that closure must involve
job-losses, since tenure no longer exists in Britain. The University
management is planning to ask the University Senate to make the decision on
Tuesday of next week (24 June), having informed the Department of
the proposal only two days ago (17 June).

To this audience I need hardly reiterate the arguments for
retaining teaching and research capacity in this subject. An address for the
expression of concern at this proposed closure is given at the end
of the attached statement from the Department.

For those unfamiliar with the UK system of higher education, it
may help if I point out that this proposal comes in a context of an
audit culture that has been intensifying and deepening over the last
dozen years or so, and which now sees all departments ranked by their
putative "quality" of research, and again for their teaching. The
timing of the announcement is also significant in the UK context,
since this is precisely the time of year - the very week, in many
cases - when the teaching for the year is being wrapped up in
large, important, and time-consuming meetings that decide on students'
degree classifications and which often take senior members of
faculty away from their own institutions to provide external input for
other departments in their field.

Please write to Sir Kenneth with your concerns.

Naomi Standen (PhD, Durham)
Lecturer in Chinese History
University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Durham University Department of East Asian Studies

Durham University has recommended to its Senate and Executive
Committee that the Department of East Asian Studies be abolished,
with the last intake of students in October 2003.

East Asian Studies in Durham has a history of over 50 years, with
a huge investment in human and library resources. The Department of
East Asian Studies (DEAS) believes the University's
recommendations are based on poor evidence and motivated by a desire to make an
example of a few departments seen as peripheral and teaching
unimportant subjects. We do not share the apparent view of Senior
Management of the University of East Asian Studies as a minor,
insignificant subject, which would be no loss to the University,
the region and the country.

DEAS produces around 50 highly-qualified graduates each year with
specialist language skills and expertise in other fields (East
Asian business, Chinese/ Japanese literature, history, archaeology etc.)
The loss to East Asian Studies in the UK from the closure of this
department would be great, but the regional and international
impact of closing down an active department with close links with
Japanese, Chinese and Korean partner institutions abroad and with businesses
in the North East would be immense. The position of the Oriental
Museum without a departmental context is unclear, as are the effects on
Teikyo University and its associated investment. Relationships
with East Asian institutions are built up slowly, and Durham benefits
from promotion of its reputation not only within DEAS but also in its
ability to attract East Asian nationals to other courses. It is
difficult to overestimate the effect on Durham's reputation among
this group should a decision be taken to abolish the study of East
Asia, its peoples, cultures and languages.

The Dean of Arts set out on 19 June criteria on which the
decisions to close DEAS had been made. These included: research strength;
potential for improved performance; regional impact; student
numbers and national market; leadership within department; financial
implications. On each count the Department of East Asian Studies
has fulfilled and exceeded expectations.

-- research performance has increased several fold since the
equivalent period during the last Research Assessment Exercise
-- student numbers have increased and are set to exceed quota for
-- the national market figures for Chinese and Japanese is growing;
DEAS alone has over 60 confirmed candidates for October 2003 (as
do our counterparts at Sheffield, let alone Leeds, SOAS, Edinburgh,
and Oxbridge)
-- the university treasury has conceded that the figures on which
the deans based their deliberations are inaccurate (in terms of
contribution rate, by nearly fifty percent), and corrected figures
show the department in a significantly more favourable light.

DEAS has a very diverse staff and student group. Graduates have
excellent employment prospects with high income levels. We
interview all students to ensure that students from poor backgrounds with
high potential are encouraged. We take part in the University's July
workshops for low participation neighbourhood pupils to encourage
them to apply to a university. We work with local schools to
promote the study of East Asian languages and cultures.The Department was
awarded the regional Languages for Export first prize in the HE
category in the last two competitions 1999 and 2001.

Please direct expressions of concern at the university's proposals
The Vice Chancellor, Sir Kenneth Calman
Old Shire Hall, Durham, DH1 3HP


Date: Tue, 24 Jun 2003 00:27:58 +0900
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: [pmjs] Re: Electronic Taisho Tripitaka

Niels Guelberg mentioned that

The electronic Taisho Tripitaka is a project which was for a long time
a job of Charles A. Mueller (member of the pmjs-list).

Charles Muller is not on pmjs, as it happens, but his valuable collection of web resources can be found at

For the "machine-readable text-database of the Taisho Tripitaka" see

Michael Watson

Date: Tue, 24 Jun 2003 02:02:20 +0900

From: Nobumi Iyanaga <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Electronic Taisho Tripitaka

See also:


Best regards,

Nobumi Iyanaga

Date: Mon, 23 Jun 2003 13:34:20 +0900

From: janine <>

Subject: [pmjs] Elimination of East Asian Studies Program at Durham University, UK

If there's a petition to sign, I'd sign it: has anyone written one yet?

Janine Beichman, Dept. of Japanese Literature
Daito Bunka University, Tokyo

Date: Mon, 23 Jun 2003 15:46:35 -0400

From: Philip Brown <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Elimination of East Asian Studies Program at Durham University, UK

I don't think a petition has been developed; supporters seem to be relying more on individual letters.

-Date: Tue, 24 Jun 2003 12:18:35 +0200

From: "Bernhard Scheid" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Ansai's Bunkai hitsuroku

Dear members,

For a lexicon entry I have to translate the title of Yamazaki Ansai's
main work on Neo-Confucianism, Bunkai hitsuroku. So far, I only found
"Notes", a suggestion by Herman Ooms (1985), which feels somehow too
unspecific. I myself tend to something like "Notes on Scholarly
Encounters". Is there any established translation or has anybody a
better suggestion?

Thank you for your help.

Bernhard Scheid

Date: Tue, 24 Jun 2003 16:49:17 +0800

From: James McMullen <>

Subject: [pmjs] Bunkai hitsuroku

'Bunkai' is a reference to Analects XII, 24: The philosopher Tseng said, 'The superior man *on grounds of culture meets* with his friends, and by their friendship helps his virtue.' (Legge's translation). The translation adopted should acknowledge this somehow.

James McMullen

Date: Tue, 24 Jun 2003 12:38:39 -0400

From: Barbara Ruch <>

Subject: [pmjs] [Fwd: Two Breakthrough Exhibition Catalogues]


Two breakthrough exhibitions in the area of Women and Buddhism took place this
spring in Kyoto and Nara. The Institute for Medieval Japanese Studies will be
happy to facilitate the purchase of one or both of these in dollars for the
convenience of those who cannot easily arrange for the transfer of yen.

Please contact us and let us know the number of copies of the titles of your
choice and preferred method of receipt (air or surface mail). Both catalogues
will provide a rich array of materials for further courses and research.

Art by Buddhist Nuns: Treasures from the Imperial Convents of Japan

By Patricia Fister

ISBN 0-9741103-0-2 (paperback) 91 pp., $18.00
Institute for Medieval Japanese Studies

This bilingual (Japanese and English) catalogue in full color is from the
breakthrough exhibition "Art by Buddhist Nuns: Treasures from the Imperial
Convents of Japan" curated by Prof. Patricia Fister and held at the Nomura
Museum in Kyoto, Japan from April 22 to May 18. It covers in detail religious
works of art made by eleven early Edo period abbesses, ten of whom were monzeki
(imperial princess-nuns), and includes paintings, calligraphy, statues and
various religious artifacts.


Josei to Bukkyo: inori to hohoemi
Price: $16.00
It is the first ever exhibition of religious art created by nuns, and based on the
recent exhibition held at the Nara National Museum from April 15 to May 25, 2003.

Published by the Nara National Museum, this is 263 pages + i~xvii, in Japanese
with English labels and summary added. It covers a broad range of Japanese art
related to women and Buddhism from the Nara period through the Edo period. Text
is by curator Nishiyama Atsushi, the English translation by Michael Jamentz.

To order: Contact the Institute for Medieval Japanese Studies at:

Miho Walsh
Executive Director
Institute for Medieval Japanese Studies
509 Kent Hall
Columbia University
New York, NY 10027
tel. (212) 854-7403
fax. (212) 854-1470

Date: Tue, 24 Jun 2003 12:50:06 -1000 (HST)

From: Rokuo Tanaka <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Ansai's Bunkai hitsuroku

I rather doubt that the full translations of Bunkai hitsuroku in 20
volumes into any languages are presently available.

May I assume that your finding of the "Notes" refers to Ooms' article
entiled "'Primeval Chaos' and 'Mental Void' in Early Tokugawa Ideology" in
_Japanese Journal of Religious Studies_ (V13, N4, Dec'86, p258);
affirmatively, the Notes further refers to
Ooms' book _Tokugawa ideology: early constructs, 1570-1680_
(Princeton UP, 1989, c1985, ISBN 0691008388).

The following (in Japanese) also will be of some help:

Takashima Motohiro _Yamazaki Ansai: Nihon Shushi gaku to Suika shintoo_
(Tokyo: Perikan-sha, 1992), in which Takashima compares Chu Xi's
doctrines with Ansai's philosophy in Bunkai hitsuroku.

Rokuo Tanaka

It was of course a question of how to translate the title. /mw

Date: Tue, 24 Jun 2003 17:46:09 EDT


Subject: [pmjs] Heian poisons

Forgive me for troubling you with my question about poisons known and used
during Heian times. I have tried to access the archives (arch 03 about bracken)
but kept getting the fascinating discussion about prostitution (and by the
way, I ordered the book by Michael Stein and found it excellent -- many thanks
for this and other references to useful publications.)

So, if someone can tell me about poisons known during this time period,
perhaps some that were also used medicinally, or refer me to a treatise (in English
or German), I would be very grateful.

Ingrid Parker

Date: Thu, 26 Jun 2003 15:29:56 -0700

From: Thomas Howell <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Heian poisons

Hi Ingrid,
On poisons:

in Konjaku monogatari shuu 12.34, the biography of Shounin, at the beginning, it has the following:

His mother was a Minamoto. The mother has borne many children, but this ensuing birth was difficult, and she became not well. Therefore, while she was pregnant with this holy man (Shouguu), she swallowed a poison to cause her to abort


but it had no effect, and in the end she gave birth without any problems.

This is one reference I remember reading. A database search of "doku" in KM would probably bring up more. Of course, it doesn't identify the poison.

I wonder if anyone else has seen examples of taking something to induce spontaneous abortions.

Tom Howell

Date: Fri, 27 Jun 2003 13:38:21 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Heian poisons


The poisons / "bracken" (warabi) archive is at
Apologies for the error in a link.

I also couldn't resist looking for examples of the use of poisons.

The use of poisoned arrows to kill tigers is described in _The Tales of Uji_ 12.19 (p. 351 in NKBT ed., p. 372 in the D.E.Mills translation).

_The Tale of Heike_ records an unsuccessful attempt in the summer of 1177 to kill the exiled Narichika with poisoned wine (Heike 2.10 "Dainagon no shikyo", vol. 1, p. 158 in NKBT ed., p. 84 in the McCullough translation).

There is a vivid description of the effects of poisoned food in a Chinese story related in _Taiheiki_ book 12 (vol. 1, p. 430 in NKBT edition, p. 386 in McCullough translation).

As Tom Howell says, there seem to be many more examples in Konjaku monogatari.

In this weekly pmjs digest:
* Heian poisons (David Pollack, Ingrid Parker, Andrew Goble, Lawrence Marceau, Aileen Gatten, Beatrice Bodart-Bailey, Rokuo Tanaka)
* Buddhist hermaneutics , Kokinshuu, and diffusionist theory (Niels Guelberg, Tom Howell)
* poisoned wit (Lewis Cook)
* Michinaga on Sundays (Richard Bowring, Michael Watson, Tony Bryant, William Bodiford)
* Poisons "Sino-Iranica" Rhubarb (Thomas Howell, Rokuo Tanaka)
* member news (Michael Watson)

Total number of messages: 26
address to post to list:

Date: Fri, 27 Jun 2003 11:20:29 -0400

From: "Pollack" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Heian poisons

Re: Heian poisons

As I read the fascinating sawarabi archive I was reminded of the fact that
the leaves of the rhubarb plant area nasty poison, and a quick look
around the web (sorry, not an adequate research tool but increasingly a
first resort) confirms that rhubarb was indeed a part of the Chinese (J:
kampo) pharmacopia, used as a laxative, and was very likely (?) known in
Heian Japan (sorry, no citation).

Entry #2 in my handy Sharp e-dictionary's Kojien lists "daiou root
(laxative)" and the primary translationfor rhubarb is "maruba-daiou" or
"round-leaf large-yellow." The outer skin of the root stem is peeled and
dried to make the medicine. There are Chinese (Tou) and Korean (Chousen)
varieties. It is also used as a dyestuff to produce, duh, yellow.

Many years ago I was walking in San Francisco's Chinatown with my wife,
who was a Japanese weaver/dyer, and we passed by a traditional Chinese
pharmacy where samples of some of the usual wall of medicines were
displayed in the window under their Chinese names. Dahuang (daiou) was
among them, a name she recognized as the source of a traditional Japanese
vegetable yellow dye. We entered and asked the druggist about it. He gave
us a very suspicious look and asked us what we wanted to use it for.
"Dyeing," replied my wife. " "DYING??" shrieked the druggist. "You get
out! Not come back!" Turns out the stuff was indeed considered potentially
deadly and it had to be used with great caution. After MUCH explanation
via writing in characters (reminding me of the medieval "hitsuwa"
communication between Japanese and Chinese monks!), the good druggist
calmed down and asked how much she needed. If used for medicinal purposes
in tiny doses it cost a fortune; as a bulk dyestuff, however, the cost was
quite reasonable.

I have no idea if daiou shows up in any Heian text, though it does seem
likely to have been a part of Heian life.

David Pollack

Date: Fri, 27 Jun 2003 14:15:56 EDT

From: Ingrid Parker <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: poison in Heian

Oh, wonderful! My thanks to everyone who responded. As it is, I seem to
have all the sources handy. Off the top of my head, I don't recall details but
can look. My thanks to Thomas Howell for the reference to Konjaku Monogatari.
My guess is that an abortion medicine would not be used for murder, though you
never know. Strangely, apparently Ishinbo deals with sexual relations but not
contraception or abortion. It may, of course, have a quite bit about poisonous
medicines. Can't afford that book (yet).
Multiple thanks also to Michael Watson, for clearing up the archive issue and
the references.
The archive has a fascinating discussion on bracken as a long-term poison.
Must keep that in mind for future use. Aconitum also sounds possible. I haven't
checked the Narichika reference yet, but assume the poison is not named
there. Rhubarb is another great suggestion. Wonderfully funny story about the San
Francisco druggist. The poisoned arrows for tigers must come from an original
Indian source. In any case, Indian, Chinese, and Korean sources for medicines
and poisons should have been available at the time in Japan.
And so, I have taken notes and shall check further. My thanks again. (Oh, in
case anyone wonders: I write mysteries. :))



Date: Fri, 27 Jun 2003 15:55:03 -0700

From: "Andrew Goble" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Heian poisons

As far as I am aware, there is no specific written information anywhere in
any extant medical text or other source known to have been in Japan prior to
the Sengoku period that makes any reference to poison (?). Separately, one
would be unlikely to find such references in medical texts since they deal
with healing not killing, even though, as is well known, the common term
kusuri ? was applied to items that would be rendered is English as poison as
well as medicine (both referring to imbibed items that alter the state of
the body i.e. which is kusuri; and we can also remember kusuri as a usage
for powder and the like used in matchlock weapons).

Also, I have encountered no references (but would love to be directed to
such if anyone has them) to any successful efforts to poison anyone. Re.
Konjaku tales - well, I suppose that poisoned arrows for killing tigers or
poison in China are useful references, but they are not stories that take
place in Japan.

However: Ashikaga Tadayoshi was poisoned by his brother Takauji. And re. an
earlier inquiry about abortificants - the earliest reference I have found
occurs in the late 16th century, in the diary of Yamashina Tokitsune.

Date: Fri, 27 Jun 2003 15:57:03 -0700

From: "Andrew Goble" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: poison in Heian

Sorry to not have replied in one message - the Ishinpo has no references to
poisons. May I ask why one who has not seen it or looked at any medical text
(it would appear) would speculate as to its contents?


Date: Sat, 28 Jun 2003 10:51:03 EDT

Subject: Heian poisons

I also appreciate Andrew Goble's comments on poisons. As to my speculating
on the Ishimpo: first, fiction writers speculate a lot out of necessity;
second, my comments were based on references to Ishimpo by Michael Stein; third,
speculation is part and parcel of research. I will get to Ishimpo in time.
Meanwhile my apologies for having spoken out of turn.

Ingrid Parker

Date: Sun, 29 Jun 2003 16:46:22 +0900

From: Lawrence Marceau <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Heian poisons

One further comment regarding medicines and poisons: Jacques Derrida published a well-known (and very thought-provoking) essay on the equivalence between medicine and poison (and much, much, more), called (in English) "Plato's Pharmacy". It's included in his Dissemination (English trans., 1981). His arguments might help clarify why "doku" as such isn't specified in early Japanese texts.

Hope this helps.

Lawrence Marceau

Date: Sun, 29 Jun 2003 18:03:42 -0400

From: Aileen Gatten <>

Subject: [pmjs] Heian poisons

An addendum to Lawrence Marceau's sensible observation that medicine and poison are intimately connected: Ingrid Parker may find it useful to consult Edward Schafer's books on Tang China, "The Golden Peaches of Samarkand" (especially Chapter 11, "Drugs") and "The Vermilion Bird" (Chapter 10, "Plants," including poisonous ones). Shafer mentions in the former book that a collection of 8th-century drugs survives in the Shousouin in Nara, and it is safe to assume that drugs from China and beyond were imported to Japan during the Heian period.

Ann Woodward has written a mystery set in Heian Japan, "The Exile Way" (Avon, 1996), in which medicine and poison figure prominently.

Aileen Gatten

Date: Sun, 29 Jun 2003 21:23:02 -0400

From: "pollack" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Heian poisons

This is what I was trying to point out when I mentioned that what we know
as rhubarb, a potentially poisonous plant we value as food, appears in the
ancient Chinese benzao (J honzou, pharmacopia) as a medicine. Like all
such "herbal medicines" these are used safely for specific purposes and in
precise doses and concoctions, and are often quite dangerous when used
otherwise. One example is the harm done by the recent indiscriminate use
of mahuang by athletes in the US. My story about the Chinese druggist
wasn't intended to be merely amusing; he was right to be concerned about
the abuses to which innocents (or worse) might be putting these drugs. I
don't know about Derrida's usefulness, but Ed Schafer is always
fascinating on Tang material culture, a field he developed from the basic
work done by Berthold Laufer in "Sino-Iranica" of 1919.

David Pollack

Date: Mon, 30 Jun 2003 12:54:16 +0900


Subject: [pmjs] Re: Buddhist hermeneutics, Kokinshuu, and diffusionist theory

Many thanks to Lewis Cook for his stimulating comments. I'll try to
do my own research on that subject.
For "senshaku" it would be necessary to look in other kinds of
commentaries. (The staff who worked on the Taisho Tripitaka index
dropped it from their list, so they had no idea that "senshaku" may be
a technical term.)
"Diffusionist theory": Everyone who has once struggled with medieval
European theological speculation (as I did a long time ago), is
struck by the similarities between, say Saint Thomas' (the Aquinate)
speculations on the interrelationship between Father, Son and Holy
Spirit, and the Buddhist speculations on dharmakaya, nirmanakaya,
and sambhogakaya, to give only one example.
It is a historical fact, that the Indian Buddhists explained their
belief in the Greek king Menandros, and even Michinaga rested with his work
on Sundays, as one of my colleagues in Germany (Thomas Leinss) had
pointed out some years ago.
These speculations about a direct relationship are very fascinating, but
I have a positivistic standpoint and need proofs to believe it.
I raised the problem of typology only as a functional argument:
interpreting Holy Scriptures (in the broad sense) confronts the interpreter with lots
of problems which are similar to the problems in interpreting other
So I suppose that human beings, confronted to the same kind of problems,
could find similar approaches to clear these problems, even if they
didn't hear about other approaches.

Sincerely yours,
Niels Guelberg

Date: Mon, 30 Jun 2003 10:01:49 EDT


Subject: [pmjs] Re: poisons

More thanks to Lawrence Marceau, Aileen Gatten, and David Pollack. The
misuse of medicine, accidental or intentional was very much what I had had in mind.
I'm very interested in the Chinese sources (Edward Schafer), since much
medical knowledge at the time must have come from 'Tang China. In general, in so
far as possible, I like to go to primary, or scholarly secondary sources.
Fiction (Ann Woodward), as I know only too well, must often bend the facts. And the
amusing part of the story about the San Francisco druggist was not his very
reasonable concern, but the fact that the price was very much higher if the
substance was purchased for the purpose of killing instead of dyeing. Such a good

Thank you all.

Ingrid Parker

Date: Mon, 30 Jun 2003 11:15:04 -0400

From: "Pollack" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: poisons

I don't mean to belabor the point, but I would like to correct what
appears to be a misunderstanding. As a medicine that the price of the herb
was quite high, but for use as a dyestuff it was relatively low. It is
likely that preparation played a role in the difference. It should be
noted that no one offered a price if it was to be used for murder.

Apparently humor does not play well on the internet.

Having brought up the pioneering work of Berthold Laufer, I thought I'd
best check online to see what he had written besides the one work with
which I am familiar, "Sino-Iranica." He turns out to have been an
incredibly prolific and wide-ranging scholar whose interests included
scripts, ceramics, baskets, jades, and much else. The University of
California's online catalogue lists 103 books by him on almost as wide a
variety of topics, though some of these are simply different editions of
the same work ("Sino-Iranica" alone went through at least 6 separate
editions over the decades). Diffusionist theory was I think in its heyday
then, and Laufer apparently began in the then influential direction by
asking about less-familiar Chinese influences on more-familiar Middle
Eastern civilization rather than the other way around as Schafer did. His
work apparently exerted an important influence on Joseph Needham's
enormous "Science and Civilization in China" project, which devotes space
to the question of what was known where first and how it traveled.

David Pollack

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