last update 11/15



Faculty of International Studies



Japanese Aid Glossary--Pacific Island States Related

Note: Under construction

  • aid, conditionality: Aid provided with conditions on structural or political reform and change. In general, Japan has been reluctant to influence the political and economic policies of developing countries. See Kaifu principles (1991); Official Development Assistance Charter (1992).

  • aid, imprecise term that includes: grants, bilateral loans, technical assistance, economic cooperation—Japanfs focus, contributions to multilateral organizations, etc.

  • albacore—tuna. While migratory, most albacore is taken from the high seas, unlike other major tuna species that are mainly harvested within EEZs. About 4.5 percent of the Pacificfs total tuna stock is albacore.

  • Alliance of Small Island States—coordinating group of world small island nation-states

  • American Tunaboat Association

  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

  • Asia Parliamentary Union, 1965 (APPU)—two conferences and a general assembly each year. Link between parliamentarians and aid

  • Asian Development Bank (ADB), Manila

  • Association for the Promotion of International Cooperation (APIC)

  • Australia-Japan Ministerial Committee—discussions between Australian and Japanese officials on developments in the Pacific region, including aid cooperation. Cooperation with Japan is not particularly successful due to Japanese institutional rigidities and bureaucratic fragmentation. See example of Fiji Health Promotion Project (1991). Pacific aid cooperation also exists with New Zealand, Canada, and the EC.

  • Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)

  • Basic Human Needs approach to aid as opposed to industry-based and sectional interests

  • bigeye—tuna species

  • bilateral grant aid categories: general, fisheries, aid for increased food production, disaster relief, food aid, cultural. [Note: Aid to South Pacific is primarily general and fisheries categories.]

  • bilateral loans

  • bilateral official development assistance

  • bluefin—tuna species which fetches the highest prices in Japan

  • Budget Bureau, Ministry of Finance: ultimate authority and power over aid disbursements. Tends to favor gyen loansh over aid as being more economically sound.

  • Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic Development in South and Southeast Asia

  • Committee for Oceania (FAIR) (1985), MOF policy think-tank

  • comprehensive national security: toward the end of the 1970s, broad-based Japanese  policy to enhance defense capability respond to Japanfs international security environment; but never clear, overriding framework or philosophy

  • contributions to multilateral organizations

  • Convention on Future Mulitlateral Cooperation in Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (NAFO)—one of 14 or so international fisheries agreements Japan is a signatory to

  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)—relation to moves in restricting rights of freedom of fishing on the high seas through strengthening international law in favor of the rights of costal states.

  • Convention on the Establishment of an Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)—one of 14 or so international fisheries agreements Japan is a signatory to

  • Coral Reef Natural Resource and Environment Policy Cooperation, program of assistance for Pacific island countries that are Japanfs main fishing partners, administered by OFCF; budget, $1.2 million.

  • Council of Foreign Economic Cooperation—government policy group

  • démarche—a diplomatic or political initiative or maneuver

  • Development assistance

  • Development Assistance Committee, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

  • development assistance. See aid

  • Dietmen groups for promoting relations with Pacific states: existing for Papua New Guinea, Palau and FSM

  • Dietmenfs League for Fisheries Promotion

  • Director of Fisheries, Government of Fiji

  • distant-water fishing nation—Japan, Korea, Taiwan, etc.

  • Economic Cooperation Bureau, six divisions, including the Grant Aid Division

  • economic cooperation, Japanfs aid focus

  • economic cooperation—See aid

  • Engineering Consulting Firms Association (ECFA) EN JP See private sector ODA project identification, link to METI
  • Enjo: aid

  • Exchange of Notes agreement: received by recipient country indicating terms and conditions concerning individual (aid) projects

  • Export Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank) set up in 1952

  • Federation of Japan Tuna Fisheries Cooperative Association (Nikkatsuren)

  • Fiscal Investments and Loan Program

  • Fisheries Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan EN JP—seeks control over fisheries grants so as to maintain a close link between aid and overseas fisheries interests. Note: also negotiates right to fish within EEZs. See OFCF. See also zaidan.

  • Fisheries Development Assistance for Pacific Island Nations (FDAPIN), five-year Japanese ODA project begun in 1990; ¥500 million a year. OFCF Fisheries Agency initiative

  • fisheries grant aid: fisheries equipment and infrastructure (ports, markets, cold storage), equipment and materials for research (survey vessels and labs), infrastructure for fisheries training (fishing vessels, schools)

  • Fishermenfs Training Center, Kiribati. Project among JICA, OFCF, Nikkatsuren and the Kiribati government. Project included dormitory, classrooms, laboratory, and training vessel. Attempt to train i-Kirabati as labor for Japanese fishing fleets in response to Japanese labor costs and difficulty in recruiting Japanese nationals to work on ships.

  • fishing diplomacy—major component of Japanese diplomacy and the Pacific island region. Contentious area and not well coordinated among Japanese bureaucracies.

  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome

  • Forum Fisheries Agency (Honiara, Solomon Islands)—independent and self-governing Pacific island countries, plus Australia and New Zealand

  • Forum Secretariat (formerly SPEC), Suva. See South Pacific Forum

  • Fukuda Doctrine

  • general grant aid: multisectoral: medical and health, education and research, agriculture, public welfare and environment, communication and transportation, and infrastructure for export promotion—LDCs only, categories for special debt relief and structural adjustment

  • government-to-government aid—aid must be from the Japanese government to a recipient government, in the case of multilateral and international organizations, Japan must be a member, etc.

  • Grant Aid Division, Economic Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

  • grant-in-aid project cycle—typically up to three or four years, but can be expedited.

  • Grants. See aid

  • Green Aid Plan, MITI (1991), $2.2 billion over ten years in grants and loans for environmental projects

  • high seas

  • Human Development Index (HDI), UN Development Program

  • humanitarian and moral considerations and recognition of interdependence: cornerstones of Ministry of Foreign Affairs rationales for ODA

  • Infrastructure projects to support economic development

  • International Affairs Division, Fisheries Agency

  • International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT)—See convention of the same name, one of 14 or so international fisheries agreements Japan is a signatory to

  • International Cooperation Day, (October 6): means to raise awareness of official development assistance in Japan

  • International Cooperation Initiative, 1988 (under Prime Minister Takeshita)

  • International Whaling Commission (IWC)

  • Itoh-chu Shoji—trading company with freezing plant in Fiji; set up in 1963

  • Japan Bank for International Cooperation—created in 1999 in a merger of OECF and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation.

  • Japan Committee for Pacific Islands, subcommittee ((PECC), link to MOFA, part of Pacific Economic Cooperation Council

  • Japan Development Institute, research institute of Engineering Consulting Firms Association

  • Japan Fisheries Association (JFA), represents interests of fishing industry at the national level, 1882. Emphasizes interests of distant-water fishing concerns.

  • Japan International Cooperation Agency: public corporation (tokusho hojin), primarily under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, but also under MITI and Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries. Responsible for administering capital grant aid, mostly technical assistance.

  • Japan Micronesia Association (1974), OFCF, commissioned to undertake economic studies of Micronesian countries. See link to Fisheries Agency

  • Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV)

  • Japanfs ginternational obligations and responsibilitiesh—gburden sharingh

  • Japanese Overseas Purse Seine Fishing Association (Kaimaki)

  • Japan-South Pacific Economic Association, link with MITI to promote commercial ties to the South Pacific; link to JETRO

  • JICA—Japan International Cooperation Agency

  • Kaifufs four principles: Prime Minister Kaifufs principles that Japan would consider military, economic and political policies of recipient states before extending official development assistance. (Response to Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.) Thus, the relation between aid and non-intervention in domestic affairs could be conditioned on coordinated policy with Western countries and on moves toward democratization, etc. See Official Development Assistance Charter

  • Kaigai Gyogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, joint venture—on the Japanese side Mitsubishi and Nikkatsuren

  • katsuobushi—produced from smoked skipjack and bonito. Important money earner in Micronesia under Japanese rule.

  • Kavieng National Fisheries College, PNG. Established in 1977 with Japanese grant aid.

  • keizai kyoryoku: geconomic cooperation,h term preferred to aid

  • kenkyu kai—study groups

  • Kuranari Doctrine, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan (January 1987): Foreign Minister Kuranari declared Japanfs support for Pacific island countries and pledged Japan to enhance economic cooperation in the region. An example of a pledge for strategic aid.

  • Lome Convention: EU trade preference system for 71 African, Caribbean, and Pacific States (ACP).

  • MacArthur lines: Japanese fishing vessels were forbidden to operate beyond Japanfs costal waters. Later extended four times before being eliminated in 1952. Distant-water fishing was encouraged after this period as government policy

  • Marcos Scandals, mid-1980s; relation to corruption and Japanese aid schemes

  • Melanesian Spearhead Group—PNG, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji

  • MHLC--new fisheries convention

  • Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries

  • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan EN JP (name changed in 1978 to reflect importance of fisheries). Within the ministry the Ocean Fisheries Department manages relations with coastal states and negotiates access agreements. See Special Advisor  

  • Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry--formerly MITI EN JP

  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), International Affairs Division?, responsibility for relations with Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the gnanpoh (southern) section coordinates relations with Pacific island countries [check] EN JP

  • Ministry of Finance (MOF) EN  JP

  • Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) (Note: on 2001/01/06 the Ministry of International Trade and Industry changed into the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry due to governmental restructuring.) EN JP

  • MITISee Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; yon shocho.

  • MOFA—See Ministry of Foreign Affairs

  • MOFSee Ministry of Finance

  • Montevideo Declaration on the Law of the Sea (1970) adopted by Latin American countries, costal state jurisdiction over a 200-mile area.

  • Multilateral Cooperation Division, Economic Cooperation Bureau. Ministry of Foreign Affairs

  • Multilateral Treaty on Fisheries Between the Governments of Certain Pacific Island States and the Government of the USA (March 1987)

  • Nanfyo, South Seas, ambiguous term used to refer to Pacific islands, and at other times to Southeast Asia and the South China seas. Oceania is now preferred for reference to Pacific islands, Australia, and New Zealand.

  • Nanyo Boeki Kabushiki Kaisha (NBK), one of the oldest Japanese trading companies in the Pacific. (Kuribayashi Tokugoro, also serves as Honorary Consul for Kiribati and Tuvalu.)

  • Nanyo Boeki Kaisha (NBK) and Mitsui fishing base (freezer, wharf, support facilities) in Vanuatu

  • National Fisheries Corporation, FSM

  • National Offshore Tuna Fisheries Association of Japan (Kinkatsukyo)

  • Nauru Agreement (established 1982)—sub-regional group of states that control the most important exclusive economic zones: FSM, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, PNG, Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu. A management initiative that harmonized minimum terms and conditions of access to EEZs and established a Regional Register, a database for licensing foreign vessels.

  • New Industries Development plan (1997), MITI initiative

  • Nihon Kinkai Hogei, trading company (three joint ventures), fisheries, PNG

  • Nikkatsuren—Federation of Japan Tuna Fisheries Cooperatives Association

  • Niue Treaty on Cooperation in Fisheries Surveillance and Law Enforcement in the South Pacific Region (1993)—See Nauru Agreement.

  • non-intervention in domestic affairs, principal of

  • North Pacific Purse Seine Fisheries Cooperative Associations of Japan (Kitamaki)

  • Ocean Fisheries Department—See Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.

  • Oceania Division, Bureau for Oceanic and European Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

  • Office of Overseas Fishery Cooperation, Director of (may be a confusion with OFCF?)

  • concessional or non-concessional (official) government transfers and financial flows

  • Official Development Assistance Charter (1992)—See Kaifufs four principles: The ODA Charter pledges Japan to gpay attention toh trends in military expenditures; trends in development and production of weapons of mass destruction; trends in export and import of arms; efforts to promote democratization; introduction of a market oriented economy, and basic human rights.

  • omiyage gaiko—souvenir diplomacy: visit by a high-ranking Japanese team (led by a minister, vice-minister, or prime minister) marked by an announcement of a new aid package or the signing of an Exchange of Notes

  • Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Development Assistance Committee of (DAC). Introduced the concept of official development assistance in 1969

  • otsukiai enjo—term used to describe Japanfs South Pacific aid. In Orr: gaid flows to smaller countries of little political or economic significance to Japan.h

  • Overseas Agro-Fisheries Consultants Company (OAFIC). See links to private sector ODA project identification

  • Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF), created in the 1960s; responsibility for administering all concessional loans to developing countries. OECF and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation are now merged into the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (October 1999)

  • Overseas Fisheries Cooperation Foundation (OFCF). Fisheries Agency link (zaidan) to maintain control over fisheries aid.  Fisheries cooperation budget in 1994, $50.6 million.

  • Overseas Technical Cooperation Agency (OCTA )(1962), later merged with the Japan Emigration Service (and part of the Japan Overseas Development Corporation), became the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)  

  • Pacific Economic Cooperation Council EN

  • Pacific Island Nations Conference—sponsored by the Sasagawa Peace Foundation in 1988; Sasagawa later set up the Pacific Islands Fund

  • Pacific Islands States, embassies in Tokyo: PNG, FSM, Fiji, Marshall Islands. See also NBK

  • Pacific Society (1978), private sector research institute set up by Gotoh Noboru

  • Palau Agreement (1992): Sought to restrict the number of distant-water licenses issued to purse seine fleets and to give preference to fleets that engage in joint ventures with Pacific island states.

  • Palau Arrangement for the Management of the Western Pacific Purse Seine Fishery (1992). See also Nauru Agreement

  • peace diplomacy, non-military means for supporting the Western defense effort, i.e., to gaid countries bordering areas of conflicth

  • Peoplefs Plan 21—non-governmental organization movement formulated a Peoplefs Charter on ODA as well as a Proposed Fundamental Law of International Development Cooperation (1989)

  • Permanent Secretary for Foreign Affairs and External Trade, Government of Fiji

  • preferential rights (as opposed to gsovereign rightsh)—Japanese position of Law of the Sea; not adopted, nor supported internationally

  • Principle 15, Rio Declaration, adopted at UNCED, 1992: the precautionary principle states that the burden of proof lies with a fishing nation, not a coastal state, to show that there are no threats of serious or irreversible damage to fishing stocks and that lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing effective preventive measures against environmental degradation. Japan opposes this principle.

  • private sector ODA project identification, officially sanctioned

  • Programming Division, Economic Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

  • project-by-project approach in Japanfs decentralized aid bureaucracy

  • project-tied-aid

  • recurrent cost financing, prohibition of—recipients must bear some of the costs of delivering and maintaining projects.

  • reparations, war: includes grants, private loans, and export credits as settlement for World War II-related damages

  • request-based aid

  • resource nationalism of Third World countries, link to ODA

  • ringi sei—ringi system: aid project cycles require agreement and authorization of many bureaucratic parties; these series of consultations may complicate and constrain aid decision-making. (Also political considerations arising out of the Marcos scandals.)

  • shingi kai—government advisory councils

  • shogo shosha: joint ventures established by large trading companies, including transshipment facilities and fish processing plants

  • shukko—cross posting from one agency to another. Staff shortages at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs require this, thus in the Grant Aid Division, staff may come from outside the ministry and even outside government

  • Single-year budget cycle—projects must be disbursed in one fiscal year

  • skipjack—tuna, often used for katsuobushi

  • small-scale fisheries grant (SSFG): Japanese government response to more modest request from Pacific island governments, in line with small economies of these states, but restricted to countries holding bi-lateral fishing agreements with Japan. (Note: link between aid and fisheries agreements.) Granted by the Fisheries Agencyfs Overseas Fisheries Cooperation Office (OFCF) and not by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (Note the confusing lines of control.)

  • Small-scale Grant Assistance scheme (1989)

  • SOPAC—See South Pacific Group

  • South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission

  • South Pacific Commission (SPC)

  • South Pacific Conference/Commission—inter-governmental regional organization; holds an annual meeting of the 16 heads of government of independent and self-governing states, including Australia and New Zealand

  • South Pacific Forum—Pacific inter-governmental organization

  • South Pacific Group—SOPAC formed for collective diplomacy by South Pacific states represented in the United Nations: PNG, Fiji, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Samoa, FSM, Marshall Islands and Palau. See also Alliance of Small Island States

  • South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (SPNFZ) (1985), also called the Treaty of Rarotonga

  • South Pacific Regional Environment Program

  • Southeast Asia Development Cooperation Fund, under the jurisdiction of the Economic Planning Agency

  • sovereign rights to the sea (1976): rights to a coastal state to the living and non-living resources of the bed, subsoil and super-adjacent waters

  • Special Advisor, International Affairs Division, Foreign Ministry. Advisor to the Foreign Minister on fisheries matters; post created in 1977 to lead access negotiations; has near autonomy and great influence, including that over grant aid, linking aid and access negotiations throughout Oceania. Special Advisor is assigned from Fisheries Agency?

  • strategic aid—media and academic term from 70s and 80s: applies to policy conducted in cooperation with the strategic interests of the United States

  • taisho hoshin (instructions for delegations): in the case of fisheries matters, drafted by Fisheries Agency only in gconsultationh with the Foreign Ministry

  • Taiyo Gyogyo, trading company established a joint venture, trading base in Solomon Islands in 1973. Later established a cannery and commercial center at Noro in Western Province, SI—1985—1990. OFCF financed the $12 million facility. ADB funded a power station--$7.2 million; European Development Fund (DDF) provided a $10 million grant for infrastructure development; further Japanese grant of $11.23 million for infrastructure at Noro township, including an oil terminal, cold storage facilities and a community center. (Taiyo Gyogyo was renamed Maruha in 1993.)

  • Take Maru No. 32, Japanese longliner caught fishing illegally in PNG waters in 1988

  • technical assistance. See aid, technical cooperation

  • Technical Cooperation Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs: negotiates with MOF about breakdown of technical cooperation budget and sets general policy guidelines for technical cooperation

  • Technical Cooperation for Fisheries Development (1988/89): OFCF Fisheries Agency project for coastal fishing development, aid tied to bi-lateral fishing agreements; ¥100-150 million per recipient

  • technical cooperation, categories: trainees programs in Japan; Japanese experts and volunteers in recipient countries, equipment, project-type technical cooperation, development surveys

  • territorial sea, 12 mile zone

  • Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security

  • Treaty of Rarotonga. See South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

  • Tuna and Billfish Assessment Program (SPC). Main research on tuna stocks in the region.

  • tuna—generic name for skipjack, bluefin, yellowfin, albacore, etc.

  • Tuvalu problem—so-called by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Tuvalu Prime Minister criticized Japanese aid, the report was aired on TV, funds for a planned school project were cut in half.

  • UN Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (1993)

  • UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), EEZs established, 200 nautical miles from a statefs coastline

  • UN Development Program (UNDP) (previously UN Expanded Program of Technical Assistance)

  • UN Seabed Committee

  • United States Strategic Trust Territory—UN trusteeship administered by the United States over portions of former Japanese-held Micronesian territories. Established after 1947, ended in 1974.

  • University of the South Pacific (Suva, Fiji)

  • US Dolphin Protection Consumer Act, 1990—required US fishing industry to adopt measures to limit by catch of dolphin and to label tuna products as gdolphin safeh

  • US Fishermenfs Protective Act—US response to unilateral declaration of 200-mile EEZ in Latin America. For any US boat seized, compensation would be deducted from foreign assistance.

  • US Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnusen Act, 1976)

  • US Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, amended 1988—limits the dolphin mortality associated with tuna purse-seining; bans imports of tuna products from countries that continue to catch yellowfin in association with dolphin. Countries affected included Costa Rica, Italy, and Japan.

  • war reparations. See reparations

  • Wellington Convention (1989), Convention for the Prohibition of Fishing with Long Driftnets in the South Pacific: Convention came into force in May 1991. Japan refused to sign. The convention applies to EEZs of the South Pacific and adjacent high seas. (Subsequently by Cabinet decision, however, Japan announced that it would cease drift netting by December 1992 and actually ceased one year ahead of the deadline set by a UN resolution of December 1991.)

  • World Bank

  • yellowfin—tuna

  • yen loans: type of bilateral official development assistance

  • yon shocho: Aid policy coordinated by four ministries and agency system; includes Ministry of International trade and Industry (MITI); Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Finance, and the Economic Planning Agency (EPA).

  • zaidan: non-profit, semi-official organizations that agencies use to establish channels of cooperation with sector interests, e.g., Nikkatsuren, perhaps.

  • zoku gin—Dietmen who develop expertise in a particular area of policy

  • zoku—policy groups within party groups, as in suisan zoku, fisheries group

gWhen the Japanese government selects the countries to which it provides fisheries grants, criteria include that the recipient country must have a fisheries agreement with Japan and it must take a supportive position to Japan in various international organizationsh OFCF 1987 message to Pacific island states.

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