A Narrative Study of the Kakuichi-bon Heike Monogatari

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Oriental Studies for the degree of D.Phil.
April 2003.

Michael Geoffrey Watson
The Queen's College, University of Oxford


List of Abbreviations
List of Figures and Tables

Chapter 1 - Introduction

  1. The Genpei war and Heike monogatari
  2. Narratives about the Genpei war
  3. Heike monogatari and its variants
  4. Focus of this study
  5. Lineages and variants
  6. The position of the Kakuichi version among Heike variants
  7. Overview of the thesis

Chapter 2- Beginnings and endings

  1. Origins
  2. Other beginnings: Amakusaban Heike monogatari
  3. Evaluative endings in the Kikaigashima story
  4. "Gion shôja";: its rhetorical and narrative function
  5. Arrogance and strength of spirit
  6. Temporal bounds of reference
  7. Present reference
  8. Chronology and narrative order
  9. The beginning of the main narrative
  10. The physical markings of structure
  11. Organization into books and sections
  12. "The beginning and end do not match"
  13. Conclusion

Chapter 3- Narrative Structure

  1. Forms of narrative structure
  2. The "macro-organization" of narrative
  3. Verb forms
  4. Key structural terms
  5. Section divisions
  6. Structures within structures
  7. Ichikata and Yasaka episodic structure: two case studies
  8. Narrative structuring: analysis by discourse markers
  9. Kano and sareba as discourse markers
  10. Structure in Heike recitation
  11. Conclusion

Chapter 4- Speech Representation

  1. Frequency and distribution of speech in Heike monogatari
  2. Variation in distribution of speech
  3. Speech representation of Go-Shirakawa and Tokitada
  4. Distribution of direct discourse within books eight and nine
  5. Attibutive discourse
  6. Other quantitive data for speech representation
  7. Recollections: Kozaishô
  8. Recollections: Koremori
  9. Predictive speech
  10. Conclusion

Chapter 4 - Character presentation

    The theory of character

  1. Character behaviour: retainers in battle
  2. References to characters: the case of Shittei (Sanesada)
  3. A character's position in the narrative world
  4. Forms of reference to Yoshitsune
  5. Takiguchi and Yokobue
  6. Readers' understanding of character: Kiyomori
  7. Posthumous characterization
  8. Takakura's early death: causality in character presentation
  9. Conclusion: the illusion of character

Chapter 5 - Focalization

  1. Antoku's robe: internal focalization in "Kanjô-no-maki"
  2. Focalization theory
  3. Focalized perceptions: the journey of Kenreimon'in to Ôhara
  4. External and internal focalization in "Koyô"
  5. ka bakari, ika ni: primary, secondary, and tertiary focalization
  6. Focalization in "Atsumori saigo";
  7. Whose story? Focalization in "Giô"
  8. Focalization in Heike variants



  1. Abbreviations used in notes and bibliography
  2. Primary sources (by title)
  3. Annotated bibliography (author -date)
  4. Recordings
  5. Electronic resources
  6. Section titles of the Kakuichi-bon Heike monogatari
  7. List of passages cited in numbered quotations

Watson top index