pmjs logs for September 2003. Total number of messages: 24

previous month

list of logs

log index

pmjs index

next month

* Kyoto Lectures Sept 12-Duquenne on Ebisu-Emishi
* Looking for utaibon (Barbara Nostrand, Michael Watson)
* AJLS Meeting Program/News 18 (Eiji Sekine)
* Okinawan Tools - Hojo Undo (Michael Watson)
* Buddhist hermeneutics and Kokinshuu (Susan Klein)
* "gi" / lexical query 'senshaku' (Susan Klein, Thomas Howell)
--> Morpheme boundary in KKS 55 (Janick Wrona, Rein Raud)
* Kokugakuin symposium on Shinto
* Position at Washington University in St. Louis
* Position in East Asian Languages and Literatures at UC Irvine
* QUERY> Reference (Monika Dix, Keller Kimbrough, Nobumi Iyanaga)
* looking for ASCJ co-panelists (Monika Dix)
* Atsumori Noh Video (H. Mack Horton) --> continued in 2003.10

Date: 2003.Sep.4

From: Roberta Strippoli <>

Subject: [pmjs] Kyoto Lectures Sept 12-Duquenne on Ebisu-Emishi

Another lecture for those on you in Kyoto sponsored by the ISEAS-EFEO joint
venture. Greetings to all, Roberta.

Scuola Italiana di Studi sull'Asia Orientale ISEAS
Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient EFEO


Friday September 12th 18:00h

Robert Duquenne will speak on:
The God of Fortune and his "Barbarian" Roots.

The deity Ebisu, eventually to be accepted as a popular god throughout
Japan, first appears in the late XIIth century as a sea-god worshipped on
the coasts of the Seto Inland Sea. This is the very place to which the
unruly Emishi (the "barbarians" resisting in Ancient Japan's north eastern
marches) had been reputedly exiled. Mythological identifications point to
"heterogeneity" as Ebisu's constant feature, also evidenced by various
popular customs related to his cult. Yet among the Seven Gods of Fortune, he
is the only Japanese god, together with three Indian and three Chinese ones.
Collective imagination, if not historical circumstance, made Ebisu into a
"stranger" par excellence, a "rare visitor" from afar, who progressed from
seashores, to market places, to the remotest rural areas. This talk will
present an overview of his cult, focusing on its evolution and diffusion.

Robert Duquenne has been living in Japan for more that thirty years, doing
research on the Buddhist transmission of Indian cults and on Japanese
popular religious traditions. He is presently a member of the Ecole
Francaise d'Extreme-Orient and a collaborator of the Hobogirin dictionary of
Buddhist terminology. In addition to being the author of several articles
and entries in the Hobogirin dictionary, he authored the catalogue of the
Enku exhibition held in Antwerp in 1999 (Enku, 1632 - 1695: Timeless Images
from 17th Century Japan, compiled by Jan Van Alphen).

Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient (EFEO)
Italian School of East Asian Studies (ISEAS)
4, Yoshida Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku
Kyoto 606-8302 JAPAN

Phone: 075-751-8132
Fax: 075-751-8221

Phone: 075-761-3946

Date: 2003.Sep.6 14:04:06 Asia/Tokyo

From: Barbara Nostrand <>

Subject: [pmjs] Looking for utaibon

Dear List.

I am looking for a place to order utaibon for Noh plays. I have tried
searching amazon, but have run out of obvious search startegies.
Thank you very much.

Barbara Nostrand

Date: 2003.Sep.6 19:37:14 Asia/Tokyo

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Looking for utaibon


If you use the advanced search form and look for publisher "Hinoki Shoten" in kanji (檜書店) then you will find the complete set of Kanze school utaibon in individual editions. As this link for "Atsumori" shows, all editions have ISBN numbers.

I may have missed something, but the publisher's site at
seems to allow for ordering of everything online *except* the individual editions of plays. For these they point to a list of bookshops throughout Japan that stock complete set of Kanze texts, including large branches of Kinokuniya, Maruzen, etc.

"Utaibon" are of course texts for noh singing, aimed principally at amateurs taking lessons. For textual study, you will also want to look at the usual Iwanami, Shogakukan, and Shincho series. (The recent edition of 100 plays by Nishino Haruo in the Shin nihon koten bungaku taikei series is a helpfully-annotated collection.)

For reading rather than singing, and for teaching in particular, I would also highly recommend the inexpensive "taiyaku de tanoshimu" series of parallel-text editions of individual plays with modern Japanese translations and helpful annotations.
At 500 yen a volume, it would surely be ideally suited and affordable for class sets.

For other noh schools (ryuha), publishers can be located with a bit of googling. For example, Hosho-ryu utaibon are all available online from

More schools can be located here:

Note: if the tilde after does not come out correctly, please try

Good luck,

Michael Watson

Date: Sun, 14 Sep 2003 01:10:47 -0700

From: esekine <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: AJLS Meeting Program/News 18

Dear Netters,

Our aplogy for cross listing. Here is a copy of the AJLS Annual Meeting Program and other news on our activities.

Printed copies will be available by end September. An electronic formatted copy of our Newsletter will be available shortly on our website:

Eiji Sekine

AJLS Newsletter
Association for Japanese Literary Studies

No. 18 (Fall, 2003) Edited by Eiji Sekine

AJLS, Purdue University, 640 Oval Drive, W. Lafayette, IN 47907-2039, USA
765.496.2258 (Tel)
765.496.1700 (FAX) (E-mail) (website)

Twelfth Annual Meeting Program
Hermeneutical Strategies: Methods of Interpretation in the Study of Japanese Literature

November 21-23, 2003

University of California, Los Angeles, Royce Hall 314

Organizer: Michael F. Marra

The Japan Foundation, Toshiba International Foundation, UCLA Center for Japanese Studies

The University of California, Los Angeles, will be hosting this year's Annual Meeting of the Association for Japanese Literary Studies. The conference will be held from November 21-23, 2003 at UCLA. In this conference presenters will analyze the nature of their daily critical endeavors, and will discuss issues related to the hermeneutical paths (past, present, and future) that have been, are, and will be guiding us in the
discussion and interpretation of Japan's literary texts. Fifteen panels of
presentations (our largest ever), together with four keynote addresses by
Professors Fujita Masakatsu, Matsumura Yu^ji, William R. LaFleur, and Muroi
Hisashi, will examine a variety of hermeneutical issues.

Friday, November 21, 2003


Registration/Coffee and Pastries


Welcoming Remarks by Michael F. Marra


Panel 1--Feminist Theories, 1

"The Maternal Body as the Site of Ideological Contest: A Feminist Reading of
Hirabayashi Taiko," Linda Flores, University of California, Los Angeles.

"The Rhetoric of Misogyny: Women Who 'Hate' Women and Other Feminist
Problems in the Literature of Takahashi Takako," Julia Bullock, Stanford

"Japanese Female Writers Watch a Boy Being Beaten by His Father: Female
Fantasy of Male Homosexuality, Psychoanalysis, and Sexuality," Kazumi
Nagaike, University of British Columbia.

Discussant: Rebecca Copeland, Washington University in St. Louis.


Panel 2--Feminist Theories, 2

"Hirabayashi Taiko and the Future of Feminism," Marilyn Bolles, Montana
State University-Bozeman.

"Outing Miyamoto Yuriko: The Hermeneutics of Sexual Identity," Sarah Pradt,
Macalester College.

"How Housewives Shatter a Narrative: Tawada Yoko's The Bridegroom was a
Dog," Robin Tierney, University of Iowa.


Panel 3--Postcolonial Theories

"Issues of Postcolonial Theories in Zainichi Literature," Yoshiko Matsuura,
Purdue University.

"Zainichi Literature Through a Lacanian Gaze: The Case of Yi Yang Ji's
Yuhi," Catherine Ryu, Michigan State University.

"Debating War Responsibility in Postwar Japanese Film Discourse," Michael
Baskett, University of Oregon.

12:50-2:00 Lunch


Panel 4--Voices from the "Ikyo^" (Foreign Space)

"Sho^jo and Yamanba in Mori Mari's Literature," Hiromi Tsuchiya Dollase,
Vassar College.

"A Female Modernist in Chaos (Gendered Place): Osaki Midori's Dainana Kankai
Ho^ko^ (Wandering Around the Seven Sensuous Worlds)," Eguro Kiyomi, Josai
International University.

"Shinjuku as ‘Ikyo^': Hideo Levy's Seijo^ki no Kikoenai Heya (The Room in
which the Sound of American Flag Cannot Be Heard), Sato^ Ko^ji, Josai
International University.


Panel 5--Literary Interpretation and the Crises of Modernity: Cultural
Criticism in Early Showa

"I Am A Revolutionary Cat: Proletarian Literature and Natsume So^seki,"
Michael Bourdaghs, University of California, Los Angeles.

"The Fiction and Criticism of Sakaguchi Ango: The Rhetoric of Ambivalence,"
Oshino Takeshi, Hokkaido^ University.

"'Irony' and Subjectivity in the Essays of Yasuda Yoju^ro ^" Nosaka Akio, Oita
Prefectural College of Arts & Culture.

Discussant: Miriam Silverberg, University of California, Los Angeles.


Panel 6--Cultural Criticism in Early Sho^wa, 2

"Shinseinen, the Contract and Vernacular Modernism," Kyoko Omori, Hamilton

"Miyazawa Kenji and the Ethics of Scientific Realism," Gregory Golley,
University of Chicago.

"The Problem of Aesthetics in Nishida Kitaro^," Matteo Cestari, University of


Keynote Speaker
Fujita Masakatsu, University of Kyoto, "Nishida
Kitaro^'s Philosophy and Japanese Language" (in Japanese)

7:00-9:00 Dinner

Saturday, November 22, 2003

8:00-8:30 Coffee and Pastries


Panel 7--The Author, Intertextuality, and Narratology

"What if the Author was Never God?: Some Thoughts on Kawabata, texts and
Criticism," Matthew Mizenko, Ursinus College.

"The Author, the Reader, and Japanese Literary Texts: Returning
Poststructuralist Intertextuality to its Dialogic Roots," Timothy J. Van
Compernolle, College of William and Mary.

"Materializing Narratology: The Case of Kanai Mieko," Atsuko Sakaki,
University of Toronto.


Panel 8--Wa-kan Dialectic and the Field of Poetics

"Prefaces as Sino-Japanese Interfaces: Towards an Intracultural Poetics of
Early Japanese Literature," Wiebke Denecke, Harvard University.

"Pictured Landscapes: Heian Gardens and Poetic Imagination," Ivo Smits,
Leiden University.

"Beyond Wa-kan: In Search of Sharper Tools for Narrating Reception," Jason
P. Webb, Princeton University.


Panel 9--Re-Interpreting the Classics

"Beyond Our Grasp? Materiality, Meta-genre and Meaning in the Po(e)ttery of
Rengetsu-ni," Sayumi Takahashi, University of Pennsylvania.

"Heteronormativity and the Politics of the Writing Subject: Zeami and the
Legitimation of Popular Literature," Joe Parker, Pitzer College.

"Staging the Spectacular: Kabuki, Shunga, and the Semiotics of Excess,"
David Pollack, University of Rochester.

"The Role of Heian Intertexts in the Recuperation of Lyrical Acuity in
Tawara Machi's Late Capitalist Tanka," Dean Brink, Saint Martin's College.

12:35-1:45 Lunch


Keynote Speaker
Matsumura Yu^ji, Kokubungaku Kenkyu^ Shiryo^kan (National Institute of Japanese
Literature), "“The Position of Allusive Variation: Between Plagiarism and Originality)" (in Japanese)


Panel 10--Strategies in Reading Tropes: The Hermeneutics of Medieval
Language and Poetry

"Excluded Middles: Grammar vs. Rhetoric vs. Esthetic in the Medieval
Hermeneutics of Canonical Waka," Lewis Cook, Queens College, CUNY.

"Whether Birds or Monkeys: Names, Reference and the Interpretation of Waka,"
Gian Piero Persiani, Columbia University.

"Dramatizing Figures: the Revitalization and Expansion of Metaphors in No^,"
Akiko Takeuchi, Columbia University.

Discussant: Haruo Shirane, Columbia University.


Panel 11--Literature on Literature: Hermeneutical Subtexts in Anthologies
and Fiction

"Compilation as Commentary: The Two Imperial Anthologies of Nijo^ Tameyo,"
Stefania Burk, University of Virginia.

"Little Atsumori and The Tale of The Heike: Fiction as Commentary, and the
Significance of a Name," R. Keller Kimbrough, Colby College.

"Genji Goes to China: The Tale of Hamamatsu and Murasaki's Substitutes,"
Charo D'Etcheverry, University of Wisconsin.

Discussant: H. Richard Okada, Princeton University.


Panel 12--Constructing the Alternative Text: Commentaries in Late Medieval
and Early Modern Japan.

"Accessorizing the Text: The Role of Commentary in the Creation of Readers,"
Linda H. Chance, University of Pennsylvania.

"The Context and Structure of Neo-Confucian Commentary: The Case of Minagawa
Kien," W. J. Boot, Leiden University.

"In Search of the Absolute Origin: Ogyu^ Sorai (1666-1728) or the Shadow of
the Ancients," Aiko Okamoto MacPhail, Indiana University.

Discussant: Mark Meli, Kansai University.


Keynote Speaker
William R. LaFleur, University of Pennsylvania,
"Good Karma, Bad Karma, Words, and Deeds"

8:00-10:00 Dinner (hosted by Fred G. Notehelfer, Director, UCLA Center for
Japanese Studies)

Sunday, November 23, 2003

8:00-8:30 Coffee and Pastries


Panel 13--How to Discuss Artistic Inspiration: New Methodologies on Studying
Modern Japan

"The Uses and Abuses of History for Buto^-writing: The Literary Activities of
Hijikata Tatsumi," Bruce Baird, University of Pennsylvania.

"Japanese Detective Fiction and the Question of Authenticity: Discussing
Intercultural Influences," Sari Kawana, University of Pennsylvania.

"Writing the Political not Just the Personal in Tamura's Sho^wa Period
Fiction," Anne Sokolsky, University of Southern California.

Discussant: Alan Tansman, University of California, Berkeley.


Keynote Speaker
Muroi Hisashi, Yokohama National University,
"Problems of Interpretation in the Age of Database"


Panel 14--The Ins and Outs of Publishing: Plumbing Archives for Japanese
Literary Histories

"In Search of the Japanese Novel in Nineteenth-Century America: Book History
and the New Literary Hermeneutics," Jonathan Zwicker, University of Michigan.

"Archiving the Forbidden: War Responsibilities and Censored Literature,"
Jonathan Abel, Princeton University.


Panel 15--Art and Psychoanalysis

"The Historical Horizons of True Art: Kafu^ and Okakura at the 1904 St. Louis
World's Fair," Miya Lippit, Getty Center.

"Psyche as Soma: Four Modern Japanese Texts," Andra Alvis, Indiana University.

"Konaka's Mirror Stage: Alice, Anime, and the End of Psychoanalysis,"
Margherita Long, University of California, Riverside.


Closing Remarks by Michael F. Marra

........................................................................ ....

REGISTRATION: Pre-Registration form is required to be mailed to the UCLA conference office. For details, see the attached registration form.

LODGINGS: A block of rooms is being held at the Holiday Inn, 170 N. Church
Lane, Los Angeles, CA 90094
Tel. (310) 476-6411
Fax: (310) 472-1157
Web site:

Single and double rooms are $95.00. You need to identify yourselves as being with the UCLA group of the Association for Japanese Literary Studies. The cut-off date for reservations is October 30, 2003.

TRANSPORTATION, AND OTHER INQUIRIES: Visit the conference website: or contact Professor Michael F.
Marra, Conference Chair, Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures,
290 Royce Hall 154003, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1540;;
Tel: (310) 794-8941; Fax: (310) 825-8808.
------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----
AJLS 2003 Registration Form
Pre-registration by Monday, November 10, 2003







Registration Fees:
Speakers ( ) (free) (includes registration, lunch and dinner on
November 21 and 22).
Audience ( ) ($35) (includes registration and lunch on November 21
and 22).

Please enclose a check payable to UC Regents
by Monday, November 10, 2003

Please indicate which meals you will need. All meals are provided free to
pre-registered attendees:
Friday lunch ( );
Friday dinner ( ) (for speakers and discussants); ;
Saturday lunch ( );
Saturday dinner ( ) (for speakers and discussants); .
Please indicate any dietary restrictions:___________________________________

Mail form and check to:
Nicole Chan, Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures, 290 Royce
Hall, UCLA, Box 911540, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1540
------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----

AJLS Membership
Membership fee: $25 (North American members); $35 (members from outside the
region). Student members can receive a free copy of our proceedings. Please
send the membership form and your check (payable to AJLS) to the AJLS
address. All annual meeting panel participants must become members in order
to present. Please use the membership form attached below.

AJLS Publications
"Japan from Somewhere Else," PAJLS, vol. 3 (Summer, 2002; vi + 158 pp.) has
been published. Tables of content of this issue and other back issues are
available at the AJLS website: Inquiries
about the AJLS activities should be sent to: AJLS, 640 Oval Drive, West
Lafayette, IN 47907-2039, USA. Each issue can be purchased at the cost of
$15 by non-members ($10 for members). Add $10 for air mail.

Call for Conference Hosts
We are under final negotiation with host candidate institutions for our 2004
and 2005 conferences. If you are interested in hosting our conferences for
2006 and later, please contact Professor Ann Sherif:
<> or 440.775.8827 (Tel).

AJLS Newsletter Sponsor: FLL, Purdue University

------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---
AJLS Membership Form


Address _________________________________

City ___________________________________

State _________Country ___________________


Tel ____________________________________

E-mail _________________________________

Institution ______________________________

( ) Regular ( ) Student
( ) Institution

If you are a student, indicate which free copy you would like: ( )

Date: Mon, 15 Sep 2003 16:36:26 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: [pmjs] Okinawan Tools - Hojo Undo

Could anyone on this list help a National Geographic researcher with a question about Okinawan farm tools used in the modern martial arts exercises called "Hojo Undo"?

The original message from Susan Kolodziejczyk <skolo...@....ORG> contained four small black and white illustrations, coming to a total of 54 kb. So as to keep this message within a reasonable size, I have omitted them. Please contact me off list at <> if you would like to see the images.

"Hojo Undo" is written "supplementary exercise".

Here is the question:

I came across your name in my search for help with a quick question about Okinawan archaeology. I am a researcher with National Geographic and I am working on a program about Okinawan karate that features the Hojo Undo training method. I need to check the names, historical uses, and compositions of several Okinawan farm tools that are used in these modern martial arts exercises.

Unfortunately, I also need to find help today, Monday. Please let me know if you can help at all.

Can you help me or connect me with someone who might help confirm the names of the items pictured below and tell me if their descriptions are accurate too?
The descriptions are excerpts from the script and have been proposed by the production company for the program.

I would appreciate any information about the tools that you can supply or any experts on the tools or the martial art that you can recommend to me.

Hojo Undo:
"One component of the Okinawan Karate training known as Hojo Undo uses traditional farm tools as weights to strengthen various parts of the body. ... In Okinawa, the senseis are striving to preserve their ancestral heritage by training with traditional tools."


"The chishi, a stone lever weight used in the past to grind wheat, has worked for centuries as a training tool. And they see no reason to change it now.
It's not like a weightlifter working out with weights. Gima sensei is using the chishi, not just to work the body but to put power into specific moves and techniques."

Ishi sashi

"The Ishisashi, a stone padlock, traditionally a support for wooden tracks, is used to build striking power. The only problem is you have to be built like a bull to do it!"

"Speaking of being built like a bull, the tan, a barbell often made from trolley wheels traditionally a wagon-wheel axle, becomes a plaything in the hands of Kinjo sensei, but it's a serious piece of equipment. The tan strengthens the forearms and wrists to improve grip and grabbing techniques."

Nigiri game or Sanchin game?

Excerpt from script:
"This maneuver, called sanchin, is being done with jars called nigiri-game that weigh 9 kilos, almost 20 pounds each.
There's no lip on those jars and he's holding them by his fingertips. He makes it look easy, but I know that under his white karate gi, every muscle is straining.
Because my hands were too small to grip the jars, Kinjo sensei brings me to Aragaki sensei to obtain two nigiri-game training jars of my own. Aragaki sensei is one of only two remaining master jar makers on the island."

Any help or advice that you can give me will be much appreciated.

Thank you.

Susan Kolodziejczyk, Senior Researcher

National Geographic Channels International

Date: Mon, 15 Sep 2003 11:19:08 -0700

From: "Susan B. Klein" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: "gi" / lexical query 'senshaku'

Hi Folks --

I really haven't been keeping track of PMJS this summer -- you can blame the new young person in our house (she'll be a year old this week) -- and so I've only just been reading through the very interesting messages from June on senshaku, gi, kokoro and Buddhist hermeneutics as they interact with waka interpretations. At the risk of everyone having forgotten the terms of the discussion, I'd like to add a note or two, specifically on the meaning of "gi." I should also note that I cannot seem to find the original query that initiated the discussion (perhaps it was initiated by a digression with a different header?) and I'm also a bit hobbled by the fact that my email software was "upgraded" this summer and now I don't seem to be able to get anything but nonsense for characters, and since people aren't supplying romaji I'm guessing at the examples. What follows is really off the top of my head (no time for more).

First of all, Lewis Cook pointed out to Tom Howell that the KKS Bishamondo-bon chu may be in a different lineage (Rokujo?) than the Sogi commentaries and so it's possible that the usage of gi might be different. In that case, Tom you might go backwards in time to look at the Tameaki-ryuu text _Kokinwakashujo kikigaki: Sanryusho_ [KKSJKG] (Katagiri, _Kokinwakashu chushakushokadai _ vol. 2) which forms at least one of the bases for the KKS Bishamondo-chu. In fact, in that text, gi is used is used in ways that appear to be very close to the definitions that Lewis gives (paraphrasing):

a) "gi does not refer to the grammatical sense or intended (or explicable) meaning of the poem" but may instead imply "that there is a legend or allegorical interpretation attached to the poem which distinguishes it from 'ordinary' KKS poems" and thus be translated as "tradition" (ignoring the overlapping usage of _narai_). It thus refers to a "more or less esoteric interpretation which is 'attached' or assigned to a poem, not derived from its literal sense but from context, association or attribution (poems attributed to deities, e.g., or emperors) which can only be known through a transmitted teaching (or legend, or indeed tradition)."

The second meaning Lewis presents, is gi as (b) "an interpretation which is for some reason disputed or open to debate (in a way which the grammatical sense of a poem is not, ideally at least). So that "gi nashi" can either mean there is no such esoteric interpretation, or there is nothing in dispute or debatable (beyond the grammatical sense of the poem)."

And Lewis then goes on to say, "It is clear how (a) and (b) could converge, since (a) would represent interpretations held exclusively within one or another transmission or lineage, while (b) would represent the differenda among those lineages."

The opening section of KKSJKG uses gi in precisely these ways when it explains that Ietaka, in order to create a ryu (school) different/separate from Teika's, "changed the gi and the readings of characters." It then proceeds to give two gi for the term Yamato uta, one from Teika ryu and one from Ietaka ryu. These gi are less definitions (the term is understood to mean Japanese poetry) than etymologies -- explanations for how the kanji/ateji for Yamato ??? came to be used, which are then supposed to provide additional nuances (or esoteric layers) to the reading of the Kokinshu preface that the reader could not simply gain from a grammatical reading (for example. that the meaning of "greatly gentling" is appropriate given that uta "calms fierce warriors and demons"). The term gi comes up particularly with regard to terms whose meaning is clear but the origin of their standard ateji is obscure (as in Yamato uta) or where the meaning of the term itself is obscure and a variety of ateji have been used (such as chihayaburu). In these cases, the gi is substantiated with an etymological (and/or allegorical) story that explains the "true" origin of the "correct" kanji, which are then used to explicate the meaning of the obscure term (nangi). So for example, in the case of chihayaburu (pp. 243-44) we are told that there are five possible gi, three involving Amaterasu Omikami, one involving "various kami" and one involving "issai no mono." A typical etymology is that when Amaterasu emerged from the rock cave and brought light back to the world, the kami all waved their "thousand petal sleeves" (???) in celebration. After spelling out the various gi the commentary often (but not always) selects one gi, which is treated as the true meaning accepted by "ryu."

Taking the case of KKS 409 (pp. 272-73), which as Lewis notes is an absolutely foundational poem for medieval commentaries, KKSJKG begins by presenting four gi for honobono: ??? (glow or glimmer, the usual meaning), ??? (youth), ??? (kotobuki usually understood as "felicitations, longevity" but here taken -- ironically? or simply mistakenly?-- to mean "inochi no ada naru koto," the transience/ephemerality of life), ??? (breeze). It picks ??? (kotobuki understood as transience) and explains the choice with a fairly lengthy historical/etymological allegoresis that claims the poem was written as a eulogy for Emperor Tenmu's eldest son, Takechi, who according to the commentary died at 19 years of age (actually he died at age 42/43, but 19 in the Japanese reckoning would have coincided with the Jinshin war of 672, in which he was a hero, so it was perhaps thought plausible). Interestingly, some of the alternate taryu readings here, such as shima [islands] as shi ma [four evils of birth, old age, illness and death] are the same as in _Kokinwakashu kanjo kuden_ (see my analysis in Allegories of Desire p. 33). At any rate, in this commentary we seem to have a combination of definitions of individual terms and etymological/historical allegoresis used to distinguish "our school" (???) from "other schools" (???).

My guess is that when we get to Sogi/Joen a good deal of the historical/etymological allegoresis is eliminated, and gi is mainly used to mean the definition of an obscure term that helps distinguish our school from their school. Zenchiku on the other hand clearly seems to be familiar with texts in the lineage of KKSJKG and Bishamondo-bon chu (as demonstrated by plays such as Kakitsubata and texts such as Meishukushu), and, as Noel points out, adopts their position that deep level identity between waka (and noh) and Buddhist reality can be demonstrated by etymological allegoresis of terms, so it would make sense that he would use the term gi in a way similar to those lineages.

Sorry to come so late to the discussion, but couldn't resist putting my two cents in!


p.s. there's a good chance that the kanji is nonsense in my message too, in which case, apologies...

Susan Blakeley Klein
Associate Professor of Japanese Literature,
Director of Religious Studies
Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures
University of California, Irvine--

Date: Mon, 15 Sep 2003 11:14:47 -0700

From: "Susan B. Klein" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Buddhist hermeneutics and Kokinshuu

Re possible analogies between medieval European and Japanese interpretive methods (hermeneutics) that Niels Guelberg raised: this is a question that I would love to follow up on (as can be seen by my very brief discussion in _Allegories of Desire_, which several people on the list kindly mentioned) but haven't had the time to look at more than superficially. I would add support to Keller's reference to Jacqueline Stone's discussion of these issues in her book (_Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism_), particularly Chapter 3 (The Culture of Secret Transmission) where she analyses in detail the institutional and theoretical reasons for the medieval development of the culture of secret transmission and its concomitant development of what she calls "kanjin-style interpretation" of Buddhist texts, which I argue formed the basis for what I call the "etymological allegoresis" of waka (see examples in previous message). In Chapter 4 (pp. 158-168) she analyzes the methodology of kanjin-style interpretation within Tendai, and this, in combination with my analysis of its use in waka interpretation, would be a good starting point for anyone who wants to do a comparative analysis of similar interpretive methods used in medieval Europe on biblical texts as well as the worldviews supporting those methods.


Susan Blakeley Klein
Associate Professor of Japanese Literature,
Director of Religious Studies
Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures
HIB 479
University of California, Irvine

Date: Tue, 16 Sep 2003 23:07:38 -0700

From: Thomas Howell <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: "gi" / lexical query 'senshaku'


Thank you for the suggestion to --
go backwards in time to look at the Tameaki-ry text which forms at least one of the bases for the KKS Bishamondo-chu.--

I appreciate your discussion of gi, and Lewis Cook's responses as well, for putting me on the path to reading these difficult texts.

Since you have re-launched this issue, I wonder if I might revisit it briefly with my current understanding of the use of gi in the Bishamondo-chuu. You say, that in the KKSJKG "gi does not refer to the grammatical sense or intended (or explicable) meaning of the poem but may instead imply that there is a legend or allegorical interpretation attached to the poem which distinguishes it from 'ordinary' KKS poems..."

However, in Bishamondo-chuu (hereafter abbrev. as B), gi quite often is used in the former sense, as in the example I gave:

KKS 55:
mite no miyabito ni kataramu sakura hana tegoto ni orite iezuto ni semu

how can we convey what we have seen, to people in the capital? let us
each break off a branch of the flowering cherry, and bring it back as a

The B commentary says-- "iezuto," to iu wa, futsuu no miyagi no gi nari.--

Here gi refers to how the word iezuto is defined, or explained, in a non-esoteric sense. Since iezuto appears in Manyoushuu 3709, one of the Silla envoy poems, as "a gift for home" (the ie of iezuto), B simply relates the word's meaning. Futsuu no miyagi-- nothing special? In M 3709, it refers to picking up shells on the shore. The B may be conveying the nuance of the word, but not a more developed allegorical interpretation.

It seems the B commentary is trying to do a double-duty, to give the esoteric strand of allegories, as in poem 409, but in many other poems, to simply convey the conventional lore, definitions, and historical, factual, or lexical explanations, lest they be forgotten or lost. The meaning of gi changes, depending upon which duty is being undertaken.

These two modes of commentary in B -- exoteric and esoteric-- sometimes conflict with each other. The first seeks to fix accepted meanings in place, to limit ambiguities, to clarify. The second acts to unleash a potentially unending stream of possible meanings. The B commentary is interested in both the ordinary KKS, and the extra-ordinary, allegorical KKS. Therefore in it gi may have a different meaning, depending on what the commentary is trying to do. To put it in a metaphor, one part of B is clipped hedgerows and a neat lawn, the other a jungle of exotic blossoms gaping at the moon. Is B the only commentary that is schizophrenic?

Lewis wrote, " what other kinds of "gi" might there be than those which are 'interpreted' or a product of interpretation. " At least in B, the exoteric version of gi seems to me to refer to something else, to fixing definitions in place. This I think of not as interpretation, but something prior to that: an attempt to produce and sustain the commonly accepted text, which can then be used as a springboard for interpretation.


Date: Wed, 17 Sep 2003 10:37:39 +0100 (BST)

From: Janick Wrona <>

Subject: [pmjs] Morpheme boundary in KKS 55 (digression from Howell's query)

Forgive my digression from Howell's thread on the meaning of *gi*, but I found his citation of KKS 55 very interesting.

> KKS 55:
>mite no miyabito ni kataramu sakura hana tegoto ni orite iezuto ni semu

>how can we convey what we have seen, to people in the capital? let us
>each break off a branch of the flowering cherry, and bring it back as a

I think there might be another (and in my view more plausible) assignment of morpheme boundaries in KKS 55, namely

mite nomi ya fito ni kataramu

'Having only seen it, can we convey it to people?'

The reason I find this more plausible is that otherwise we're left with a very peculiar type of relative clause, namely -te no. Syntactically, I'm not sure -te no relatives exist in EMJ (I know they exist in Modern Japanese, but I can't think of any in EMJ), and semantico-pragmatically, it would be a weird relation between *mite* and
*miyabito* which I'm pretty sure is impossible however loose the connection is between relative clause and head in Japanese relative constructions.

All the best
Janick Wrona
Hertford College
University of Oxford

Date: Wed, 17 Sep 2003 23:42:20 +0300

From: "Rein Raud" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: Morpheme boundary in KKS 55 (digression from Howell's query)

Janick is certainly correct, and so is Ozawa Masao, among others, who follow
the same division of syllables. The other version is impossible not just
because of the peculiarity of the relative clause -te no, but for the
syllable count. We can only read it "mite nomi ya (5)/ hito ni kataramu
(7)". The other version just does not make sense poetically (3/9). Even in
the MYS such significant digression from the 5/7 pattern is infrequent and
only happens in chouka.


Rein Raud

Date: Wed, 17 Sep 2003 16:38:29 -0700

From: "Susan B. Klein" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: "gi" / lexical query 'senshaku'

Tom, I'm sorry, you've misunderstood my attempts to quote/paraphrase Lewis. I'm not saying (and I don't think Lewis was either) that there aren't times when gi is used simply to signal the definition of a term (it may be that this is the most common usage). I believe Lewis was saying that very occasionally (he only has one example) in Ryodokikigaki the use of the term gi implies there is an allegorical interpretation attached to that reading. My point is that in KKSJKG *quite often* after presenting several possible definitions and then choosing one as "our school's," the chosen definition is then supported by a supposed historical pretext -- what you are referring to as "the conventional lore, definitions, and historical, factual, or lexical explanations" -- and that historical pretext may then be further supported (tautologically) by an etymological/allegorical reading which alludes to that pretext. From Lewis's comments it would seem that as the use of historical and etymological allegoresis declined over time, gi (for the most part) came to mean only "definition/meaning of term," although it still often had the implied sense of "the received meaning in our school."

The second point is that a good deal of the "historical" material, which you say Bishamondo-chu was trying to preserve, was probably more often simply made up. So where do you draw the line between such material and the more extravagant "esoteric" allegorizing? An example would be the densetsu given for the line in the KKS preface about otokoyama and the ominaeshi flower ("otokoyama no mukashi o omoiidete, ominaeshi no hitotoki o kuneru")-- both Bishamondo-chu and KKSJKG present the same basic story, which they claim is the historical legend underlying Tsurayuki's phrase, but it seems quite likely that the story was simply made up by Fujiwara Tameaki (see Allegories of Desire, pp. 226-29 for a discussion of the text -- also see my essay "Turning Damsel Flowers to Lotus Blossoms: Ominameshi and Medieval Commentaries" in the recent volume Ominameshi: A Flower Viewed from Many Directions, pp. 57-62). The other thought I had is that it might be useful to note whether, in any particular case, the definition that Bishamondo-chu picks as correct is counterintuitive or not. If it seems to simply be in accordance with the accepted meaning today, then it's unlikely that historical and etymological allegoresis will follow. If the choice is not the usual one, then (not surprisingly) it has to be defended by a secret (esoteric) tradition known only to that school, and which would serve as a way to distinguish that school from other schools.

I'm not saying that you aren't correct about Bishamondo-chu's schizophrenia -- I like your metaphor by the way -- I'm just saying it may not be an either/or situation. And so gi's possible meanings may not have been in conflict for medieval readers: although the straightforward, exoteric meaning (definition of a term) is amplified, in some situations, by esoteric allegorical and historical commentary of the kind we find unbelievable/untenable today, we have to assume such esoteric material was believable at the time.

I guess the other question is to what extent the people who put these commentaries together were, in fact, concerned about producing a "commonly accepted text, which can then be used as a springboard for interpretation." I don't see much evidence for a desire for a stable text whose meanings are universally accepted -- it seems like the idea that texts are open to multiple possible interpretations was more normative, simply because of the situation in which the competing schools found themselves. Or, looked at in another way, does it make sense to judge these commentaries by our own ideas of what counts as proper interpretation, so that when they conform, they are stabilizing the text, but when they don't conform, they are destabilizing it? Is that how the medieval authors and readers would have understood it? I don't have an answer to this, just throwing it out for discussion.


Date: Thu, 18 Sep 2003 14:40:01 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: [pmjs] Kokugakuin symposium on Shinto

One of our new Japanese subscribers has kindly passed on an announcement of a symposium held this weekend (Sat. 20 Sept. - Sun. 21 Sept.) at Kokugakuin University in Tokyo on the subject of Shinto translation.

John Bentley, Helen Hardacre, Kate Wildman Nakai, and Ann Wehmeyer are among the participants.

Details can be found here:

Michael Watson

Date: Thu, 18 Sep 2003 00:10:28 -0700

From: Thomas Howell <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: "gi" / lexical query 'senshaku'


So, when the commentary says "gi nashi" in regards to a poem, do you read this as 'there is no word that needs to be defined' or, 'there is no allegorical interpretation' or am I again making an inappropriate distinction, and is it more like 'our school has nothing to say about this poem'?

You ask, So where do you draw the line between such (historical, etc) material and the more extravagant "esoteric" allegorizing?
I wasn't trying to make a distinction based on the content of the assertions -- although I left myself open to be read that way -- between, say, actual history and made up history, or between proper facts (who is to judge?) and fanciful allegories (which I agree were taken as truth itself). I meant only that on the exoteric side, there is an attempt to limit, control, and correct -- by their standards, not mine -- and on the esoteric side, to expand and amplify. I agree these two get mixed, but the essential aim, I still think is different. I believe I see evidence of desire for stable texts, but that's another discussion.

Janick, you were right. My careless error in translating KKS 55. I did that even though I saw I was breaking up the first 5 syllable line, mite nomi ya.


Date: Thu, 18 Sep 2003 05:41:24 -0500 (CDT)


Subject: [pmjs] Position at Washington University in St. Louis

Dear Colleagues:

I forward to you an announcement regarding a new tenure-track search in
Japanese at Washington University. Please excuse the cross-posting.


Elizabeth Oyler
Date: Sat, 20 Sep 2003 11:11:24 -0700
From: "Susan B. Klein" <>
Subject: [pmjs] job announcement

The Department of Asian and Near Eastern Languages and Literatures at
Washington University invites applications for a tenure-track position
in Japanese at the Assistant Professor level beginning Fall 2004.
Native or near-native fluency in Japanese and English and a proven
record of excellence in, and commitment to, Japanese language teaching
is required. The successful candidate will be expected to play a key
role in the continuing development of a dynamic language program. The
field of research specialization is open. Ph.D. in hand by time of
appointment. Letter of application (to include teaching and research
statements), CV, and three letters of reference should be sent to:
Japanese Search Committee, Department of Asian and Near Eastern
Languages, Washington University, Campus Box 1111, One Brookings Drive,
St. Louis, MO 63130. Preference will be given to applications received
before December 1, 2003. Washington University is an AA/EO employer.
We are committed to the principle of equity and diversity.

Date: Fri, 19 Sep 2003 13:22:03 -0700

From: "Susan B. Klein" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: "gi" / lexical query 'senshaku'

I would follow Lewis here (as in so much else):

" 'gi nashi' can either mean there is no such esoteric interpretation, or there is nothing in dispute or debatable (beyond the grammatical sense of the poem)"

Which would mean that the meaning in Bishamondo-chu would be closest to your last phrase -- that none of the terms is open to debate and therefore our school does not have any interpretations (possibly esoteric/allegorical, but also possibly simply an unusual/unique definition) of terms in the poem to offer.


Date: Sat, 20 Sep 2003 11:11:24 -0700

From: "Susan B. Klein" <>

Subject: [pmjs] job announcement

Dear PMJS Colleagues,

Please note the following announcement for a position in East Asian Languages and Literatures at UC Irvine. Feel free to forward it to anyone you believe might be appropriate!


Susan Klein


The Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures at UCI invites applications for an appointment up to the rank of Professor, with area and period of specialization open. The Department seeks candidates with outstanding records in scholarship and teaching, with demonstrated academic leadership and a commitment to shared governance. The successful applicant should expect to assume the responsibilities of department chair early in her/his term.

The Department awards B.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Chinese and Japanese Language and Literature as well as a B.A. in East Asian Cultures and a Ph.D. in East Asian Cultural Studies. The Department also has undergraduate language programs in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese.
Please send letters of application, curriculum vitae, and references to:

Chair, Professor Search Committee
Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures
UC, Irvine
Irvine, CA 92697-6000

Review of applications will begin immediately and continue through February 3, 2004. The University of California, Irvine, has an active career partner program, is an equal opportunity employer committed to excellence through diversity, and has a National Science Foundation Advance Gender Equity Program.

Date: Sat, 27 Sep 2003 03:49:50 -0700

From: "Dix Monika" <>

Subject: [pmjs] QUERY> Reference

Dear PMJS Members,
I am trying to find information regarding the 和州当麻寺極楽曼陀羅縁起 which might also appear written as 大和当麻寺極楽曼陀羅縁起.
At this point in time, any assistance would be greatly appreciated.


Monika Dix

Date: Sat, 27 Sep 2003 10:58:54 -0400

From: "R. Keller Kimbrough" <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: QUERY> Reference

Dear Monika,

According to an old handout that I have from a seminar with Tokuda-sensei at
Gakushuin, the Zenrinji-bon _Washu Taima-dera gokuraku mandara engi_ dates
from 1262, and is typeset in _Yamato shiryo_ vol. 2 (『大和資料』下),
originally published in Nara in 1914-1915 by the Nara-ken kyoikukai (and
reprinted in Kyoto in 1987 by Rinsen Shoten). As I'm sure you already know,
the engi is a history of Taima-dera, Chujohime, and the miraculous weaving
of the Taima mandala. In Chujohime studies, the work is notable because it
contains the first known reference to Chujohime's father as "Fujiwara no
Toyonari." I hope this helps.

Best wishes,

Date: Sun, 28 Sep 2003 00:34:29 +0900

From: Nobumi Iyanaga <>

Subject: [pmjs] Re: QUERY> Reference

Hello Monika,

I know nothing about the 和州当麻寺極楽曼陀羅縁起, but I read a study on the story of Chuujoo-hime by Tanaka Takako (田中貴子著『聖なる女― ―斎宮・女神・中将姫』(京都、人文書院、1996), where she quotes a work which seems very important: 元興寺文化財研究所編『中将姫説話の調 査研究報告書』1983.

Perhaps this may be of some interest for you.

Best regards,

Nobumi Iyanaga

Date: Sun, 28 Sep 2003 20:38:10 -0700

From: "Dix Monika" <>

Subject: [pmjs] looking for ASCJ co-panelists

Dear PMJS Members,

Regarding participation in the Asian Studies Conference Japan (ASCJ), to be held at Sophia University, Ichigaya Campus, in Tokyo on June 19 and June 20, 2004, Lorinda Kiyama and Monika Dix are searching for panelists whose papers address issues related to RELIGION, WOMEN, AND PERFORMANCE.

Lorinda's talk is about GOEIKA BUYO, and Monika's about the MUKAEKO.

We welcome up to two more panelists who can present on related topics.
Please contact Monika at <> offline.

We look forward to hearing from you. Please note that the final deadline for submission of all proposals is November 25, 2003.


Monika Dix

Date: Tue, 30 Sep 2003 23:35:56 -0700

From: "H. Mack Horton" <hmhor...@...rates.Berkeley.EDU>

Subject: [pmjs] Atsumori Noh Video

I wonder if anyone knows of a video or dvd of a presentation of the noh play Atsumori? Any suggestions would be very much appreciated.
Many thanks,
Mack Horton

H. Mack Horton
Professor and Chair
Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures
Durant Hall
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720-2230
TEL 510-642-6806
DEPT TEL 510-642-3480
DEPT FAX 510-642-6031

::::: pmjs footer:::::

Members curious to see how recent pmjs messages translate into Japanese are welcome to have a look at the online log of Japanese digests. Comments and corrections welcome.
The usual logs ID/password is needed for access.

previous month

list of logs

log index

pmjs index

next month