pmjs logs for March 2001. Total number of messages: 103 (in logs)

Logs have been created from the weekly digests. They need further editing, but I assume it is better to have something now, no matter how rough.

previous month

list of logs

pmjs index

next month

reviews of (educational) videos (follow up to David Pollack's question) 

Hiraizumi, Surimono (talks by Mimi Hall Yiengpruksawan; John Carpenter) 

Saigu/Saiin (Denise O'Brien) 

kokka articles (Gil Schneider) 

The elite and the masses in premodern Japan (Wayne Farris) 

A book review (Internet: yomu, manabu, shiraberu) (Kikuchi Shin'ichi) 

Gunsho-ruiju CD-ROM etc. (Shigeki Moro) 

CD-ROM resources (Matthew Stavros) 

kabuki videos (Gregory Pflugfelder) 

mail problems (Michael Watson) 

Kojitsu soosho (Royall Tyler) - 

Mishima Symposium (Amy Heinrich) 

Nihon gaishi (Michael Watson) 

Teaching of Classical Japanese Language (Stephen D. Miller) 

Gagaku videos & CD (Steven G. Nelson) 

Heian convents / nuns and convents / Hokkeji, etc. / Hannyaji / Zen mon (Royall Tyler) 

UKE NAMAKO! / The great namako mystery / namako / grep searches (Robin Gill) 

Inventing the Classics bu Shirane/Suzuki (Haruo Shirane) 

Women's speech (Noel John Pinnington) 

NKBT database at Kokubungaku shiryokan (Hank Glassman) 

women in otogizoshi / otogizoshi bibliography (Keller Kimbrough) 

copyrights (Barbara Nostrand) 

symposium: Animals / History / Japan (Gregory Pflugfelder) 

culture and nationalism: request for bibliography (Morgan Pitelka) 

Changes in Noh performance? / retardation of performance (William Bodiford) 

Aorora Scholarship (Laurel Rasplica Rodd) 

otogi zoshi / ordering PhD dissertations (Linda K. Letten) 

Professor Jeffrey Mass (Philip Brown) 

Some "pmjs footers" included.

Lightly edited (see "principles"). Editorial comments in italics.

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Thu, 01 Mar 2001 10:41:57 +0900

Subject: reviews

A follow-up on David Pollack's question about reviews of (educational)
videos, and a question of my own about reviews of academic publications.

Roberta H I Martin of Columbia University--not on pmjs--has kindly provided
the following information:

> There was a recent query on your listserv regarding reviews of current
> videos on Asia. There are two groups that do review videos:
> Education about Asia, published three times a year by AAS.
> The Asian Educational Media Service of the Center for East Asian and
> Pacific Studies at U. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. AEMS publishes a
> bulletin, "News and Reviews," and has a website where all reviews can be
> accessed at:

I'd like to know how to track down journal publications, in particular
reviews of academic publications. Lurking on the Japan-Studien list, I
learnt of a major German library service in Berlin:
log on as Guest
click "Table of Contents International"
enter (for example) Genji
and the following result appears

1. Doris G. Bargen, A Woman's Weapon: Spirit Possession in The Tale of

2. 1001-19 "The Tale of Genji"

3. "I Am I": Genji and Murasaki

4. A Statistical Quantitative Analysis on the Construction of `zuwa' in

5. Bargen, A Woman's Weapon: Spirit Possession in The Tale of Genji

6. Genji monogatari (The Tale of Genji). CD-ROM released by Fujitsu
Social Science Laboratory Limited

7. Narrative Framing in the Tale of Genji Scroll: Interior Space in the
Compartmentalized Emaki
ARTIBUS ASIAE Watanabe, M. 1998

8. Bargen, A Woman's Weapon: Spirit Possession in the The Tale of the

9. A Quantitative Analysis of Genji-Monogatari in Its Conversational and
Narrative Statements; with Focus on the Usage of the Auxiliary Verbs
MATHEMATICAL LINGUISTICS Ueda, H.; Murakami, M.; Fujita, M. 1998

10. The Tale of Genji: From Heian Classic to Heisei Comic

The database does not appear to go back very far, but is obviously handy,
both when looking for articles and reviews. Does anyone know of another net
service for searches like this?

Michael Watson 

From: Michael Watson <>
Date: Thu, 01 Mar 2001 10:26:48 +0900
Subject: Hiraizumi, Surimono

cross-posting from JAHF (Japanese Art History Forum)

Upcoming Events at the Donald Keene Center of Japanese Culture, Columbia

March 8 (Thursday) 6:00 PM
403 Kent Hall, Columbia University

Booktalk and slide presentation: "Hiraizumi: Buddhist Art and Regional
Politics in Twelfth-Century Japan"
Professor Mimi Hall Yiengpruksawan (History of Art Department, Yale
Discussion with Professor Melissa McCormick (Atsumi Assistant Professor,
Art History, Columbia University)

In the twelfth century, along what were then the borders of the Japanese
state in northern Honshu, three generations of local rulers built a
capital city at Hiraizumi that became a major military and commercial
center. Known as the Hiraizumi Fujiwara, these local powerholders were
descendents of the ancient Emishi, for centuries rivals to the central
Japanese state and only recently reluctant participants in the growing
Japanese polity. At Hiraizumi, these rules created a city filled with
art, from splendid temples and shrines to landscaped gardens and
palatial residences that rivaled in scale and extravagance those found
in Kyoto. This building program was at least in part an attempt to use
the power of art and architecture to claim a religious and political
mandate. At the same time, it was an encounter with a set of concerns
that arose from the situation of the Hiraizumi Fujiwara as outsiders in
an emergent cultural homogeneity defined by the center in Kyoto. In
this, the first book-length study of Hiraizumi in English, Mimi Hall
Yiengpruksawan studies the history of the region and the rise of the
Hiraizumi Fujiwara and analyzes their remarkable program of

Sponsored by the Donald Keene Center of Japanese Culture

March 28 (Wednesday) 6:30 PM
403 Kent Hall, Columbia University

Lecture: "Classical Literary Motifs in Surimono by Kubo Shunman"
Professor John Carpenter (Donald Keene Lecturer in the History of
Japanese Art at the SOAS, University of London)

While introducing rare surimono (privately published Japanese prints)
from the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, this lecture will
explore the interaction of scholars of the kokugaku (National Learning)
movement, ky a poets, and ukiyo-e artists during the late Edo period.
Within a literary and artistic context dominated by kokugaku
sensibilities, the surimono designer Kubo Shumman (1757-1820) still
remains exceptional and seems to have had a firmer grounding in
classical studies than his fellow surimono designers. Shumman's
erudition and kokugaku inspired artistic tendencies are evident in his
surimono production of the Bunka era (1804-1818), especially in his
extended series inspired by works of classical literature such as Ise
monogatari (Tales of Ise), Tsurezuregusa (Essays in Idleness), and
Torikaebaya monogatari (If I Could Only Change Them).

John T. Carpenter received his Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1997.
His research interests range from the history of East Asian calligraphy
to early modern Japanese painting and prints. He was co-author of The
Frank Lloyd Wright Collection of Surimono (1995), and Jewels of Japanese
Printmaking, Surimono of the Bunka-Bunsei Era 1804-1830 (2000), and
helped edit and translate Hokusai Paintings, Selected Essays (1994). He
has just been reappointed as Donald Keene Lecturer in the History of
Japanese Art at the SOAS, University of London.

Co-sponsored by the Donald Keene Center of Japanese Culture and the
Ukiyo-e Society of America, Inc.

For more information on these and other Donald Keene Center events,
visit our website at:
or call 212-854-5036.

-- pmjs recommends --

Peter Kornicki, The Book in Japan: A Cultural History from the Beginnings to
the Nineteenth Century (Hawaii UP, 2001). 520 pp. Now in paperback.

link of the day: 19th century Japanese medical prints

From: "Denise O'Brien" <>

Date: Fri, 02 Mar 2001 09:53:31 -0500

Subject: Saigu/Saiin

Re the Ise and Kamo Shrines during the Heian period----who
performed the Shrine priestesses' duties after they were first appointed
and were undergoing training and purification? A new Ise Virgin remained
in the capital for over a year----did someone take her place in the annual
ritual cycle at Ise? There are indications in the Eiga monogatari and in
Genji that Kamo Festivals went on even if the saiin had recently been
replaced. It is easier to see how a new saiin might participate in Kamo
rituals but I thought that seclusion was part of the sacralization processs.
Regards, Denise O'Brien
Denise O'Brien
Dept. of Anthropology, Temple University
Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA 

From: alba <>

Date: Fri, 02 Mar 2001 18:17:06 +0100

Subject: kokka articles

hello - i am looking for an article by kohara hironobu, "on the picture
scroll of the admonitions of the instructness to the ladies in the palace",
published in 2 parts. one in kokka 908 (nov 67, pg 17-31), the other in
kokka 909 (dec67, pg 13-27). these numbers of kokka are missing in our
university library.
can anyone help ? all costs (eg copying, mailing) will be refunded. thanks
and best regards.
gil schneider (zurich)

-- the editor recommends --

Peter Kornicki, The Book in Japan: A Cultural History from the Beginnings to
the Nineteenth Century (Hawaii UP, 2001). 520 pp. Now in paperback

link of the day: online Japanese library catalogues

From: Wayne Farris <>

Date: Sat, 03 Mar 2001 15:44:08 -0500

Subject: The elite and the masses in premodern Japan

Dear all,
I just finished giving a lecture on famine and war in medieval Japan
here in Knoxville to a crowd of historians--scholars who study Europe, the US, and other regions.
What struck me was that it was just assumed that of course one needed to talk about and know about peasants, and the population in general.
What amazes me is that the same studies when done on Japan--especially pre-1600
Japan--provoke such controversy. Judging from the response to my effort,
English-language historical studies of Japan, especially the pre-1600 era, are 25-30 years behind the times. And since Japanese historians study peasants and villages as well, why is it wrong to do so in English? I'm mystified.
And finally, on the topic of political asides in messages, it is true
that I apologized to the list. But I am reminded of Spencer Tracy's line in
reference to radio in the film "Inherit the Wind:" "What a barren source of
amusement this medium is going to be."
Wayne Farris

From: Kikuchi Shin'ichi <>

Date: Sun, 04 Mar 2001 11:26:57 +0900

Subject: A book review

Internet for Human Science English title  
THE MAINICHI NEWSPAPERS 1,680yen.A4,143 pages.
2001/3/30 But, now on sale.
ISBN-620-79174-1 C9455   68332-12
It's like a printed version of website ARIADNE.
For beginners.

Kikuchi Shin'ichi <>>


From: Michael Watson <>
Date: Sun, 04 Mar 2001 13:08:37 +0900
Subject: new members

We welcome three new members: Ronald P. Toby, Kikuchi Shin'ichi, and David

Ronald Toby needs little introduction from me. He is now Professor in the
Dept of Korean Studies. Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, Faculty
of Letters, Tokyo University.
Selected publications:
State and Diplomacy in Early-Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the
Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton University Press, 1984; "Kinsei Nihonjin no
etonosu ninshiki" (Early-modern Japanese ethnic consciousness), in Yamauchi
Masayuki & Yoshida Motoo, ed., Nihon imeeji koosaku: Ajia Taiheiyoo no
toposu (Inter-implicated Japanese images: The Asia-Pacific topos). (Tokyo
University Press, 1997): 122-132; and "Imagining and Imaging 'Anthropos' in
Early-modern Japan," in Visual Anthropology Review, 14, 3 (Spring-Summer):
Profile and fuller bibliography at:

For those of you without Japanese display, the message "a book review" was
from our next new member, Kikuchi Shin'ichi. The romanized title is:
_Internet yomu, manabu, shiraberu bungaku rekishi shisou geijutsu_. credits "PC club" as editors.

Professor Kikuchi has done extraordinary work in putting carefully edited
electronic texts onto the internet. I have long admired his work. His
profile below does not mention his numerous print publications.

Kikuchi Shin'ichi      <>
Professor of Konan Women's University, Kobe
Field: Japanese literature, early modern (Edo/Tokugawa) - modern (Meiji) ,
kanazoshi, buhenbanashi, koudan, dodoitsu, historical novels

David Neilson <>

I am a first year Ph.D. student at the University of Oregon studying under
Andrew Goble. My MA thesis was a reexamination of the last decade of the
life of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Specifically, I was attempting to discover
aspects of his personal life which may have contributed to his decline in
his final years. My primary interests lie in the Sengoku period and I
anticipate that my dissertation will deal with aspects of the process of

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Date: Sun, 4 Mar 2001 03:16:21 -0500

Subject: Re: [pmjs] The elite and the masses in premodern Japan


I hope you'll forgive a comment from a complete outsider (a
non-historian), but I am mystified by your being mystified (quoting,
roughly, R. Bowring on this list many months ago).
I could cite any number of eloquently polemical articles by Amino
Yoshihiko of the past decade or so complaining that for 40 some years
following c. 1945 it was effectively taboo for self-respecting
academic Japanese historians to publish research on anything _but_ the
peasantry (or on the 'shoen' system as viewed from the bottom, etc.) A
great deal of resistance had to be overcome before it became okay to
delve into subjects such as the disenfranchisement of the aristocracy
in the early Edo period, or co-dependencies between the imperial
household and "marginal" folk, etc.
What impresses me about Amino's writings is that he has proven
himself to be enough of a historian not just to complain about these
(professional) taboos and resistances but to analyze and overcome
them, precisely by "historicizing."
And aren't you (perhaps) making too much of the parochialism of
(hopefully) obsolescent distinctions between what goes on in Japanese
language studies of Japanese history and what is done in English?
(I agree with you about the need for amusement, but enough of this
is readily available elsewhere, in any news account of anything Bush
says or does, no?)

Best wishes,
Lewis Cook
Queens College, CUNY

From: Shigeki Moro <>
Date: Sun, 04 Mar 2001 20:10:29 +0900
Subject: Gunsho-ruiju CD-ROM etc.

Dear members,

The photocopies of the Gunsho-ruiju and the Wakan-sansai-zue etc.
are published in CD-ROM by Oozorasha.

Since they are not text-databases, the texts are not retrievable.

Shigeki Moro
My Public PGP Key:

-- pmjs links --

Lawrence E. Marceau, _Takebe Ayatari: A Bunjin Bohemian in Early Modern
Japan_. University of Michigan Press, May 2001
* Japan's First Bureaucracy, by Richard J. Miller, edited by Joan R. Piggott
* Ben no Naishi Nikki: A Poetic Record of Female Courtiers' Sacred Duties at
the Kamakura-Period Court, by S. Yumiko Hulvey

links of the day:

National Diet Library Web OPAC

electronic texts of 200 noh plays

From: Matthew Stavros <mstav...@...nceton.EDU>

Date: Sun, 4 Mar 2001 12:08:58 -0500

Subject: CD Roms.

Can anyone recommend a serious kan-wa dictionary on CD Rom (for use on a
Mac)? I have the usual suspects (kojien, etc.) but am now looking for
something more substantial. Also, what about other CD Rom reference

If you please,

From: Michael Watson <>
Date: Mon, 05 Mar 2001 08:27:50 +0900
Subject: CD-ROM resources

Matthew Stavros asked about
> a serious kan-wa dictionary on CD Rom (for use on a Mac)?

My standby, JisPa from Microcabin on CD Rom with Win/Mac versions, is handy
and quick, but there seems to be a dearth of bigger dictionaries for Mac.
Kanji-gen 2.0 for Macintosh (7720 yen) with 10,000 entries is only for only
for sys 7.5-8.5 (

Windows users have more choice. I use Super-daijirin. This contains KAN-WA,
Kokugo, kotowaza, and *kogo* (Super ) 7900 yen?

On the WA-EI front, there is good news. Kodansha released in January a
"hybrid" (Win/Mac) version of "Shin-waei daijiten" ver. 4. 12,000 yen.

Japanese description:                 

The Kinokuniya page advertises new CD-ROM releases--including an AZUMA
KAGAMI CD-ROM. I have used this: though frustratingly does not provide full
electronic text--deliberately of course--it works very well for text or date
searches of the chronicle. Reasonably cheap and a must for medieval

Michael Watson

From: Barbara Nostrand <>

Date: Sun, 4 Mar 2001 19:52:47 -0500

Subject: Copyright of monjo &c.

I have yet another question for folks here. What sort of copyright issues
are then when using pre-modern sources such as ZGR or ZZGR in articles,
monographs, books, &c? For example, I've noticed that the modern orthographic
transcription of Teikin Orai: Kuzoshi differs from the what is shown in the
adjacent facsimile. Again, thank you very much.

From: Mary Louise Nagata <>

Date: Mon, 5 Mar 2001 02:21:34 -0500

Subject: Re: [pmjs] The elite and the masses in premodern Japan

Let me add a further comment. Having a lot of scholarship on a topic that
is only written in Japanese is, I think, not good enough. Last year I
attended a Social Science History conference and heard three papers on
migration patterns in Europe that were very similar to the Omi and Ise
Shonin in Japan. However, since most of the work on the Japanese
pattern--which is quite extensive--is written only in Japanese, I could not
easily provide references to scholars of European migration who were
interested in the comparison. For this reason, I have organized a panel on
this type of migration pattern at a future meeting and invited a Japanese
scholar to present.
My point is that interest in the social and economic history of the
non-elites is a topic that is interesting to scholars outside of the Japan
field and makes for interesting comparative research. It also informs
scholars outside of the Japan field of other possible interpretations and
forms of similar behavior patterns. We should not be too localized in our
view and think that only scholars who can read Japanese are interested in
Japan. If Japanese scholars are finding the data sources to work on
non-elites before 1600, then more work needs to be done and published in
other languages as well.

ML Nagata

From: Karl Friday <>

Date: Mon, 05 Mar 2001 11:25:53 -0500

Subject: Re: Gunsho-ruiju CD-ROM etc.

This post came through as a complete blank on my computer, but the subject
line was enough to pique my interest. Anyone know anything about this
CD? Could Moro Sensei maybe repost this message?

At PM 08:10 03/04/01 +0900, Shigeki Moro wrote: [message added by editor]

> The photocopies of the Gunsho-ruiju and the Wakan-sansai-zue etc.
> are published in CD-ROM by Oozorasha.
> Since they are not text-databases, the texts are not retrievable.
> Shigeki Moro

Karl Friday
Professor & Undergraduate Coordinator
Dept. of History
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602

From: "Gregory Pflugfelder" <>

Date: Mon, 05 Mar 2001 13:30:19 -0500

Subject: kabuki videos

A question: Are the kabuki plays Yotsuya kaidan and Musume Do^jo^ji
available on video? Even excerpts would help. In haste, Greg Pflugfelder

From: Alan Cummings <>

Subject: Re: [pmjs] kabuki videos

[answer sent in error to list as whole]

From: "Paul S. Atkins" <>

Date: Mon, 5 Mar 2001 15:02:36 -0700

Subject: Re: [pmjs] kabuki videos

Here is a good index of videos on Japanese drama at Waseda University:

It says Musume Dojoji (Kyoga no ko Musume Dojoji) is included in the NHK
series Kabuki Kansho nyumon. Doesn't look like there is anything for
Yotsuya kaidan.

Paul Atkins

From: Haruo Shirane <>

Date: Mon, 05 Mar 2001 19:25:42 -0500

Subject: Re: [pmjs] kabuki videos

Yes, I have the video for Yotsuya kaidan. It is very long, but
the quality is high.


From: "Kikuchi Shin'ichi" <>

Date: Tue, 06 Mar 2001 17:36:48 +0900

Subject: Re: [pmjs] kabuki videos


I have the kabuki video of Yotsuya kaidan and the script-book of
Musume Do^jo^ji. The former includes two scenes, iemon-rotaku and
onbobori. Actors are Utaemon, Ebizo (now Danjuro), etc. Performed in
1979. The later is vol.19 of MEISAKUKABUKIZENSYU.
If you want these, i will send you these for free.
Please let me know your address.

Kikuchi Shin'ichi <>>

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Tue, 06 Mar 2001 17:19:31 +0900

Subject: Gunsho-ruiju CD-ROM etc.

for information about Gunsho-ruiju CD-ROM and others produced by Oozorasha:
Wakan-sansai-zue, Meisho zue shusei, Meiji-ki honyaku bungakusho zenshu.
Japanese:      /        /        /           

These CD-ROMs are the modern equivalent of microfilms. The pages have been
scanned as graphic images, so that documents can neither copied as text, nor
searched in the normal way. Printing is possible, however.

The base text of the Gunsho-ruiju CD-ROM is the 30 volume print version
(3rd, corrected edition). The many works included can be located by search
for title of document (bunkenmei), section/volume (shu/kan), or page. Thus
if you have a Gunsho-ruiju vol/page reference, you should be able to locate
the graphic image of the page and read or print it out. You can add your own
"bookmarks" and "memos" and search for them later. Pages can be viewed at
difference magnification. A text file is included of works included (bunken
ichiran, bunken nenpyo). 50,000 yen + tax for 3 CD-ROMs. ISBN4-7568-0178-1

Today's "link of the day" (below) is the site I use to compare second-hand
price of Kanda bookstores. The 30 volume edition is currently available for
between 50,000-70,000 yen. Of course you won't need new bookshelves for this
CD-ROM set!

I have seen demonstrations of the software but do not own the software
myself. The information above is translated from                   

I believe I can explain why Karl Friday couldn't read Shigeki Moro's mail
about Gunsho-ruiju but the reason is better explained in a separate mail.

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Tue, 06 Mar 2001 18:07:15 +0900

Subject: mail problems

A few notes about problems that are encountered with mail on this list, and some hints about how to deal with them, both when we send and receive mail. The questionnaires many of you kindly answered out oh so long ago have very helpful. I've also been watching recent mail for problems.

The string of hyphens after the pmjs header is very likely to blame for Karl Friday's problems in reading Shigeki Moro's mail. A line beginning with hyphens is interpreted as "end of message" by some mail software. The work-around (if you ever receive mail like this) is look at the "Source" of the mail (often menu "View"-->"Source"). I had the problem regularly until I upgraded to the latest version of mail software. Those sending mail should avoid making a line break consisting of hyphens, and use some other symbol.

Other problems: kanji should usually be accompanied by romanization or translation. Not all users can display characters with their mail software.

Diacritics do cause problems for many of you. If one's mail software can produce circumflexes and accents, it is tempting to use them, but when writing to the list, please don't. My questionnaire example of "Ojoyoshu" with circumflexes became ?y?sh? or worse for a good number of you.

Greg Pflugfelder's workaround of "Musume Do^jo^ji" does not cause any problems, to my knowledge. Use it if you like, or Doojooji/Doujouji if you prefer. In most cases--if everyone is likely to understand--the style "Dojoji" will do just fine, of course. The questionnaire showed us split almost evenly on the question of preferred workaround for macron.

Watch out for "smart" quotation marks and apostrophes (the curved rather than the straight ones), as these also cause problems. When read on a Japanese system, the curved apostrophe may turn into the CHI of CHIKAN...

Similarly, it is also tempting to use italics and bold with software that offers formatting tools. Again, I'd suggest to keep things simple. Plain text keeps messages much smaller. Use *bold* or _underline_ (doing service for italics) as an alternative. Like the macron, however, it is often fine to leave formatting unmarked.

Turn HTML *off* if you can. Or turn on the preference "Reply to messages in the format in which they are sent." There are work-arounds for AOL users.

Finally news that quoting off-list messages is more than a breach of "netiquette"--

> Forwarding e-mail to friends, family or colleagues without permission from
> the sender is now illegal in Australia, thanks to a new law that took
> effect yesterday. Penalties for violation could be as much as five years'
> jail time or fines of AU$60,000 (US$31,400). The motivation behind the law
> is copyright protection for the sender of the original e-mail.

Oh dear. The full article can be read at:,4057,1768268%5E421,00.html

::::: pmjs footer:::::

search Kanda second-hand bookshops

From: (Royall Tyler)
Date: Tue, 6 Mar 2001 20:02:45 +1100
Subject: Kojitsu soosho

I assume that the pictures in a 1905 edition of Kojitsu soosho are public
domain. Does any one out there disagree?

With many thanks for the help of anyone who knows,

Royall Tyler

::::: pmjs footer:::::

* In Little Need of Divine Intervention: Scrolls of the Mongol Invasions of
Japan, Translated by Thomas Conlan
* Kyogen Women, Don Kenny

From: Ron Martino <>

Date: Tue, 06 Mar 2001 06:39:53 -0700

Subject: Re: Off-topic - Forwarding, was mail problems

Michael Watson wrote:
> Finally news that quoting off-list messages is more than a breach of
> "netiquette"--
> > Forwarding e-mail to friends, family or colleagues without permission from
> > the sender is now illegal in Australia, thanks to a new law that took
> > effect yesterday. Penalties for violation could be as much as five years'
> > jail time or fines of AU$60,000 (US$31,400). The motivation behind the law
> > is copyright protection for the sender of the original e-mail.
> Oh dear. The full article can be read at:

Australia's Attorney General has apparently denied the story. It
appears that the news agencies that reported this did not fully
investigate the rumors they received before rushing the story to print.
While there has been reductions to the personal rights of Australian
citizens recently, this is not one of them.

From: Amy Heinrich <>

Date: Tue, 06 Mar 2001 10:19:06 -0500

Subject: Mishima Symposium

March 30 (Friday) East Gallery, Buell Hall, Columbia University
Mishima Symposium

11:00 AM - 1:00 PM (Panel 1)
3:00 PM - 5:00 PM (Panel 2)
Followed by a reception

As novelist, critic, and dramatist, and as a cultural actor on many
fronts, Mishima Yukio (1925-1970) was a powerful and provocational
presence in post-war Japan. This symposium will revisit and reexplore
Mishima's work and his life, his literature and his politics, and his
significance for the culture of our time.

Panel 1 (fiction and criticism)
11:00 AM - 1:00 PM

  Nina Cornyetz (Associate Professor of Interdisciplinary Studies,
Gallatin School of Individualized Studies, New York University)
  Keith Vincent (Assistant Professor of East Asian Studies and
Comparative Literature, New York University)
  Dennis Washburn (Associate Professor of Japanese and
Comparative Literature, Dartmouth College)
  Paul Anderer - Discussant (Professor of Japanese Literature,
Columbia University)

Panel 2 (drama and performance)
3:00 PM - 5:00 PM

  David Goodman (Professor of East Asian Languages & Cultures,
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
  Donald Keene (University and Shincho Professor of Japanese
Literature Emeritus, Columbia University)
  Laurence Kominz (Professor of Japanese, Portland State University)
  Thomas Rimer - Discussant (Professor of East Asian Languages and
Literatures, University of Pittsburgh)

Sponsored by the Donald Keene Center of Japanese Culture

For more information on this and other Donald Keene Center events,
visit our website at:
or call 212-854-5036.

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Wed, 07 Mar 2001 00:50:16 +0900

Subject: Nihon gaishi

I've received an enquiry from Russia concerning Rai San'yo's Nihon gaishi.
Some Russian historians are planning to translate the work and want to know
if there is any English translation. The only Western European translation
known to me is the short and early French book:

Histoire des Taira : tiree du Nit-pon gwai-si / traduit du chinois par
Francois Turrettini. -- H. Georg, 1874

There must be excerpts translated somewhere, I would have thought.
Suggestions, anyone?

Michael Watson <>

P.S. Thanks to Ron Martino for quashing a net rumour. As an Australian,
though, I'll be on my best behaviour just in case.

::::: pmjs footer :::::

Recent French studies of note:
Fieve, Nicholas. L'architecture et la ville du Japon ancien. Maisonneuve
et Larose, 1996. 358 p.
Souyri, Pierre. Histoire du Japon. Le Monde a l'envers. La dynamique de la
societe medievale. Maisonneuve et Larose, 1999. 324 p.

Digital Dictionary of Buddhism
Set browser character set to UTF-8 (Unicode)

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Wed, 07 Mar 2001 01:13:37 +0900

Subject: Nihon gaishi

I had forgotten the selections translated by Burton Watson in _Japanese
Literature in Chinese_ vol. II (1976). I should have checked my usual
standby in questions of this kind, Francine Herail's _bibliographie
japonaise_ (1986). However my original question still stands. And (of
possibly more general interest), what other bibliographies or resources does
one turn to for questions of this kind?

Michael Watson <>

::::: pmjs footer :::::

Frank, Bernard. Dieux et Bouddhas au Japon. 2000. 462 p.
Herail, Francine, tr. Notes de l'hiver 1039. 1994. 131 p. [Selections from
the diary of Fujiwara Sukefusa.]

From: "Stephen D. Miller" <>

Date: Tue, 6 Mar 2001 18:25:51 -0700

Subject: Special Interest Group (SIG) for the Teaching of Classical

Japanese Language at the AAS

Greetings, everyone!
A few months ago there was a flurry of e-mail on this
listserve about the teaching of classical Japanese language in US and
Canadian universities. Many of you expressed an interest in this. I
have organized a short meeting at the upcoming AAS in Chicago so that
we can begin to discuss issues involved in the teaching of bungo at
the college level in the United States. It is my sincere desire that
this meeting will be the springboard for further discussions that may
help us all rethink the way we teach bungo, and thus retain interest
among our students in pre-modern Japanese studies.
Professor Charles Quinn of the Ohio State University has
agreed to help us out by addressing some of the issues with which we
are concerned. His short talk is entitled "Some Questions on
Teaching Classical Japanese" and will be held on Saturday night
(March 24) from 7:15 to 9 in the Colorado Room. Professor Quinn is
working on a manuscript entitled "Interpreting Form and Function in
Early Japanese Predication" to be published by the Center for
Japanese Studies at the University of Michigan. Following Professor
Quinn's talk, it is my hope that we can talk about directions we
might like to see such a special interest group (SIG) head.
One idea I would like to throw out for your consideration now
is holding a "Crossing Boundaries" roundtable at the next AAS to
which we invite scholars of Latin, Greek, Sanskrit and other
classical languages to discuss with us any innovations in the
teaching of their languages. If you know of someone who might be
interested in this, please bring their name to the meeting or send it
to me.
If you're interested in this meeting at the AAS, I urge you
to attend and contribute your ideas. If you're interested but can't
attend, please let me know and I'll add you to an e-mail for the
If you got this message twice, forgive me.
Thank you.
Stephen Miller
Assistant Professor
University of Colorado
Newsletter Editor of the ATJ

From: Barbara Nostrand <>

Date: Tue, 6 Mar 2001 19:08:21 -0500

Subject: Re: Kojitsu soosho


This gets back to my copyright question. If look at the U.S. Copyright
Law at the LoC web page, you will discover that copyright for pre 1975
works has been substantially extended and copyright lost by certain
foreign publications was restored by the Uruguay Rounds. I'm not
certain, but I believe the term is now 95 years and not 75 years which
would mean that copyright on the 1905 edition just lapsed.

I am still concerned about identifying which images in which of these
various volumes are actually protected by copyright and who holds the
copyright. Images are generally protected by the Berne Convention if
they are signed and numbered with about 100 copies at most. The
United States Copyright Law appears to treat images incorporated into
books as "works for hire" (a concept largely unique to the United
States) which would put copyright in the hands of the publisher.

I do hope that someone has more authoritative information about
these pesky copyright issues.

Barbara Nostrand

From: "E Berlin" <>

Date: Tue, 6 Mar 2001 20:02:53 -0500

Subject: Re: Kojitsu soosho

An old friend of mine (Bob Spoo) who is a Joyce scholar and who returned to
school to get a degree in intellectual property law may have some relevant
information. I haven't been in touch with him in a couple of years, but
this may still be his current e-mail address if one of you wants to ask him
a legal question: You may tell him I provided the
contact if you like.

He is/was editor of the James Joyce Quarterly and an Associate Professor at
the University of Tulsa. Yale is where he is/was getting his law degree.

Elliot Berlin

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Wed, 07 Mar 2001 11:53:29 +0900

Subject: Kojitsu soosho

The current Copyright Law of Japan can be read in English at:

This is on the site of the "Choosakuken joohoo sentaa" / "Copyright Research
and Information Center" run by the Agency of Cultural Affairs.

The extensive, well-edited English pages begin at

The Copyright Law of 1971 extended protection to author's life + 50 years.
The law has been revised and expanded many times since then, but this still

> * The duration of copyright shall begin with the creation of the work;
> copyright shall continue to subsist, in principle, until the end of a period
> of fifty years following the death of the author (Art.51).
> * Copyright in anonymous and pseudonymous works, works bearing the name of
> a corporate body, and cinematographic works shall continue to subsist until
> the end of a period of fifty years following the making public of the work

It's a complex matter, but the answer to Royall's question would appear to
be yes.

Michael Watson <>

From: Hideyuki Morimoto <>

Date: Tue, 6 Mar 2001 21:56:54 -0800 (PST)

Subject: Re: Nihon gaishi

The original requester of information in Russia must be well aware of the
following translation of Nihon gaishi into Russian.

Nikhon gaisi / sochinenie Rai Dzi^o Sisei ; [red. i per. V.M.
Mendrin]. -- Vladivostok : Izd. Vostochnago in-ta, 1910-1915.
6 v. in 1 : ill., map ; 23 cm.
Kn. 1. Taira -- kn. 2. Minamoto I -- kn. 3. Minamoto II --
kn. 4. Kholzio -- kn. 5. Kusunoki -- kn. 6. Nitta.

(OCLC #43451536 for the original;
OCLC #40967506 for UMI microfilm;
RLIN MAHGBIN68740-B for the original)

Hideyuki Morimoto
Japanese Cataloger
East Asian Library Voice: +1-510-643-0892
208 Durant Hall FAX: +1-510-642-3817
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720-6000 Internet:

From: "Peter Kornicki" <>

Date: Wed, 07 Mar 2001 06:37:27 +0000

Subject: Re: Nihon gaishi

That's odd: I thought there already was a Russian translation of the _Nihon
gaishi_ in 2 volumes published a year or two ago. Anyway, here in Cambridge
we have Ernest Satow's notes on _Nihon gaishi_ as he read it in the 1860s in
a block-printed edition, and these contain some translations, though none of
it was ever published.

Peter Kornicki
Faculty of Oriental Studies
Sidgwick Avenue
Cambridge CB3 9DA

From: Barbara Nostrand <>

Date: Wed, 7 Mar 2001 01:43:04 -0500

Subject: Re: Kojitsu soosho

It is messy.. The law has been changed many times and the law has
special provisions for earlier works. Right now. 1905 is probably
safe. (It was not lifetime+50 back then. The current law appears
to grant 95 years to works back then.)

Remember that copyright is a national thing with an international
treaty. Back in the 1980's, Yoko Ono suddenly showed up in Japan
to lobby to have Japan's copyright law modified as the Beatle's
music was about to pass into the public domain there.

From: "Steven G. NELSON" <>

Date: Wed, 07 Mar 2001 17:11:27 +0900

Subject: Gagaku videos & CD

Dear PMJS members,

Seeing that there has been some discussion of videos lately, here is some
information on a newly-released 10-volume video collection on gagaku, with
extensive (30,000 word) English commentary (by yours truly). The recent
discussion of the necessity for study of the non-elites gives me pause,
considering the exquisitely elitist nature of the art. Still, it is the most
comprehensive video documentation of the gagaku tradition to date, and the
sort of thing that all major libraries with extensive Japanese collections
should try to acquire. It is rather expensive, though.

It is available in three forms:
1. As a 10-volume set of videos with Japanese subtitles throughout and
Japanese voice-over commentary for Vols. 6 and 10 (on the instruments and
costumes respectively).
2. As a 10-volume set of videos with Japanese and English subtitles
throughout and English voice-over commentary for Vols. 6 and 10 (produced
with generous help from the Japan Foundation).
3. (For those with a limited budget) as a 1-volume (58 minute) digest tape
with Japanese and English subtitles and English voice-over commentary
between the performances (again, thanks to the Japan Foundation).

For more information about the contents of the series and the digest
version, please use the following links. You might like to read a section
from the introduction to my commentary, which can be found towards the
bottom of this message. (Try not to mind the doubled vowels. The commentary
booklet uses macrons.)

One more advertisement. I wrote some fairly extensive commentary for a
gagaku CD released last year by an American company called Celestial
Harmonies. Although it is not selling as well as it could (should?), the
president of the company is still very interested in producing more
gagaku-related CDs (including perhaps the whole mikagura cycle!), so a
little encouragement would be appreciated!

"Gagaku and Beyond" Celestial Harmonies, 13179-2

_Jiko-PR bakari de kyooshuku desu_

Steven G. Nelson
Research Centre for Japanese Traditional Music
Kyoto City University of Arts


>From the Introduction to GAGAKU: An 'Important Cultural Property' of Japan

Gagaku is the oldest of Japan s performing arts, with a history of more
than one thousand years. The two Chinese characters used to write gagaku
(literally  correct music ) were originally used in China to refer to
Confucian ritual music. In Japan the usage is derived from the name of the
official Bureau of Music established in 701, the Gagakuryoo (also read
Utaryo0 or Utamai-no-tsukasa). At present the term signifies in its widest
meaning the whole body of music and dance performed by the musicians of the
Kunaichoo Shikibushoku Gakubu (Music Department of the Board of Ceremonies
of the Imperial Household Agency, Tookyoo), with the exception of the
European orchestral music that they are required to play at formal banquets
for visiting dignitaries and the like. The traditional repertoire is
composed of three categories, representative examples of all of which are
included in this video collection.

¥ kuniburi-no-utamai: accompanied vocal music and dance of indigenous
origin employed in Imperial and Shinto ceremony
Series I: Tape 1 Azuma-asobi (37 mins.), Tape 2 Kume-mai (20 mins.)
Recorded here in full form for the first time are two important pieces from
the kuniburi-no-utamai repertoire. Both are reconstructed modern-day
descendants of ancient songs and dances, now performed at Shinto ceremonies
and only rarely if ever in public by the musicians of the Imperial Palace.

¥ kangen and bugaku: instrumental music and accompanied dance deriving
from the ancient performing arts of the Asian mainland
Series I: Tape 3 Etenraku (41 mins.), Tape 4 Engiraku (29 mins.), Tape 5
Batoo (29 mins.); Series II: Tape 7 Taiheiraku (47 mins.)
The continental repertoire of gagaku is divided into two categories,
according to its place of origin. Toogaku, of largely Chinese origin, can be
performed to accompany dance as bugaku (when it is known as samai or
sahoo-no-mai, dance of the Left) or in purely instrumental form as kangen
(literally Ôpipes and stringsÕ). Komagaku, of largely Korean origin, is now
performed only as bugaku (umai or uhoo-no-mai, dance of the Right). This
video collection presents toogaku in the form of kangen (Etenraku in three
different modes on Tape 3; Batoo on Tape 5) and bugaku (Taiheiraku on Tape
7), komagaku as bugaku (Engiraku on Tape 4), and the hybrid form of toogaku
performed as accompaniment to a komagaku dance (Batoo of Tape 5). All are
performed here with no abbreviation.

¥ saibara and rooei: genres of accompanied vocal music originating at the
early Heian court (ninth and tenth centuries)
Series II : Tape 8 Saibara (19 mins.) Tape 9 Rooei (16 mins.)
Recorded here are two pieces each from the genres saibara and rooei. Saibara
are settings of ancient Japanese folksongs in the style of the music
imported from the Asian mainland, while rooei developed as standard melodic
realizations for singing Chinese poetry. Saibara: Ise-no-umi and Koromogae.
Rooei: Kashin and Kooyoo.

Also included in the video collection are:
¥ two video cassettes of supplementary material
Series I : Tape 6 Materials I: Instruments and Notation (54 mins.); Series
II: Tape 10 Materials II: Costumes, Masks and Properties (104 mins.)

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Wed, 07 Mar 2001 20:54:01 +0900

Subject: Nihon gaishi

Thanks to Peter Kornicki and Hideyuki Morimoto for answering my query about
translations of Nihon gaishi by Rai San'yo.

I passed on the information and have received a charming answer that
explains the mystery about the existing Russian translation. The version
that recently appeared was a reprint of a translation was made by V. M.
Medrin in 1910-15. Though thorough and well-annotated, it only covered one
third of the original. The new publisher wants to see the translation
finished, and--with some difficulty as "nobody is researching the
theme"--found some historians to continue the work.

> Now they are looking for collegues in the world, but being elderly people with
> no inclination to use Internet, they asked me to do it (personally, I am a
> buddhologist).

So there we are. If anyone would like to know more about the project, or to
lend a hand, s/he can contact the historians through Andrey Fesyun

Michael Watson


::::: pmjs footer :::::

Sumiyoshi monogatari translated in Italian
C. Negri, tr. _La principessa di Sumiyoshi_ (2000)
Discovered thanks to Adriana Boscaro, _Narrativa giapponese Cent'anni di
traduzioni_ (2000) and ordered online through

From: "John R. Bentley" <>

Date: Wed, 07 Mar 2001 07:16:58 -1000

Subject: Re: Nihon gaishi

> That's odd: I thought there already was a Russian translation of the _Nihon
> gaishi_ in 2 volumes published a year or two ago. Anyway, here in Cambridge
> we have Ernest Satow's notes on _Nihon gaishi_ as he read it in the 1860s in
> a block-printed edition, and these contain some translations, though none of
> it was ever published.

Unless I'm mistaken, a Russian translation of Nihon SHOKI came out in
two volumes a couple of years ago.

John Bentley

[Note: my Russian correspondent gave the following information
- "Nihon shoki (the Annales of Japan)", translated from ancient Japanese by
L.Yermakova and A.Mescheryakov. St.-Petersburg, "Hyperion", 1997. Vol. 1,
496 p.; vol.2, 432 p. ISBN 5-98332-002-6; ISBN 5-98332-003-4
/Michael Watson / editor]

From: Barbara Nostrand <>

Date: Wed, 7 Mar 2001 20:41:45 -0500

Subject: Re: Gagaku videos & CD

Wonderful! Now then, are there any libraries which have them
that are willing to send them out through ILL? I would love
to see them. (I have no budget other than my own pockets.)

Incidentally, does the digest tape contain complete pieces,
or does it chop of pieces.

::::: pmjs footer :::::

e-texts of Heian private poetry collections (shikashu)

From: "Steven G. NELSON" <>

Date: Thu, 08 Mar 2001 13:39:46 +0900

Subject: Re: Gagaku videos & CD

To answer Barbara's questions.

First, the director of the series tells me that it has been sold overseas to
only two libraries, one at the University of Hong Kong, and one at Harvard.
That's one of the reasons why I wanted to let more people know about its
existence. Orders from a few more libraries would make everyone a lot
happier. (And it'd make it possible for them to pay me what they planned to
pay me for doing the English versions of the videos!)

Second, I did my best to include complete 'sections' of pieces on the digest
tape, but seeing that it was necessary to cover all of the genres in less
than an hour, it was impossible to do so in all cases. I am fairly
confident, however, that I made the best selection possible from what was
available to choose from, and didn't make cuts at any unsuitable places.
Convincing the director not to make strange cuts was my first consideration.

(Would it be immodest to add that the digest tape won the Special Jury Prize
at the 44th Competition for Films and Videos on Japan, last December?)


From: (Royall Tyler)

Date: Thu, 8 Mar 2001 17:37:35 +1100

Subject: Heian convents

Many thanks to those who helped me with the Kojitsu soosho. Now I have
another question.

Ukifune's stay in what many people call a nunnery, at the end of The Tale
of Genji, is famous. The place is not really a nunnery, though. It is
just a house inhabited by two women who have become nuns in the Heian court
manner, and by those of their gentlewomen who became nuns at the same time
so as to continue serving them. There is no trace in the whole tale of a
real nunnery or convent: a dedicated community of nuns analogous, for
example, to the temple or monastery presided over by the Ajari who is
Hachinomiya's spiritual adviser.

WERE there such nunneries in Murasaki Shikibu's time? One would think
there must have been, and I am surprised to find myself so uncertain on the
issue. I know there were nuns earlier, monzeki convents later, and so on.
(As far as I know, though, Japan never actually received the proper
transmission for the full ordination of nuns.) I suppose my uncertainty
has partly to do with my natural-born ignorance and partly to do with the
total absence of nuns-from-an early-age in Genji. Can anyone enlighten me?

Royall Tyler

From: Edward Kamens <>

Date: Thu, 8 Mar 2001 10:41:25 -0500

Subject: Fwd: Re: [pmjs] Heian convents

A response to Royall Tyler's question :

Although I don't think a woman like Ukifune or any of the other women
in The Tale of Genji who take vows would have had any intention of
going to such a place (they were more likely to change their own
dwellings into quasi-convents, as was done for San no miya), I'm
pretty sure that there were a number of amadera such as you imagine
that were in operation and in reasonably good shape in Murasaki
Shikibu's time. The state-authorized Kokubunniji had been in
existence, at least as a concept but in many case as real
institutions, since the mid-8th century; the first and most famous
of them, (Yamato) Hokkeji in Nara (about which one can read in
Sanboe), seems to have fallen on hard times when F. Yukinari visited
it in 999, but the court then appointed various officials to take
better care of it. For further research on this you might start by
reading the articles on Kokubunniji and Hokkeji in the Heian jidai
shi jiten, as I just did to check up on this; but I am sure there
are various other ways to pursue the question in standard histories
of Heian Buddhism, eg. the Heian volumes of Ajia Bukkyoshi, Nihon
hen, etc, or in the various volumes in the Shirizu josei to Bukkyo,
several of which contain studies of convents of several periods.

A later example: Kenreimon'in's Jakkoin, described so vividly in
Heike monogatari, is certainly an amadera. The date of its founding
is not known.

One problem is that the act of an aristocratic Heian woman taking
vows and cutting some of her hair off certainly marked a change of
modus vivendi--and allowed the woman to be called "ama"-- but it did
not necessarily entail retirement to or confinement in a separate
community in which only nuns were living, as would have generally
been the case in medieval or renaissance Europe, so far as I know.
On the other hand, it may well have been legitimate--or not
unnatural-- for a house inhabited by two or three women who had taken
vows, like the one where Ukifune took refuge, to be considered an
amadera simply by virtue of the fact that that's who was living
there. Does Murasaki Shikibu call this house an "amadera"? What
about the "temples" in which the Kagero diarist repeatedly takes
refuge? Are any of them called "amadera" in that text?

Edward Kamens
Professor and Chair, Dept. of East Asian Languages and Literatures
Yale University
Box 208236, New Haven CT 06520-8236
tel 203-432-2862, fax 203-432-6729

[Note: Six macrons came through looking Danish. Removed by editor.]

From: Hank Glassman <>

Date: Thu, 8 Mar 2001 08:06:32 -0800

Subject: nuns and convents

Royall Tyler asks about convents in the Heian period:

This is a quick and very incomplete answer to an important question,
but here goes. . . The Heian period in general was a low point for

Of course there had been a nationwide network of convents established
during the Nara period -- the Kokubun niji. These convents, like
their "male" counterparts existed for the purpose of performing
rituals for the protection of the state. These nuns were "official
nuns" (kanni), essentially a sort of civil servant. In the ninth
century, there were increasingly restrictive restrictions placed on
nuns and on women wishing to become nuns, as a result the number of
nuns decreased dramatically. Many convents were closed.

In the Heian period, as Royall suggests, there arose a different kind
of nun, the woman who lived as a nun at home after the death of a
husband or a child. These sorts of nuns, later called widow nuns
(goke ama) did not typically live in convents. (Although if a number
of these nuns did live together could we consider that house a sort
of convent? Especially if the house was located in some "rural" or
mountain setting? I would think that contemporaries would have
considered such a place a "nunnery." No?)

Many more convents were established or "reopened" during the Kamakura
period, especially by monks associated with the Ritsu and Zen sects.

Well, that is not really much of an answer, but the person to read on
this subject is Ushiyama Yoshiyuki of Shinshu Daigaku.


Hank Glassman

From: Richard Bowring <>

Date: Thu, 08 Mar 2001 16:12:43 +0000

Subject: Re: [pmjs] Heian convents

There is something about this in Paul Groner's book on Ryoogen and the
revival of Tendai in the mid Heian, which I believe is in press. I saw it in
typescript form. Paul (in Univ. of Virginia), are you on this list? If I
remember rightly, he argued that information about nuns post Nara is indeed
difficult to come by and that all we really have are these 'lay nuns' that
both Royall and Ed Kamens have been talking about. I suppose it is more a
matter of size of institution. It is doubtful whether there were any
nunneries (in the sense of female monasteries) around anymore, with the
possible exception of the Hokkeji. The Jakkouin qua amadera was presumably
just a small temple occupied by women.
Richard Bowring

From: Hank Glassman <>

Date: Thu, 8 Mar 2001 08:13:05 -0800

Subject: convents

Hi All,

I sent my message just a minute ago before checking my mail and
finding Ed Kamens' post. Sorry for being redundant. At least it
seems we're on the same page with regard to this issue, though.



From: "Sonja Arntzen" <>

Reply-To: PMJS <>

Date: Thu, 8 Mar 2001 14:48:27 -0500

To: "PMJS" <>

Subject: Re: Re: [pmjs] Heian convents

A response to the following question embedded in Ed Kamen's response to
Royall Tyler's query.

> about the "temples" in which the Kagero diarist repeatedly takes
> refuge? Are any of them called "amadera" in that text?
The Kagero diarist did not call the temple to which she repaired for
retreats an amadera. She just referred to it as a temple in the Western
Hills and from evidence in a poem, it is identified as Hannyaji in Narutaki.
I haven't got a reference book to hand in which I could look up the
designation of Hannyaji which is not longer in existence, but one piece of
evidence within the diary suggests that it was not an amadera. On her way
to the temple in Book 2 she remembers having stayed at the same temple some
years earlier with Kaneie. It does not seem likely that an amadera would
provide accommodation for a man and a woman. But then again, since
monasteries like Hasedera provided accommodation for mixed groups, perhaps
an amadera might too. I guess it depends how much the functions of inn and
monastery overlapped in the Heian period. All her other retreats to temples
were either to Ishiyamdera or Hasedera, neither of which were amadera.

Sonja Arntzen

From: wfarris <>

Date: Thu, 08 Mar 2001 15:25:20 -0500

Subject: Hokkeji, etc.

Dear all,
Picking up one of the treads of the fascinating discussion of nuns and
nunneries, I should like to point out that the Shoosooin documents contain
considerable references to Hokkeji, and most especially to the construction
the Golden Hall. The documentary fragments have been reconstructed by
Fukuyama Toshio in his NIHON KENCHIKU SHI NO KENKYUU, published in 1943.
Along with the huge cache on Ishiyamadera, the records on Hokkeji are one of
our best sources on how temples were built--the assembling of laborers,
payment, diet, and lives.
One other minor point is that the thin little publication MAIZOO BUNKA
NYUUSU reported some time ago on the state of excavation of the KOKUBUNJI
around the country. A handy summary for those interested in the topic.
Best wishes,
Wayne Farris


Date: Thu, 8 Mar 2001 16:44:12 -0600 (CST)

Subject: Re: [pmjs] Hokkeji, etc.

Dear All,

Concerning amadera and Hokkeji, Hosokawa Ryoichi has done considerable
and more recent work on this topic. See for example his recent Chusei
ji'in no fuukei (shinyosha, 1997) and "Medieval Nuns and Nunneries: The
Case of Hokkeji" which appears in Women and Class in Japanese History, ed.
Hitomi Tonomura, et al. (University of Michigan Center for Japanese
Studies, 1999).


Eric RathAssistant Professor Dept. of History
University of Kansas Lawrence KS 66045-7590

tel. (785) 864-9470
fax (785) 864-5046

::::: pmjs footer :::::

Sumiyoshi monogatari translated in Italian
C. Negri, tr. _La principessa di Sumiyoshi_ (2000)
Discovered thanks to Adriana Boscaro, _Narrativa giapponese Cent'anni di
traduzioni_ (2000) and ordered online through

Just arrived here. I was most impressed to discover that it was based on the
edition by Kuwabara Hiroshi in _Chusei ocho monogatari zenshu_ published as
recently in 1995.

* * * * * * * * * *

From: Michael Watson <>
Date: Fri, 09 Mar 2001 10:51:01 +0900
Subject: new members

We welcome two new members.

Bruce Edward Willoughby <>

Bruce E. Willoughby is executive editor for the Center for Japanese
Studies, The University of Michigan. The Center publishes books on
premodern language, literature, culture, and history in its Monograph and
Papers series. It also publishes the John Whitney Hall Book Imprint.

Thomas McAuley <>

Lecturer in Japanese, School of East Asian Studies, University of Sheffield,

Research Interests: Classical Japanese linguistics/literature, especially
the nature of the linguistic and literary features used in prose to convey
the author's intended meaning(s) to readers.

Current Activities: At the moment I am engaged in writing a combined
Classical Japanese grammar textbook and reader for Curzon Press and will be
launching a website in May to put 2001 Waka on the Web as part of the Japan
2001 celebrations.

Publications: The changing use of honorifics in Japanese literary textsFrom:Gina Cogan <>
Date: Thu, 08 Mar 2001 23:01:32 -0500 (EST)
Subject: more on Heian nuns and convents

In regard to the question about women taking the tonsure during the Heian period, Katsuura Noriko has written extensively on this topic and has in particular one article on differences in hairstyle as an indication of differences in one:s status as a nun that would probably be useful. It might be in her book Onna no shinjin - tsuma ga shukke shita jidai- (Heibonsha sensho, 1995), but I don:t have the exact reference for that article on hand.

Gina Cogan

* * * * * * * * * *
From: Mary Louise Nagata <>
Date: Fri, 9 Mar 2001 00:54:01 -0500
Subject: RE:[pmjs] PMJS convents

I cannot say anything about convents and nuns during the Heian period, but
have found many such "lay" nuns and monks living in households in central
Kyoto in the mid-nineteenth century. I am working with the population
registers for 1818-1868 and I have many households in which the older "head
couple" retires and enters buddhist orders. Often these are widowed women,
but sometimes both husband and wife do this. In the case of nuns the
notation is just that she is a nun, while with monks the notations I have
seen so far say he has entered Zen orders "Zen mon". In both cases, they
take buddhist names.
Could it be that there were just two types? Nuns (and monks) who lived
in temples (convents, monastaries) and made religion their profession would
be one type and those who entered into buddhist orders in their retirement
while continuing to live at home might be another. I would expect that
colleagues focusing on buddhist or religious history would have something
to say about this. Anyway, the fact that there are "lay" nuns living in
urban households should not rule out the possiblity of convents existing
elsewhere. Possibly the lay nuns were of more interest to the society of
Ukifune and others.

ML Nagata

From: William Bodiford <>
Date: Thu, 08 Mar 2001 23:26:38 -0800
Subject: RE:[pmjs] PMJS convents: Zen mon

Regarding the designation "zenmon"

One must be careful not to take these kinds of designations literally
without some type of collaborating evidence that indicates their actual
sociological and religious connotations. During the 16th century the title
"zenmon" was used at least in some Buddhist lineages in Eastern regions as
generic classification for the lowest level of lay ordination. It had no
special connections with Zen Buddhism. Scholars, such as Tamamuro Fumio, who study large numbers of temple necrologies (kakocho) can construct charts that match these kinds of ordination titles to social status, occupation, level of religious involvement, etc. The charts that I have seen, though, generally are valid only for a particular place and time.

If you are working on Kyoto during the mid-19th century, then you need
to check on the varieties of ordination titles then in use and match them to
the available sociological data.

Good luck,

William Bodiford

From: "William Londo" <>
Date: Thu, 8 Mar 2001 19:45:29 -0500
[pmjs] Heian convents: Hannyaji

My Jiin jinja daimjiten (Heibonsha, 1997) gives no indication of Hannyaji being an amadera, beyond mentioning that the author of Kagero nikki stayed there, as Sonja Arntzen has noted. I think it was a regular old temple, seems to have been affiliated with Ninnaji, etc.

::::: pmjs footer :::::

Waseda Library OPAC.
sometimes more informative than Webcat

From: Shigeki Moro <>
Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2001 14:17:53 +0900
Subject: Re: [pmjs] more on Heian nuns and convents

Dear Gina Cogan,

The book you mentioned would be the following:

                   (     156     
1995.5 ISBN 4-582-84156-2

The following would probably be useful:

Yoshida, Katsu'ura and Nishiguchi,
Japanese History].
Hozokan, Kyoto. Nov., 1999. 217 pages. 2,600 yen.

Fujiwara shoten, Tokyo.

NIHON KODAI NO SOUNI TO SHAKAI [Buddhist Priests, Nuns and
Society in Ancient Japan].
Yoshikawa-koubunkan, Tokyo. November, 2000. 416 pages.
9,000 yen. ISBN:4642023534

From: Mary Louise Nagata <>

Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2001 03:07:29 -0500

Subject: RE:[pmjs] PMJS convents: Zen mon

Thanks [to William Bodiford]
for the information on "zenmon". Actually, I hadn't gotten
further than assuming that the term designated some minor lay order of
monks since those that I see remain living in their home households. I
seriously doubt that it actually designates someone entering Zen orders
since the temples of registration for these "zenmon" retirees are either
described as Jodo or Honganji sect temples and there are no households in
this neighborhood listed with Zen sect temples. No, I agree that these
"monks" were probably not Zen monks, but I was curious about the term.

ML Nagata

From: Michael Watson <>
Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2001 14:32:47 +0900
Subject: post to p...@... reminder to everyone to post messages to
We've almost exhausted our monthly quota of "ad-free" messages on the
listbot service. I've solved the problems I had with a local server.

Barbara Ford (who parenthetically signs herself "[not a nun yet]") sent this
comment for this list.

> In gratitude for the very informative erudite discussion of Heian nunneries,
> may I dare add a lighthearted, tangential note?
> In Catholic monastic circles the joke goes something like: there are only
> three things unknown to God : what the Jesuits might think, what the
> Dominicans might say, and how many orders of nuns there are...

Michael Watson

From: Mary Louise Nagata <>

Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2001 03:07:29 -0500

Subject: RE:[pmjs] PMJS convents: Zen mon

Thanks for the information on "zenmon". Actually, I hadn't gotten
further than assuming that the term designated some minor lay order of
monks since those that I see remain living in their home households. I
seriously doubt that it actually designates someone entering Zen orders
since the temples of registration for these "zenmon" retirees are either
described as Jodo or Honganji sect temples and there are no households in
this neighborhood listed with Zen sect temples. No, I agree that these
"monks" were probably not Zen monks, but I was curious about the term.

ML Nagata

From: Mary Louise Nagata <>

Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2001 03:02:17 -0500

Subject: Re: new members

Curzon Press also publishes more modern stuff. Arne Kalland's _Fishing
Villages in Tokugawa Japan_ (1995) is published by Curzon Press. I am also
a member of a project on Labour and Labour Relations in Asia that has a
book series contract with this press. The publisher address in in
Richmond, Surrey, England. The press also publishes a lot of the work
produced by the Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.
Hope this partly answers your question.

ML Nagata

The weekend was quiet so I gave you all a few day's peace.

From: "Anthony J. Bryant" <>

Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2001 21:49:58 -0500

Subject: Re: Special Interest Group (SIG) for the Teaching of

Classical Japanese Language at the AAS

"Stephen D. Miller" wrote:

> Greetings, everyone!
> A few months ago there was a flurry of e-mail on this
> listserve about the teaching of classical Japanese language in US and
> Canadian universities. Many of you expressed an interest in this. I
> have organized a short meeting at the upcoming AAS in Chicago so that
> we can begin to discuss issues involved in the teaching of bungo at
> the college level in the United States. It is my sincere desire that
> this meeting will be the springboard for further discussions that may
> help us all rethink the way we teach bungo, and thus retain interest
> among our students in pre-modern Japanese studies.

Well, now I *know* I'm going to have to go to AAS. Bungo is a subject
near and dear to my heart.


::::: pmjs footer :::::

Me kara uroko... a book I couldn't put down:
Hudson, Mark J. Ruins of Identity: Ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands.
Hawai'i UP, 1999. 352 pp.

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Mon, 12 Mar 2001 23:51:37 +0900

Subject: new members

We welcome two new members.

Andrey Fesyun <>

Institute of Oriental Studies, Moscow, specializing in Japanese Buddhism.
Translations from Dogen's "Shobo genzo", several works by Kukai.
I am interested in Japanese philosophy (Nishida Kitaro), and have also
translated essays of Mishima Yukio. At present translating the first part of
"Mahavairocana Sutra".

Robin D. Gill <

(Key Biscayne, Florida). I am an independent writer with seven books
published in Japan/ese,* all of which have nothing to do with my current
interest: understanding and sharing the wit of premodern Japanese poetry. My
writing focuses on selected themes (kigo) in hokku/haiku, which I divide
into meaningful sub-themes (As opposed to the phenomenological categories
found in Shiki's BUNRUI HAIKU ZENSHU). Working through the layers of meaning
and tracing the development of lines of metaphor, not to mention catching
allusions and borrowing, take me back to the MANYOSHU and over to senryu.
To adapt a phrase from someone's haiku on neko-no-koi, my passion takes me
vertically and horizontally everywhere. The first two translation-filled
essays (books-to-be) of what should be dozens of spin-offs from a large work
(kokuraisan=in praise of olde haiku) in progress, concern sea cucumber haiku
and fly (hae/hae-uchi) haiku, or "fly-ku." The former took me back to the
KOJIKI, which has a setsuwa for the mouth of the namako. The latter
includes a major discovery I made in book 24 of the YANAGIDARU, a senryu
Issa refit for his famous yare utsu na poem.

*Books include: Goyaku Tengoku (Hakusuisha), which explores some patterns of
mistranslation caused by cultural stereotyping while pursuing the
mistranslation of Peter Farb's WORD PLAY, Han-Nihonjinron (Kousaku-sha),
which challenges reductionist assumptions on the relationship of culture and
nature in Japan and in the Occident (fudoron), and Eigo-wa Konna-ni
Nippongo! (Chikuma-bunko), which deconstructs the antithetical stereotypes
of the English=Japanese language. (Books most easily found through Worldcat:
au "Robin Gill," lang "Japanese.")

::::: pmjs footer :::::

Stephen Miller referred to a pmjs discussion about the teaching of classical
Japanese. This can be read at

From: "robin gill" <>

Date: Tue, 13 Mar 2001 09:18:17 -0500

Subject: UKE NAMAKO!


Kyoshuku-nagara, first questions to my pmjs senpai:

There would seem to be a general understanding that the "namako", after
making a brief and tragic appearance in the KOJIKI, lost its tongue so to
speak, until haikai poets in search of sport gleefully revived it as a
winter theme. Has anyone encountered a Holothurian over this long Dark Age
of the Namako? While a waka netting the sea cucumber would be the greatest
prize of all, any citing will be gratefully accepted: drama, tales,
apocrypha, etc.. I hope someone may uncover explicit Buddhist connections,
for they are hinted at in a number of haiku.

I also wonder how the "sakiki" / "sakuru" verb, describing what Uzume's
dagger did to the poor creature's mouth, was Englished by various
translators. After looking at the orifice in question, I know what I would
write, but . . .

robin d. gill (on key biscayne, florida)

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Wed, 14 Mar 2001 00:31:37 +0900

Subject: UKE NAMAKO!

Robin Gill's feeling that the namako disappears from literature between
Kojiki and haikai would seem to be confirmed by a "grep" search of the NKBT

Search for kanji NAMAKO (sea + nezumi)
01 Kojiki - 6 matches
02 Fudoki - 4
03 Tosa Kagero - 1 (but this is "old + sea + nezumi" read "hoya")
45 Basho ku shu - 2
47 Saikaku shu jo - 2
57 Senryu kyoka - 1
59 Kibyoshi sharebon - 2
62 Ukiburo - 2
90 Kanazoshi - 1
92 Kinsei haikai haibun - 5
94 Kinsei bungakuron - 4
96 Kinsei zuiso - 2
100 Edo waraibanashi - 1
(Numbers to left are Taikei vol. numbers)

There are four instances, all Edo, of another way of writing the sea slug's
name: UMI + MAIRU.

Any non-literary sightings?

Michael Watson

> There would seem to be a general understanding that the "namako", after
> making a brief and tragic appearance in the KOJIKI, lost its tongue so to
> speak, until haikai poets in search of sport gleefully revived it as a
> winter theme. Has anyone encountered a Holothurian over this long Dark Age
> of the Namako? While a waka netting the sea cucumber would be the greatest
> prize of all, any citing will be gratefully accepted: drama, tales,
> apocrypha, etc.. I hope someone may uncover explicit Buddhist connections,
> for they are hinted at in a number of haiku.

::::: pmjs footer :::::

Kokubungaku kenkyu shiryokan (Institute of Japanese Literature)
See database information.

From: Susan <>

Date: Wed, 14 Mar 2001 10:16:02 -0800

Subject: Re: Special Interest Group (SIG) for the Teaching of

Classical Japanese Language at the AAS

Hi Folks --

I've been off line because of computer troubles for a couple of weeks, so
I'm just now catching up on my backlog of PMJS messages. First of all,
Stephen, add me to your list, although I won't be at AAS this year.

Re teaching Classical, here at UC Irvine, we actually require two quarters
of bungo as part of the major. In the last 8 years that I've been teaching
it, the class size has varied from 15 to 25. At 15 nearly everyone in the
class is a major, but above that we have the same situation that Robert
Kahn talked about in Austin, students from engineering etc. who are just
interested in Japanese. Re Robert Borgen's comment that the students aren't
"up" to bungo, although the students often come into the class with the
kind of trepidation one would expect of organic chemistry, I haven't had to
fail anyone yet, and most of them perform very well indeed. I generally get
very positive evaluations on the order of, "who would have thought that
classical Japanese would be fun?"

Basically we require classical because otherwise the students would have no
real contact with the vast majority of Japanese literature. When I teach
the class the students work through sections from Hojoki, Makura no soshi,
some setsuwa, poems from Hyakunin isshu, a noh play, and Saikaku. They have
to memorize the bungo chart (the hardest part for them) but I don't worry
so much about the relationship between modern Japanese and classical. When
Steve Carter teaches it, I think he puts a lot more emphasis on the
connections between modern and classical so that the students get a sense
of where the contemporary written language has come from.

Overall, I see no reason to be discouraged about bungo, and I look forward
to hearing a report back from AAS --


Susan Blakeley Klein
Associate Professor, Director of Religious Studies
East Asian Languages and Literatures Department
University of California, Irvine

From: "John R. Bentley" <>

Date: Tue, 13 Mar 2001 12:57:52 -1000

Subject: Re: UKE NAMAKO!

robin gill wrote:

> There would seem to be a general understanding that the "namako", after
> making a brief and tragic appearance in the KOJIKI, lost its tongue so to
> speak, until haikai poets in search of sport gleefully revived it as a
> winter theme. Has anyone encountered a Holothurian over this long Dark Age
> of the Namako?

If I may interject. We need to be clear about what we are talking about.
'Namako' is a rather recent word. In the Nara and Heian eras the word
was ko. The ninth-century dictionary Wamyooshoo says "'Sea-rat' is ko in
the vernacular."

As Michael has already pointed out 'aged-sea-rat' is hoya, which is a
different creature.

Thus, it seems that the word namako is a development of the Edo era,
likely nama 'raw, alive' + ko 'sea cucumber'. So if you are looking for
NAMAKO in earlier poetry, I doubt you will find it, unless you look for
the word KO. But I doubt the word would appear in waka due to the
constraints of acceptible vocabulary.

Hope that helps.

John Bentley

From: wfarris <>

Date: Tue, 13 Mar 2001 19:41:20 -0500

Subject: The great namako mystery

Dear Robin,
I'm afriad I deleted your message and so must reply via the list. I
became belatedly interested in your namako problem, and checked first of all
Sekine Masataka's NARA CHOO SHOKU SEIKATSU NO KENKYUU. It turned up the
expected references to the Izumo fudoki and the WAMYOO SHOO. Also,
the KO characters (I didn't recall them until I looked in Sekine-san) are
mentioned in the HONSOO WAMYOO, a medicinal text compiled in 918.
Then pressing the search further, I checked randomly through wooden
tablets. Sure enough, there are two (#2776 and #2817) unearthed from Nara
that contain KO. They are tribute tablets from Noto and Shima, and the
kaisetsu suggests that the KO was a tax item for both provinces. This is
confirmed by a look at the ENGI SHIKI.
I don't know if this helps you with your problem, but you know how I
like fiddling around with mokkan.
Wayne Farris

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Wed, 14 Mar 2001 22:02:59 +0900

Subject: new members

We welcome two new members from Italy.

Ikuko Sagiyama <>

Associate Professor of Japanese Language and Literature, Florence
University, Italy.

My main area of research is Japanese classical literature, especially
Court poetry (waka). My last publication is a Italian translation of
Kokinshu. With some italian scholars, I am currently trying to organize a
research team to work on Man'yoshu.

Maria Chiara Migliore <>

Ph.D. February 1996, Istituto Universitario Orientale, Naples, 'Gli statuti
dei documenti ufficiali (kushiki ryou) del periodo di Nara (710-785)' ['The
Statutes of Official Documents (kushiki ryo^    ) in the Nara period

My main interest is in Japanese literature in Chinese of Nara, Heian and
early Kamakura periods. In this moment I am concentrating in the utilization
of Chinese sources in Kara monogatari and in other works of early Kamakura
period (as for example Mo^gyu^ waka and Hyakuei waka).

The bibliographical details for the Kokinshu translation are as follows:

Kokin waka shu. Raccolta di poesie giapponesi antiche e moderne. Testo
giapponese a fronte. [Facing Japanese (character text, not romanization)]
688 p. Milano: Ariele, 2000. ISBN 8886480458
(The first bookseller--which I recently used to obtain Carolina Negri's
Sumiyoshi monogatari translation--sells the Kokinshu translation at 65,000
Lire (approx. $30), the second at 70,000 Lire.)


::::: pmjs footer :::::

Two technical notes for a change.

GREP searches for text strings in a whole folder of texts, displaying a
concordance-like result. I use MgrepApp for Mac and Hidemaru for Windows

Most e-mail"virus warnings" are hoaxes--or worse. Don't pass one on without checking.


From: "John R. Bentley" <>

Date: Wed, 14 Mar 2001 07:52:50 -1000

Subject: Re: The great namako mystery

This may have been better to send to Wayne privately, but
I thought others may have interest. If not, sorry.

wfarris wrote:

> Then pressing the search further, I checked randomly through wooden
> tablets. Sure enough, there are two (#2776 and #2817) unearthed from Nara
> that contain KO. They are tribute tablets from Noto and Shima, and the
> kaisetsu suggests that the KO was a tax item for both provinces. This is
> confirmed by a look at the ENGI SHIKI.

I also did a quick search of the Nara Kokuritsu Bunkazai Kenkyujo Mokkan

And found six mokkan (three from Noto) listing KO. I was curious
which database Wayne relied on. I am currently trying to do a linguistic
analysis of the language preserved on the mokkan.


John Bentley

From: "robin gill" <>

Date: Wed, 14 Mar 2001 10:56:40 -0500

Subject: UKE NAMAKO!

Thank you collectively, first, for your sleuthing on my behalf, first. I
might add, I personally have read so little outside of the major poetry
collections (manyo,kokin, shinkokin,sanka,etc) that I am not betting on the
results of my own question --- I have come across the "namako gap" in the
introductory remarks to said kidai in several saijiki --- but one can hope.

I have read little prose and I thank Michael Watson for the Fudoki reference
in particular (I could find such things myself and save others the trouble,
if only the KBTK data base would open sesame for me --- would a goma-suri
letter work?)

I thank John R. Bentley for his interjection on the name "namako." I
assumed that anyone who had come across said creature and recognized it
would not need instruction on nominal details, but on second thought,
someone not knowing what to look for might miss it completely . . . So, let
me add a little:

Wayne Farris writes of refreshing himself with "ko" characters [plural]. I
have seen the character for "old" used. (What might the others be?) The
KOJIKI as reprinted in sources I have, uses a furigana "ko" next to the
"sea-rat." Several old entries under "iriko" in my Nihonkokugo Daijiten also
use "sea-rat", preceded by the "iri" kanji. Unfortunately "ko" not only has
many homophones but also referred to other seafood tidbits, any type of
deliberate search would be difficult. (On the other hand, the short word
suggests, as do those tax tablets, that ko was as popular in japan as
trepang in more southern parts). Rarely --- and, I assume, post haikai ---
namako was written Nara "na" + ten-thousand "ma[n]" + old "ko" and in other
strange ways.

I know a waka appearance is doubtful, but, hey, the jellyfish made it, so
why not! At the very least, I expect a "ko" to be found in pre-haikai
crazy-verses or folk songs out there. For once we start looking for things,
they have a way of turning up.

Best wishes from Key Biscayne, where last night was my hatsu-kaya (himajin
ya ka-ga deta deta to fure-aruku = issa)

robin d. gill


::::: pmjs footer :::::

what the grep search for NAMAKO looks like:

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Thu, 15 Mar 2001 00:45:49 +0900

Subject: namako / grep searches

(In response to Robin Gill) The characters UMI + NEZUMI have the ateji
reading "ko" in Kojiki and Fujoki. As John Bentley has explained, it was
only later that the sea slug was called nama+ko.

A number of members have asked what I meant by "a 'grep' search of the NKBT
corpus." This came up earlier--I remember hunting for early examples of
BOTAN for Janine Beichman--but so many new members have joined since then
that it probably needs to be explained once more, with a bit more detail.

GREP* searches for text strings in a whole folder of texts, displaying a
concordance-like result. There are many types of freeware and shareware
available for Windows and Mac. See below for what I use--and I'd like to
hear from others about this.

GREP is handy for searching for words or phrases on any sort of text
document on your hard disk, but really comes into its own when applied to a
set of electronic texts. If you are researching noh, for example, you could
download the 200 e-texts of plays available online
place them in a folder, renaming the files to include the name of the play,
but retaining a unique number for each (e.g. 001 for Okina). A grep search
would tell you in which plays a phrase occurs, and its immediate context.
Click on the line to open the text. If the software works well, you'll be
brought to the passage in question. (Otherwise use your word processor
"find" command.)

The story about the NKBT corpus is more frustrating. The result of years of
work by Kokubungaku kenkyu shiryokan (, the database was kept
under wraps for years. Then finally it was made available online to
registered researchers. It is still possible to do full-text searches or to
download entire texts, but this experimental service ends March 31. No more
registrations are being accepted. The site spells out strict rules for those
who have obtained the text files.
Despite this warning, many samizdat copies circulate in the Japanese
academic community. Certainly the speakers at a Shiryokan symposium in
December 2000 all spoke of doing things that the rules prohibit--editing the
files to make them more user-friendly, for example.

For publicly available texts see for example:

Guides to sites of electronic texts (and other resources)

Well organized collections of texts to download include:

Kikuchi Shin'ichi, webmaster of and other sites, has recently
joined this list. Texts on his sites have been carefully edited, with full
"hanrei" explanation of base text used and editorial principals.

Examples of grep software:

Hidemaru for Windows (  )
A widely-used text editor with grep functions. Shareware (4000 yen)
For freeware see: P-Grep (

MgrepApp for Mac (Japanese software, English interface)
Just does grep. Ignore the "beta version expired" notice on start-up.

*What grep stands for is not as half interesting as the great NAMAKO
mystery. Choose From: Global/General Regular Expression Program/Parser/Print


From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Thu, 15 Mar 2001 14:00:17 +0900

Subject: Inventing the Classics

Haruo Shirane writes:

Since there have been several inquiries about the following book,
I have listed it here with the table of contents, the blurb, and
flap copy.

JAPANESE LITERATURE. Edited with Introduction by Haruo Shirane
and Tomi Suzuki. Stanford University Press. Paperback ($24.95)
and cloth ($60.00). March 2001.

>From the blurb on the back:

"Inventing the Classics fills a major gap in Japanese literary
studies in its presentation of ten original, sophisticated, and
cogently argued essays on the process of the construction of
'Japanese literature' as it is known today. The volume combines
a richly detailed historical approach to the study of canon
formation with a nuanced theoretical discussion of the relevance
of canon formation to the formation of a Japanese cultural and
national identity. It also sheds important light on the changing
socio-political function of specific works and genres." --Janet
Walker, Rutgers University

Hardback flap copy:

Today the term "Japanese literary classics" implies such texts
as the Man'yoshu, Kojiki, Tale of Genji, Tales of Heike, No
drama, and the works of Saikaku, Chikamatsu, and Basho, which are
considered the wellspring and embodiment of Japanese tradition
and culture. Most of these texts, however, did not become
"classics" until the end of the nineteenth century, in a process
closely related to the emergence of Japan as a modern
nation-state and to the radical reconfiguration of notions of
literature and learning under Western influence. As in Europe and
elsewhere, the construction of a national literature and language
with a putative ancient lineage was critical to the creation of a
distinct nation-state.
This book addresses the issue of national identity and the ways
in which modern European disciplinary notions of "literature" and
genres-such as the epic, the novel, poetry, and drama-played a
major role in the modern canonization process. These "classics"
did not have inherent, unchanging value; instead, their value was
produced and reproduced by various institutions and individuals
in relation to socio-political power. How then were these texts
elevated and used? What kinds of values were given to them? How
was this process related to larger social, political, and
religious configurations and conflicts?
This book, which looks in depth at each of the major "classics,"
explores these questions in a broad historical context, beginning
from the medieval period onward, when multiple canons competed
with each other, through the early modern and modern periods,
with special focus on the role of schools, commentators,
socio-religious institutions, and issues of gender. The result is
a new view of the transformations of the canon and its intimate
connection to the issue of national and cultural identity.


Table of Contents

Haruo Shirane, "Issues in Canon Formation"

--- Nation Building and National Literature---
Shinada Yoshikazu, "Man'yoshu: The Invention of a National Poetry
Konoshi Takamitsu, "Constructing Imperial Mythology: Kojiki and
Nihon shoki"

--Gender, Genre, and Cultural Identity-
Tomi Suzuki, "Gender & Genre: Modern Literary Histories & Women's
Diary Literature"
Joshua Mostow, "Modern Construction of Tales of Ise: Gender and
Linda Chance, "Zuihitsu and Gender: Tsurezuregusa and The Pillow

--History to Literature, Performance to Text-
David Bialock, "Nation and Epic: Tale of the Heike as Modern
William Lee, "Chikamatsu and Dramatic Literature in the Meiji

---Language, Authority, and the Curriculum---
Kurozumi Makoto, "Kangaku: Writing and Institutional Authority"
Haruo Shirane, "Curriculum and Competing Canons"

A significantly different Japanese edition appeared almost two
years ago and was reviewed extensively in the Japanese press.

[Souzou sareta koten--kanon kesei, kokumin kokka, nihon bungaku]


From: "robin gill" <>

Date: Thu, 15 Mar 2001 09:52:32 -0500

Subject: UKE NAMAKO!

Re. Namako as "umi+mairu." Michael Watson mentioned 4 findings all Edo era.
Today, it would seem to be the standard Chinese term. I don't know if it
was a thousand years ago. Any one with a Chinese dictionary giving etymology
with dates?

Strangely enough, this Chinese term is the first given for "iriko," in the
Nihon Koku-go Dai-jiten, despite the fact that every old source cited in the
text uses only the second term, "parch+sea+rat."

robin d. gill

From: "Noel John Pinnington" <>

Date: Thu, 15 Mar 2001 11:13:20 -0700

Subject: Women's speech

One of my students drew my attention to the statement in a recent
linguistics dissertation that: "the idea of women's language appeared at the
same time as the establishment of standard Japanese" (ie the Meiji period).
The author apparently believed that no one had focussed on the differences
between male and female speech before that time. Of course, she probably
meant by no one, none of the Tokugawa Japanese scholars of language whose
works are read by students of linguistics nowadays.

We are familiar with the idea of women's writing - onna de etc., and also
the kinds of waka women write according to Ki no Tsurayuki. There are also
the remarks about women who lard their conversation with scholarly words or
references to public matters. But are there references to the different
constructions favoured by women and men? I suppose the first question must
be whether there were differences of the kind seen today in men and women's
speech. In Noh there are - for example first and second personal pronouns,
versions of saburafu. I assume there were similar differences in the Heian
court. Are there no sites in the literary tradition where remarks were made
about the way women and men speak differently?

On another tack, does nobody say: that is typical of the chaotic way women
speak, etc. You would expect to see it in Rakugo or Edo comic writing at
least. Any juicy quotations?

Noel Pinnington

From: "John R. Bentley" <>

Date: Thu, 15 Mar 2001 13:47:19 -1000

Subject: Re: UKE NAMAKO!

I hope I'm not beating a dead horse here.

> Wayne Farris writes of refreshing himself with "ko" characters [plural].

I believe Wayne meant the characters 'sea + rat'. From what I have been
able to find, the first phonetic reading for ko is in Wamyooshoo, making
this spelling early 10th century. In the Nara era there were TWO syllables
that later merged into Heian era KO. These are usually spelled kwo an...@... = schwa) For the layman it would work out approximately thus: kwo
(somethingl close to English COld] an...@...omething close to English
CUlled). My point is that the earliest known spelling of ko 'sea cucumber'
is found AFTER the merger of the two ko, so it is very difficult to know
which one is the true spelling.

> I have seen the character for "old" used. (What might the others be?)

Robin mentions seeing it spelled with the sinograph OLD (this is the
spelling in Wamyooshoo). Theoretically the word could be spelled with any character
read ko (old, self, lake, thus and so forth). Unfortunately, these
spellings do not tell us much about the original word.

> The KOJIKI as reprinted in sources I have, uses a furigana "ko" next to the
> "sea-rat."

Kojiki unfortunately has a very poor textual stemma, the oldest manuscript
being from the late thirteenth century. Thus the interlinear readings also
tell us little, aside from the word was ko by the Heian era.

> Unfortunately "ko" not only has many homophones but also referred to

> other seafood tidbits, any type of deliberate search would be difficult.

As far as I have been able to tell, up to the Heian era, KO still only meant
sea cucumber. Unless Robin means ko as part of a compound word, then
it is unclear if these are the same ko. Of course by the Edo era there was
a vast amount of foreign loans in the language, and that alone complicates
the issue.

Again, sorry if this is beating a dead horse.

John Bentley

From: "robin gill" <>

Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2001 09:01:13 -0500

Subject: UKE NAMAKO!

Dear John [Bentley],

In these parts, the sea cucumber is usually associated with the donkey
rather than the horse; but, no, your point is well-taken and I am delighted
to learn my still living charge has a patent on "ko-" much like the cherry
blossom owns the "hana," but even stronger in the absence of a sea-plum, or
previous patent-holder.

Thank you, again,

robin d. gill

The Kokubungaku site ( has since ended its experimental NKBT service. For the record, however:

From: Hank Glassman <>

Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2001 08:03:44 -0800

Subject: Kokubunken data base

Hello all,

I hear from Michael that there have been a number of queries off line
about how to download texts from the Kokubunken site. He asked me to
share with ya'll how it's done.

Delete now if you already know what you are doing, are not
interested, or haven't gotten a NIJL password yet.

A better resource than my comments here is probably the site's own help

Well, I'm not the right person to ask, because I'm quite ignorant
about the internet, computers and the like, but here goes. I
couldn't figure out how to "download" for the longest time either.
On one visit I found a form that needed to be filled which said why
you wanted the text, etc. I thought that this was in the "user
toroku" section, and imagined that it was a form that needed to be
filled out each time. I may have been mistaken. This section is
currently under construction, so I couldn't get there.

Here's how I've done it since (using Netscape):

1) Go so the site:

2) Enter your user ID and password. If you don't have one yet, it's
too late. They are not giving out any more.

3) Find your text using the "kensaku system." (Display the results.)

4) Click on "text." (Display the text -- with or without line numbers,

5) With the webpage displaying the text in the foreground, go to
"save as" and save it "as text." Name the text and save it.

6) That's it. Maybe this constitutes downloading. I was expecting
something different.

This does mean doing it one text at a time. It would be nice to just
grab the whole thing.


Sorry for providing the _most_ obvious sort of instructions. Perhaps
it will, however, be of help to someone as clueless as I am.



From: Todd Brown <>

Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2001 12:22:51 -0700

Subject: Re: Kokubunken data base

When I try to download texts from this site using the method Hank Glassman
has described, all I end up with is a document that says "[Image],"
followed by "tekisuto hyouji peeji" (i.e., "text display page"); after
that, it's completely blank. Does anyone know what I'm doing wrong?

Todd Brown

From: "Anthony J. Bryant" <>

Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2001 13:43:47 -0500

Subject: Re: Kokubunken data base

Hank Glassman wrote:

> 2) Enter your user ID and password. If you don't have one yet, it's
> too late. They are not giving out any more.

You mean they don't expect that there'll be any more people coming along who
study kokubungaku and so forth? I can't believe this!

What happened?


From: Michael Watson
Date: ??

We welcome three new members: Charlotte von Verschuer, Linda K. Letten, and
Lisette Gebhardt.

Charlotte von Verschuer <>
* Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris.

In recent years I did seminars on: clothing of Nara and Heian times (Maria
Migliore was there, hi!), Translations of San Tendai Godaisanki
(1072), Owari no gebumi (988), Zenrin Kokuhouki (1470), Fukaki Houshiden
(Shunjou's Travel Diary in China, 1199 to 1211); seminars on the Peasant's
daily life from the first to the twelfth month in Heian time, the Tenson
Kourin myth in Nihonshoki, eating vessels of Nara - Heian, and the like.

I love: mercury, not to drink myself but to watch ancient Chinese and
Japanese drinking it (and then trembling); mountain villages in Japan where
burn-and-slash agriculture was practiced until after the war; Chinese Song
dynasty ink painting; Tamerlane; the Chinese Yunnan Province; traditional
agricultural tools in Japanese village and city Minzoku Shiryokan (I have
an Edo time hoe at my house). Now you know all of me.

* Publications include: _Le commerce exerieur du Japon, des origines au XVle
siecle_, Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 1988. // "Japan's Foreign Relations
600 to 1200 A.D.: A Translation from Zenrin Kokuhouki." Monumenta Nipponica
54:1 (1999).
[*=items added by ed.]

Linda K. Letten < 

I am a new PhD candidate at Latrobe University (Melbourne). My supervisor
is Dr Raj Pandey. My area of particular interest is the representation of
women in otogi zoshi in the Muromachi period. Presently, I am thinking
about periodization, termininology, world views and historiography. I
translated Yokobue Zoshi as part of my master's thesis several years back
(at the U of Hawaii) and would be interested in knowing what other otogi
zoshi have been translated. I understand that several people have worked on
them as part of their doctoral dissertations.

Lisette Gebhardt <>

Fields of research: Japanese literature in its relationship with thought
and religion; history of thought; identity discourses in Japan and the
shaping of the image of an 'indigenous' Japanese culture; Japanese
intellectuals; New Age in Japan (for more information on this research
project see:

Publications: Christentum, Religion, Identitaet. Ein Thema der modernen
japanischen Literatur, F.a.M.: Peter Lang, 1999; Japans Neue
Spiritualitaet. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2001; "Report from a research
on the 'intellectual ikai' of contemporary Japan", in: JAWS. Japan
Anthropology Workshop Newsletter No.33, 2001; "The Other World in the
Light of a New Science - Spiritism in Modern Japan", in: Linhart, Sepp
und Susanne Formanek (Eds.): Popular Japanese Views of the Afterlife.
Wien: University of Vienna (forthcoming).

Topics today
(1) women in otogizoshi / otogizoshi (bibliography)
(2) copyright

From: Keller Kimbrough <>

Date: Sun, 18 Mar 2001 12:28:30 -0500

Subject: women in otogizoshi

Dear Linda Letten,

It's nice to know that you are interested in working on women in
otogizoshi. Part of my dissertation (Yale 1999) concerns otogizoshi about
famous women poets (especially Izumi Shikibu and her daughter, Koshikibu no
Naishi), and the dissertation contains translations of "Kotohara," "Izumi
Shikibu," "Koshikibu," "Koshikibu (beppon)," partial translations of
"Jippon ogi" and "Joruri monogatari" (Akagi Bunko recension), and
discussions of numerous other otogizoshi and works of medieval Japanese
literature. I am currently reworking the dissertation for publication as
"Izumi and the Literature of Medieval Japan."

For my next big project, I am considering working on a group of "Shuten
Doji"-related otogizoshi (and other texts), including "Shuten Doji,"
"Rashomon," "Ibuki Doji," "Yoshitsune jigoku yaburi," "Oeyama ekotoba,"
"Tsuchigumo soshi," "Kanawa," etc. I am curious to hear from others what
other otogizoshi projects have been recently completed or are currently in
the works.

Keller Kimbrough
University of Virginia
(soon to be Colby College)

From: Hank Glassman <>

Date: Sun, 18 Mar 2001 11:05:06 -0800

Subject: Re: women in otogizoshi

Hey Keller and Linda (Maggie, Roberta, Monica, others?),

We should start our own otogizoshi list at this rate. This is very
exciting, I think there may be some critical mass here.

Linda asks about a bibliography of translations of otogizoshi. There
used to be a great bibliography prepared by Roberta Strippoli at the
PMJS homepage. But now I can't get there. I wish I had saved it. Where do
these things go when they are "not found" ?(Michael?)

[See below (ed.)]

Among the texts my dissertation focuses on are: Mokuren no soshi*,
Shaka no honji, Koya monogatari*, Kumano no honji*, and Chujohime no
honji. (The items with asterisks are available in published English
translations -- see the lost bibliography.)

My next project is on Koyasu monogatari, which I'm in the process of

It seems to me that since so many of these texts are illustrated,
that it would be very nice to find a way to publish translations,
either as books or on the internet, which contain images. (One of
the many great things about Maggie Childs' _Rethinking Sorrow_ is the
fact that has pictures.) This would obviously be a logistical
nightmare in terms of obtaining rights/permissions for the images.
I've just been through this process for another project, and it is
really very difficult and time consuming. That's for a book; the
idea of getting permission to put a Nara ehon or an emaki from some
private collection or (especially) a temple up on the web is very
daunting at this stage.

Any thoughts from others on this topic -- the copyright and "fair
use" of images from Japan in "foreign" academic work?



From: Mary Cender Miller <>

Date: Sun, 18 Mar 2001 17:45:02 -0500 (EST)

Subject: otogizoshi

To those of you focussing on otogizoshi:

Count me in your interest group.

I am translating and analyzing Abutsu Ni's "Niwa no oshie" and "Menoto no
fumi" for my dissertation project. The otogizoshi, "A Tale for Two
Nursemaids," translated in Virginia Skord's "Tales of Tears and Laughter"
borrows about two thirds of the "Niwa no oshie" text. My Kamakura project
stretches over to otogizoshi.

I am also interested in Muromachi otogizoshi or kyokun-type works with a
motif of the older wet-nurse type of woman instructing a younger woman.


Mary Cender Miller
Indiana University
Ph.D. candidate

From: wfarris <>

Date: Sun, 18 Mar 2001 18:28:00 -0500

Subject: Copyrights

Dear all,
As someone who has published three monographs over 16 years, I know
this copyright problem can cause many headaches. It is my impression that back in the "good old days," Japanese publishers didn't even care about reproductions, including such precious things as
photographs of the Shoosooin documents and picture scrolls. Many times I
have importuned Japanese publishers to send me some document telling me it's OK
to use a picture, a table, or map, only to be ignored. They didn't even charge
Recently, however, (1998) things are getting much stickier. There are
still some publishers who ignore foreign authors, but more and more of them
are "catching on" and charging (sometimes outlandishly) for reproductions.
Moreover, there seems to be confusion among the Japanese about with whom the
copyright resides. I've been told by publishers to contact the author, who
then says he believes his map or table is free for anyone to use.
All in all, it's a tiresome business, especially if one uses scrolls or
other cultural treasures. Furthermore, owners of copyrights often attach
conditions, such as the publisher may never again reproduce the same picture
scroll, etc.
I think I haven't always handled this problem too well, so any comments
are welcome.
Wayne Farris


From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Mon, 19 Mar 2001 09:24:16 +0900

Subject: otogizoshi

The otogizoshi bibliography is at
A good opportunity for me to remind members to try the search form at
when looking for information on the pmjs site.

Roberta Stippoli who put together the bibliography has also written. As her
address had changed (now <>), her message was
re-directed to the editor.

It is very interesting to hear about your ongoing otogizoshi
projects. I am not working on anything new on this subject at the
moment but... otogizoshi admirers and readers of Italian rejoice! My
book on otogizoshi is finally coming out this Summer. It is a
collection of tales with a general (20 pp.) introduction. No
pictures unfortunately, but many, many endnotes.

Is anybody out there using otogizoshi to teach bungo? Any recommended tale?



::::: pmjs footer :::::

Buddhist Resources "LinksPitaka" Japan page

From: Karen Brock <>

Date: Mon, 19 Mar 2001 08:23:27 -0600

Subject: Re: Copyrights

Dear list,

I agree that copyright issues are tricky, but I have been dealing with
issues of obtaining and publishing photographs of paintings for fifteen years now and
have had only a very few problems. In cases of works of art, one must first
obtain written permission of the owner and then send a copy of that permission to
whomever has a photograph that you can use. The owner may charge you a fee
to publish the object. All three of the national museums (Tokyo, Kyoto, and
Nara) have research materials centers that can supply photographs or
transparencies if you have the proper permission. They are all very reasonably priced. If
the object you wish to publish is owned by a museum, permission is often easier
and they will send you their own photographs. Private collectors are perhaps the
trickiest, because they may have much less experience dealing with the
publishing system.

As a last resort when trying to obtain photographs you can go to a
commercial photographer or publisher who also has a copyright. For instance, Benrido
in Kyoto or Sakamoto in Tokyo both have a large archive of photographs that they can sell to you. But even Benrido required the owner's permission. In both cases they charged a hefty publication fee, but I believe that was a one-time charge allowing me to publish the photo again.

In all cases obtaining photographs is much easier if you have all the
publication information already. Even better if you have a letter from the publisher
asking permission which you can send along with your own request (in Japanese). I
have found that if you make it easy for the owners of objects to respond that
works the best. So send two copies of your request along with a self-addressed
(even stamped) envelope, so they can simply sign one copy and return it to you.
Owners also want to know if you plan to publish the image in a scholarly or popular
publication, how much it will cost buyers, how big a print run and the like.
Photos for scholarly articles are much less expensive than for trade books,
usually only the cost of the print. Oh yes, owners generally want one or
two copies of the published book or article, which can become very expensive.

I have rarely published a photo made as a copy of a published source, and
only when it was a tangential illustration in a scholarly article. But when I
have asked publishers for permission to recopy something, I have followed the
same procedure and gotten good responses.

Karen L. Brock
Washington U. in St. Louis

From: "Charo B. D'Etcheverry" <>

Date: Mon, 19 Mar 2001 09:43:49 -0800

Subject: Re: otogizoshi

And the list keeps growing!

I'm interested in a bunch of o.z. involving Sagoromo monogatari, a
late Heian text. They take one of the tragic subplots in the tale
and turn it into wish-fulfillment (complete with raising the dead!)
courtesy of various kami. I'll be working on them this summer--look
forward to talking with you more about them then!

Charo D'Etc...

Charo B. D'Etcheverry
Assistant Professor of Japanese
East Asian Languages and Literature
1114 Van Hise
1220 Linden Drive
University of Wisconsin at Madison
Madison, WI 53706-1525

From: thomas hare <>

Date: Mon, 19 Mar 2001 09:55:59 -0800 (PST)

Subject: Re: Copyrights

This is indeed a complicated problem, and in some cases there is no
alternative to going through all the proper channels to get permissions and
reproduce the object you're talking about. On the other hand, if you're
not, say, discussing the fine brushwork in a painting or trying to talk
about precise color combinations and the like, it is sometimes possible to
make your point quite well with a line drawing. If you make the drawing
itself, it's yours to reproduce, no matter what it's a drawing of, and you
can then refer your readers to some of the fine art books in your library
for a photo of the jitsubutsu without feeling like what you're trying to
say is obstructed by the lack of an illustration.

So, get out your tracing paper . . .

(A mere suggestion)
Tom Hare

Thomas Hare, Professor
Department of Asian Languages
Department of Comparative Literature
Stanford University
Stanford, CA 94305-2034
fax (650) 725-8931

From: Bruce Edward Willoughby <>

Date: Mon, 19 Mar 2001 13:53:55 -0500 (EST)

Subject: Re: Copyrights

Hello otogizoshi fans,

Images, such as photographs of scrolls or woodblocks prints, are not
copyrightable. As such, they never go "out of copyright" and there is no
such thing as "fair use" of an image. Thus, an author who has received
permission to use an image or map from a temple cannot give another author
permission to use it. The owner of the image (the temple, the museum, an
individual) owns all rights to that image, and it technically and legally
cannot be used without that owner's permission. Wayne Farris is right: in
the past American authors and publishers would use postage-stamp size
images without getting permission, and Japanese owners didn't seem to
mind. However, that's not the case today. Getting permission can be very
time consuming and costly, and most American publishers require their
authors to get those permissions.

Hope this helps,
Bruce Willoughby

Bruce E. Willoughby, Executive Editor, Center for Japanese Studies,
University of Michigan, 202 S. Thayer St., Ann Arbor, MI 48104-1608
e-mail address: | phone: 734/998-7265 | fax: 734/998-7982


From: "Mark Hall" <>

Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 22:27:54 +0900

Subject: Re: Copyrights

| I think I haven't always handled this problem too well, so any
| are welcome.
| Regards,
| Wayne Farris

>From my experience at the National Museum of Japanese History (1998-2000),
and having to help them
with stuff like this, my suggestions would be:

1. Write the request in Japanese whenever possible and send an English

2. Let them know the nature of the work---article, book,
scholarly versus commercial, estimated print run. If commercial who is
getting the money.

3. To simplify your life guarantee in writing the image will
not be used for advertising purposes.

4. Set a deadline for when you need an answer. Be realistic.

5. Anticipated publication date.

6. Note that they will be acknowledged in the appropriate section of the
article/book, etc.

7. Offer to send them a copy of the publication.

I had to help them with some real gems, ranging from
somebody faxing a request for an image for a book who needed it immediately
and expected it for free (turns out the item wasn't really photographed, to
on where the person sent proofs of the chapter and had the sheet marked
where the photo of the object would appear.

Best, Mark Hall

::::: pmjs footer :::::

Fifth Asian Studies Conference Japan
Saturday, 2001 June 23rd & 24th, Tokyo

From: "Gregory Pflugfelder" <>

Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 08:17:08 -0500

Subject: symposium announcement

Columbia University will host a one-day symposium, "Animals / History / Japan," on Saturday, April 21, 2001, in 403 Kent Hall (corner of West 116th Street and Amsterdam Avenue). This symposium is co-sponsored by the Donald Keene Center of Japanese Culture and the East Asian Institute Weatherhead Program Development Fund. All are welcome to attend. In order for us to provide adequate seating and refreshments, please let us know of your plans to attend by e-mailing the Donald Keene Center at


9:15  9:30 AM

Greg Pflugfelder (Columbia University)

9:30  11:45 AM

Grateful Animals, Inferior Beasts: Buddhist Ongaeshi Tales and Changing Conceptions of the Animal in Early Japan
Hoyt Long (University of Michigan)

Swift Horses of Nukanobu: Three Approaches
Alexander Bay (Stanford University)

Feathered Friends: Japanese Demand for Exotic Birds in the Eighteenth Century
Martha Chaiklin (University of Alabama)
Creating Canis Lupus: Discourse and Discontinuity in Japanese Wolf Taxonomy
Brett Walker (Montana State University)

Conrad Totman (Yale University)
Richard Bulliet (Columbia University)

11:45 AM  1:30 PM

1:30  3:45 PM

Meiji Metamorphosis: Insects in the Work of Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904)
David Lurie (Columbia University)

The Ambivalence of Whaling: Formation of a Japanese International Identity
Jessamyn Abel (Columbia University)

State of Nature, Nature of the State: A History of Ueno Zoo, 1866-1924"
Ian Miller (Columbia University)

Fascism's Furry Friends: Dogs, National Identity, and Racial Purity in 1930s Japan
Aaron Skabelund (Columbia University)

Brett Walker (Montana State University)
Kathleen Kete (Trinity College)

From: Morgan Pitelka <>

Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 15:40:28 +0000

Subject: culture and nationalism

Dear All,

I'm trying to compile a bibliography of writings in English on the whole
phenomenon of Japanese cultural nationalism, culture and nationalism,
nihonjinron and aesthetics, and so on. Since this might be of interest to
many members of the list, I want to ask if anyone with suggestions would be
willing to send them to me or the list, and I will then compile them and
send the final bibliography back to PMJS.

Ph.D. theses? Articles? Exhibition catalogues? Forewards to translations?

I've listed a few obvious ones below to start things off. Thanks,




Dale, Peter N. The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness. St. Martin$B%f(Bs Press, 1986.

Doak, Kevin. Dreams of Difference: The Japan Romantic School and the Crisis
of Modernity. University of California Press, 1994.

Gluck, Carol. Japan's Modern Myths: Ideology in the Late Meiji Period.
Princeton, 1985.

Harootunian, Harry. Overcome by Modernity: History, Culture, and Community
in Interwar Japan. Princeton University Press, 2000.

Heisig, James W. and John C. Maraldo, eds. Rude Awakenings: Zen, the Kyoto
School, and the Question of Nationalism. University of Hawai'i Press, 1995.

Ivy, Marilyn. Discourses of the Vanishing: Modernity, Phantasm, Japan.
University of Chicago, 1995.

Pincus, Leslie. Authenticating Culture in Interwar Japan: Kuki Shuzo and
the Rise of National Aesthetics. University of California Press, 1995.

Pollack, David. Reading Against Culture: Ideology and Narrative in the
Japanese Novel. Cornell University Press, 1992.

Rimer, J. Thomas, ed. Culture and Identity: Japanese Intellectuals During
the Interwar Years. Princeton University Press, 1990.

Sakai, Naoki. Translation and Subjectivity: on "Japan" and Cultural
Nationalism. University of Minnesota Press, 1997.

Screech, Timon. The Shogun$B%f(Bs Painted Culture: Fear and Creativity in the
Japanese States, 1760-1829. Reaktion, 2000.

Sharf, Robert. $B%a(BThe Zen of Japanese Nationalism.$B%b(B History of Religions 33:1
(August, 1993): 1-43.

Shirane, Haruo. Traces of Dreams: Landscape, Cultural Memory, and the
Poetry of Basho. Stanford University Press, 1998.

Shirane, Haruo and Tomi Suzuki, eds. Inventing the Classics: Modernity,
National Identity, and Japanese Literature. Stanford University Press, 2001.

White, James, Michio Umegaki, and Thomas R. H. Havens, eds. The Ambivalence
of Nationalism: Modern Japan Between East and West. University Press of
America, 1990.

Yoshino, Kosaku. Cultural Nationalism in Contemporary Japan: A Sociological
Enquiry. Routledge, 1992.

From: William Londo <>

Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 16:56:08 GMT

Subject: Re: culture and nationalism

How about Stefan Tanaka's "Japan's Orient"?

From: "Noel John Pinnington" <>

Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 11:22:51 -0700

Subject: Re: culture and nationalism

It is a little difficult to know how inclusive you wish to be. I notice that
you have Shirane's book on Basho in there, so I suppose that you are
interested in exploration of PM Japanese identities which define themselves
through the foreign, in which case you might add:

David Pollack's "Fracture of Meaning," Princeton U.P., 1986.
Ivo Smits "The Pursuit of Loneliness: Chinese and Japanese Nature Poetry in
Medieval Japan," Franz Steiner, 1995.

Noel Pinnington

From: William Bodiford <>

Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 15:51:32 -0800

Subject: Changes in Noh performance?

Dear members of the pmjs list:

Can someone please direct me to research that discusses the ways that
the performances of Noh plays have changed over time?

I am not concerned with changes in the text of the plays
themselves, but
only in the ways that performances of a given text have changed. For example,
has the length of time required for performance changed?

I remember hearing that such was the case. Many years ago when I
was an
undergraduate I attended a lecture on Noh. I think the speaker said that the
plays were performed very quickly during the period when Noh first developed.
Over the generations, though, the pace of performance slowed down, which
enabled the performers to exploit puns within the middle of words. The
lecturer said that diaries from earlier times in which people recorded the
number of plays they viewed in one seating demonstrated that the plays could
not have been performed as slowly in those days as is considered normal
At the time I heard this lecture this bit of trivia was of no concern to me.
Now, though, I would like to examine the evidence --- if it exists.

Thank you for your help.


William Bodiford (
((310--206-8235; FAX 310--825-8808))
East Asian Languages and Cultures
290 Royce Hall; Box 951540
Los Angeles CA 90095-1540

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"The Paths Dreams Take" -- Japanese art from the Collections of Mary Griggs
Burke and The Metropolitan Museum of Art (CD-ROM, Win/Mac)

From: "Paul S. Atkins" <>

Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 17:41:46 -0700

Subject: Re: Changes in Noh performance?

There is a comprehensive treatment of this topic titled "Noh no hensan" in
_Iwanami kouza: Noh, kyougen, vol. 1, Nohgaku no rekishi,_ by Omote Akira
and Amano Fumio. The longer times are not a myth, but are based on what
documents are available and a bit of arithmetic. Also, in my research on
Komparu Zenchiku, I learned that the Tounomine style of performance
involved real armor and horses on stage and in the play "Nonomiya" a cart
(symbolizing Buddhist deliverance) was used, in addition to the shrine
torii that we still see today.

Paul Atkins

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Wed, 21 Mar 2001 10:28:48 +0900

Subject: Changes in Noh performance?

Concerning changes in the length of time required for noh performance, a
good early treatment in English is found in:

P.G.O'Neill, _Early No^ Drama: its background, character and development
1300-1450_, London, 1956, pp. 88-90.

The evidence comes from contemporary accounts of how many plays were
performed. "For instance, at one performance in the third moon of 1446,
eight No and two or three Kyogen, as well as the traditional Dengaku items
at the beginning, were given between about 1 p.m. and dusk, that is, in
about six hours." O'Neill calculates that this means an average time of
forty minutes to perform a noh play, "compared with anything from about an
hour to an hour and a half at the present time" (p. 89). The notes refer to
various diary entries excerpted in Nougaku shiryou, ed. Kobayashi Shizuo.

Michael Watson

From: David Olson <>

Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 18:02:18 -0800

Subject: Re: Changes in Noh performance?


[In a scientific experiment] a majority of Japanese and British students
identified a look of joy on a noh mask when it was tilted slightly forward.
Similarly, they said the mask's expression appeared to turn to sadness when
it was tilted in the opposite direction.

In noh performances, however, actors usually communicate joy by tilting
their heads backward, and sadness by tilting forward.


Maybe the tilt is one of those things that has changed over time.

David Olson

::::: pmjs footer :::::

Noh plays in translation (bibliography in progress)
Please let the editor know of errors and omissions.


Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 21:14:36 -0600 (CST)

Subject: Re: Changes in Noh performance?

Dear All,

Besides the speed of noh plays slowing down over time, the different roles
became more specialized and the two developments are probably
linked. In Zeami's day, drummers would perform any percussion instrument
but by the 1600s they came to specialize in, say, the shoulder drum.
Accordingly, it has been argued that these specialists demanded more stage
time to showcase their talents; hence plays lengthened.

Likewise In Zeami's day, the waki was not a well defined part until the
early modern era. Up to that point a member of the chorus, usually the
one with the strongest voice, took the waki role and he sang with the
chorus. That's given as a reason why the waki still sits near the chorus
today. The chorus too developed over time as Fujita Takanori argues in
his new book "noh no corus" (Hitsuiji Shobo, 2000). There was no
equivalent to the modern chorus in Zeami's day, and it is not until
recently that the chorus and the shite have sung in the same style.

These types of occupational changes do a lot to explain why noh plays
slowed down as opposed to the tired argument that samurai demanded greater
rituality from the noh, or that it was Rikyu's idea, as someone once


Eric Rath
Assistant Professor Dept. of History
University of Kansas Lawrence KS 66045-7590

tel. (785) 864-9470
fax (785) 864-5046

From: Robert Borgen <>

Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 21:10:08 -0800

Subject: Re: Changes in Noh performance?

I once read an article in English in which Konishi Jin'ichi explained how
noh performances had slowed down over the centuries. But I read it many
years ago and no longer recall where it had been published. My memory too
has slowed down.

Robert Borgen

::::: pmjs footer :::::

A Princeton graduate symposium on the critical position
of the comparatist, organized by the Society for Intercultural Comparative Studies
Princeton, N.J. -- March 30 - April 1, 2001
Participants include Thomas Hare, Karatani Kojin, Earl Miner.

From: "Alexander R. Bay" <>

Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 22:11:06 -0800

Subject: Re: Changes in Noh performance?

While this is not an immediate answer, Steven Brown of the University of
Oregon has written about Noh and Hideyoshi in an JAS volume that I cannot
recall off hand, but it has been within the last couple of years. He should
have a book coming out soon on the topic.
Sorry for the brief reply but I could not resist spot-lighting some work of
a former adviser.

Alex Bay

From: Janine Beichman <>

Date: Wed, 21 Mar 2001 15:20:34 +0900

Subject: Re: Changes in Noh performance?

don't see why the specialization of roles argument and the samurai
demanding slower/ritual time arguments conflict; if anything, they seem to
support each other.

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Wed, 21 Mar 2001 16:53:13 +0900

Subject: Changes in Noh performance?

As Steven T. Brown referred to by Alex Bay is not one of the three Brown's
on pmjs, allow me to quote from the bibliography found on his home page

> Theatricalities of Power: The Cultural Politics of Noh (Stanford University
> Press, forthcoming).
> "Ominameshi and the Politics of Subjection," in Ominameshi, ed. Mae Smethurst
> (Osaka: Osaka University Press, forthcoming).
> "Staging Female Suicide on Otokoyama: New Historicist Readings of Power and
> Gender in the Noh Theater," in The New Historicism in Japanese Literary
> Studies, PMAJLS 4 (Summer 1998).
> "Theatricalities of Power: New Historicist Readings of Japanese Noh Drama," in
> Revisionism in Japanese Literary Studies, PMAJLS 2 (Summer 1996).

PMAJS being the Publications of the Midwest Association for Japanese
Literary Studies (now AJLS)

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Thu, 22 Mar 2001 12:04:01 +0900

Subject: new profiles

First an apology to Steven Brown (Oregon) who is most definitely on the
list. My eyesight must be failing... My error has prompted him to write a
longer profile, given below, introduce a special issue of _Women &
Performance_ he has edited, and add a comment to the noh thread.

We have two new members: Kyoko Selden (Cornell) and Julie Nelson Davis
(Oberlin). This means that the magic number of three profiles has been
reached. In reverse order then:

Julie Nelson Davis <>

My research is on Ukiyo-e prints and paintings, focusing on Kitagawa Utamaro
and Torii Kiyonaga, as well as broader themes in Edo culture. I teach both
Japanese and Chinese art history at Oberlin College.


Kyoko Selden <>

Senior Lecturer (Japanese), Department of Asian Studies, Cornell University.
My current interest is preparation of Japanese literature readers with rubi
and annotations.

Honda Katsuichi, Harukor: An Ainu Woman's Tale (Ainu minzoku) [translator].
University of California Press, 2000. // The Funeral of a Giraffe: Seven
Stories by Tomioka Taeko (Dobutsu no sorei) [cotranslator]. M. E. Sharpe,
2000. // Kayano Shigeru, Our Land Was a Forest: An Ainu Memoir (Ainu no
ishibumi) [cotranslator]. Westview Press, 1994. // The Atomic Bomb: Voices
from Hiroshima and Nagasaki [translator and coeditor]. M. E. Sharpe, 1989.
// Yoshiaki Shimizu ed. Japan: The Shaping of Daimyo Culture 1185-1868
[translator of Japanese language entries]. National Gallery of Art, 1988.

* Kyoko Selden has graciously volunteered to work on Royall Tyler's bungo
files now languishing at
For those of you new to pmjs. These are text excerpts and vocabulary that
Royall has used for teaching bungo/classical Japanese. In conversion from
EGWord to Microsoft Word, the rubi became mixed into the text. I've been
hoping that someone would step forward and lend a hand. Eventually different
versions of the files will be put on line: without rubi, with rubi in
parentheses, with rubi over the kanji (Word 2000/2001 format)... More
volunteers are of course welcome. [ed.]


Steven T. Brown <>
Perhaps a proper self-introduction is in order, since pmjs only lists
my institutional affiliation. In addition to my work on noh, which
attempts to position it as a site of conflict framed by the
mechanisms of patronage within which poetic, religious, political,
and economic discourses are brought together in complex and
innovative ways as an active, productive force in the theater of the
medieval cultural imaginary, I have been busy editing a special issue
of _Women & Performance_, a leading journal of feminist performance
and theory out of NYU. The special issue of _Women & Performance_
(due out this spring), which I hope will be of interest to pmjs
members, attempts to reclaim a place for women in the history of
Japanese performance. The issue will include work by Lynne Miyake on
the performativity of Heian literary and poetic texts, Terry
Kawashima on asobi, Sarah Strong on anonymous female performers and
the legend of Ono no Komachi, Keller Kimbrough on the dissemination
of Izumi Shikibu stories by bikuni from Seiganji and Kumano, Eric
Rath on the history of female noh, Susan Matisoff on the role of
arukimiko in the development of the sekkyoubushi narrative _Oguri_,
as well as essays on contemporary performers such as Rio Kishida,
Dumb Type, and others.

Regarding the on-going discussion about the slowing down of noh, I
agree with most of what Eric has said about shifts in occupational
definition, etc., but see this (along with Janine) as being
complemented by the push towards increased formalization encouraged
by the Tokugawa shogunate in conjunction with the latter's adoption
of noh in 1615 as the official state-sponsored form of entertainment

From: Richard Emmert <>

Date: Thu, 22 Mar 2001 07:10:36 +1000

Subject: Re: Changes in Noh performance?

Dear list members,

More on the question of pacing/speed in noh. Although I don't know of
specific research, I have spoken with several noh performers and
scholars over the years who suggest that noh has slowed down even in
the 20th century, particularly in the post-war years. One of the
reasons given for this is related to the idea of specialization from
centuries back brought up earlier in this discussion. In general the
technical level of performances today has improved particularly over
the last century. As there are many more performances today then
there were before the War, it seems that the technical abilities of
the great performers of the early part of the century have been
imitated and become a part of what many performers and audience
expect of a performance. Performers, showing off in a sense their
ability to capture and hold individual moments, inevitably take more
time to perform. Specifically it has to do with the relationship
between the drummers and the chorus who have many more chances to
grasp a moment and stretch it. A drummer stretches out a drum call at
the end of a phrase and the chorus picks that up and does likewise.
Or vice-versa. This is particularly true with say third category
pieces which are already quite slow. My guess is that in general
pieces meant to be fast are not getting slower, only already slow
pieces are getting slower. If you compare the times it takes to
perform the same slow pieces, I am sure there is a wide variance from
performance to performance while not so much so with pieces meant to
be fast.

Basically to me this is a musical kind of issue. There are various
ways to show off one's technical abilities musically. Pieces meant to
be fast might be done even faster. Pieces meant to be slow hold
individual moments and whether it is with extra ornamentation or just
pregnant pauses, those slow pieces will often become even slower.
Similarly I have heard that the free rhythmic folk music known as
oiwake in northern Japan has also slowed as performers show off their
technical abilities---basically their abilities to hold their breath
and stretch out notes, or to add extra ornamentation whether sung or
played on shakuhachi. There are certainly other similar examples in
performances in Asia, say the length of the opening free rhythmic
section of a North Indian classical music concert is also often
stretched out, although that is highly improvised to begin with and
certainly can be stretched out more easily than noh.

Of course another major part of this equation in noh (and probably
with oiwake as well, and probably all traditional performances) is
the sophistication of the audiences. If audiences were staying away
in droves because the performers pacing was too slow for them to
handle, something would have to give. Either the performers would
speed up or lose their livelihood. For noh, audiences are continuing
to support performances in many ways and for those really special
performances, performers in turn show off their abilities to capture
individual moments. With noh in any case, slowing down seems to be a
sign of sophistication of both performers and audience.

Whether all of this is "good" is perhaps another issue. It is related
to the "classicalization" of the arts as well which some people might
feel is contrived while others see it as a natural process.

Sorry to go on for so long!!!

Rick Emmert
For information on noh workshops
in Japan and the United States see:
Richard Emmert
Hon-cho 2-27-10, Nakano-ku
Tokyo 164-0012 Japan
tel: 81-(0)3-3373-0553
fax: 81-(0)3-3373-4509

Noh Research Archives
Musashino Womens University
Shinmachi 1-1-20, Hoya-shi
Tokyo 282-8585 Japan
tel: 0424-68-3147 (archives)
tel: 0424-68-3229 (office)

From: "Dr.E.J.Markham" <>
Date: Thu, 22 Mar 2001 13:19:43 -0500
Subject: Re: [pmjs] Re: Changes in Noh performance?

Richard Emmert's suggestions about slowing-down in Noh performance as
'a musical kind of issue' - with performers' instinctive urge for
variation and embellishment and their stealing musical time to
show-off these and other technical abilities, variable solemnity of
performance context, repertory-prestige , audience-sophistication as a
factor in performance-pacing, and so on - if kept in mind, might make
some of the historical, musicological evidence for progressive
retardation in performance speed as quite a widespread musical
phenomenon more generally accessible (and perhaps even provide
pointers to their relevance for the specific case of Japanese Noh?) I
find Allan Marett's papers about musical retardation in Japanese
Gagaku particularly lucid - and they also set out the intellectual
"story" behind the initial recognition of the phenomenon in East Asian
repertories with long, documented musical histories. Still in East
Asia, Jonathan Condit's historical work on court-music traditions in
Korea sets out (step by step) further evidence for musical
retardation-cum-elaboration. And then, for Turkish instrumental
art-music too, there is the detailed work of Owen Wright.

Here, the references:

Allan Marett, 'Toogaku: where have the Tang melodies gone, and where
have the new melodies come from?', in Ethnomusicology 29 (1985),
pp. 409-431.

Allan Marett, 'In search of the lost melodies of Tang China: an
account of recent research and its implications for the history and
analysis of Toogaku' in Musicology Australia 9 (1986), pp. 29-38.

Jonathan Condit, 'The evolution of Yomillak from the fifteenth century
to the present day', in Articles on Asian Music: Festschrift for Dr
Chang Sa-hun, (1977) Seoul.

Jonathan Condit, 'Uncovering Earlier Melodic Forms from Modern
Performance: The Kasa Repertoire', in Asian Music 9:2 (1978),
pp. 3-20.

Jonathan Condit, 'Two Song-dynasty Chinese tunes preserved in Korea',
in Music and Tradition: Essays on Asian & other musics presented to
Laurence Picken, ed. D.R.Widdess & R.F.Wolpert, Cambridge (1981),
pp. 1-40.

Owen Wright, 'Aspects of historical change in the Turkish classical
repertoire', in Musica Asiatica 5 (1988), pp. 1-108.


Elizabeth Markham

From: Janine Beichman <>

Date: Fri, 23 Mar 2001 11:00:32 +0900

Subject: Re: Changes in Noh performance?

since the discussion seems to be branching out, i wonder about the
retardation/embellishment phenomenon in jazz, esp. those pieces that
originate in folksongs, and if anyone on the list might have some
information about that. i feel we've struck a kind of mother lode here.

of course one can embellish without slowing down and perhaps in jazz you
see both --perhaps count basie, for example, embellished but didn't slow
down,whereas miles davis sometimes did both? or am i stepping too far out
of the pmjs frame? (eek!)

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Fri, 23 Mar 2001 12:04:44 +0900

Subject: Changes in [musical] performance?

Keeping the discussion to premodern Japan, I'd like to ask Steven Nelson or
Komoda Haruko about heikyoku. The medieval diaries I've seen indicate that
one or more "ku" were performed at one sitting--a "ku" being the equivalent
of the modern [shou]dan, one of the 100 odd sections in the Heike
monogatari. Modern performances by biwa houshi take just over thirty minutes
for pieces of the length of "Uji-gawa" or "Chikubushima-moude." Is there
evidence to show whether or not this is slower than performances in the
medieval period?

Michael Watson

From: Monica Bethe <>

Date: Fri, 23 Mar 2001 15:35:32 -0800 (PST)

Subject: retardation of performance

I have been reading this exchange with interest, and
if Rick had not written as he did, I would have. I
agree, also, that slowing of performance due to the
desire to give the subtleties of the music their
fullest play is probably the strongest force in this
continuing process. The slowing down and resultant
transformation of GAGAKU is a model case.
Still, I would like to throw in one thought in
another direction. What we know of Muromachi period
performance comes from records that mostly list the
performances given on an occassion. They do not say
how the pieces were performed. Our calculations of
performance times are mathematical and presume an even
average..... why?
At quite a number of festivals including noh
performances today, the performance of a piece can be
remarkably short. For instance, at Mizuumi noh in
Fukui prefecture they have about seven pieces on the
program. First they do Okina, this, if my memory
serves me properly, lasts for close to two hours .
Then come warrior pieces and women pieces, etc. and
the whole lot probably dont last more than another two
hours. All the "noh" are costumed and fully
orchestrated, but only parts of what we consider the
whole play are more like watching
costumed maibayashi. At this point in the Mizuumi noh
tradition, I dont think they have full noh versions of
these pieces. Maybe they did once, but maybe they
never did.
When did the performance of extracts begin?
And wasn't there a time when scenes--like the dipping
of the moon section of Mastukaze presumably composed
by Kannami, sashi-sageuta-ageuta--were performed as
complete plays, scenes that possibly later became
incorporated into a fuller play in a more standardized
Monica Bethe

[There was some mojibake in the last paragraph. Punctuation is a guess. /ed]

From: "Michael Wachutka" <>
Date: Fri, 23 Mar 2001 15:06:26 -0000
Subject: Re: culture and nationalism (bibliography)

Dear Morgan (and all others),

I, for one, would be very interested to see that bibliography on the PMJS-Site.

(Although I am not sure why it should contain only English writings as there are many very important works e.g. in German or other languages as well, for instance:

*Fischer, Peter (ed.): Buddhismus und Nationalismus im modernen Japan. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1979 [= Berliner Beitrge zur sozial- und wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Japanforschung; vol. 4].
*Nawrocki, Johann: Inoue Tetsujiro, 1855-1944) und die Ideologie des Goetterlandes. Eine vergleichende Studie zur politischen Theologie des modernen Japan. (Ostasien Pazifik. Trierer Studien zu Politik, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft, Kultur, vol. 10). Hamburg: Lit-Verlag., 1998.)

Be this as it may, here are some works you might want to add:

* Amstutz, Galen: Modern Cultural Nationalism and English Writing on Buddhism. The Case of D.T. Suzuki, in: Japanese Religions 22, 2 (1997), pp. 6586.

* Cornille, Catherine: Nationalism and Japanese New Religions, in: Nova Religio. Vol. 2/2 (1999), pp. 228-244.

* Doak, Kevin M.: Nationalism as Dialectics. Ethnicity, Moralism, and the State in Early Twentieth Century Japan, in: Heisig, James W./ Maraldo, John C. (eds.): Rude Awakenings. Zen, the Kyoto School, and the Question of Nationalism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1995, pp. 174196.

* Harootunian, Harry D.: Things Seen and Unseen. Discourse and Ideology in Tokugawa Nativism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., 1988.

* Kleinen, Peter: Politics, Religion, and National Integration in Wilhelmine Germany and Meiji Japan. A Comparative View on the Kulturkampf and the Persecution of Buddhism, in: Umesao, Tadao/ Fujitani, Takashi/ Kurimoto, Eisei (eds.): Japanese Civilization in the Modern World XVI. Nation-State and Empire. Senri, Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology, 2000, pp. 6194 [= Senri Ethnological Studies; 51].

* Koschmann, J. Victor: The Mito Ideology: Discourse, Reform and Insurrection in Late Tokugawa Japan, 1790-1864. Berkeley: University of California Press., 1987.

* Nosco, Peter: Remembering Paradise: Nativism and Nostalgia in Eighteenth-century Japan. (Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, 31). Cambridge: Harvard University Press., 1990.

* Pye, Michael: National and International Identity in a Japanese Religion (Byakko Shinkkai), in: Hayes, V. (ed.): Identity Issues and World Religions: Selected Proceedings of the XVth Congress of the International Association for the History of Religions. South Australia: Australian Association for the Study of Religion, 1986, pp.234-241.

* Sharf, Robert H.: The Zen of Japanese Nationalism, in: History of Religions 33, 1 (1993), pp. 143.

Let me furthermore use this opportunity to also announce two of my own books that would fit the topic (the first is out since this week, the second one is forthcoming by the end of the year):

* Wachutka, Michael: Historical Reality or Metaphoric Expression? Culturally formed contrasts in Karl Florenz' and lida Takesato's interpretations of Japanese mythology. Hamburg, London: Lit-Verlag., 2001. [BUNKA - Tuebinger interkulturelle und linguistische Japanstudien/ BUNKA - Tuebingen intercultural and linguistic studies on Japan, vol. 1]
(The announcement from the publisher (from the back-cover) can be found on: )

* Antoni, Klaus/ Kubota, Hiroshi/ Nawrocki, Johann/ Wachutka, Michael (eds.): Religion and National Identity in the Japanese Context. Hamburg, London: Lit-Verlag., 2001. [BUNKA - Tuebinger interkulturelle und linguistische Japanstudien/ BUNKA - Tuebingen intercultural and linguistic studies on Japan, vol. 3]
(A collection of the 16 papers presented at an international conference on that topic in February 2001, organized by the Department of Japanology at Tuebingen University)

From: wfarris <>

Date: Sun, 25 Mar 2001 13:22:46 -0500

Subject: culture and nationalism bibliography

Two additions to the list from an old-timer:

Albert Craig, "Fukuzawa Yukichi and the Philosophical Foundations of
Meiji Nationalism," in Robert Ward, ed., POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN MODERN JAPAN (Princeton UP, 1965), pp. 99-148.

David Earl. EMPEROR AND NATION IN JAPAN. U. Wash, 1964.


Walter Edwards, "Buried Discourse: The Toro Archaeological Site and
Japanese National Identity in the Early Postwar Period," JJS 17: 1-23 (Winter

How about putting in Bob Borgen's article, written for the list last
spring or summer? What about the recent panel chaired by Ethan Segal?

Best wishes,
Wayne Farris

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Tue, 27 Mar 2001 00:27:39 +0900

Subject: Re: culture and nationalism bibliography

Wayne Farris' mention of
> How about putting in Bob Borgen's article, written for the list last
> spring or summer?
reminded me that there were some interesting comments on the list about that
article which I had not yet added to the public archive.

you will now find lengthy comments by Nobumi Iyanaga, M. Joly Jacques, and
Wayne Farris himself.

Bob Borgen's article itself can be read in either web or pdf format. See
for links.

Michael Watson

From: Morgan Pitelka <>

Date: Tue, 27 Mar 2001 13:39:55 +0100

Subject: cultural nationalism

Dear PMJS,

Thanks to the various people who provided citation suggestions on the topic
of Japanese cultural nationalism. As Michael mentioned in a previous
message, the resulting bibliography can be found at the following URL

Or you can download a rich text format version from the following directory:

[This can be opened by Microsoft Word or many other word processors /ed]

The beauty of putting bibliographies on the web, of course, is that they
can be updated as new relevant works appear. Please feel free to download
the list and add to it, and then resubmit it to Michael or me or the list
as appropriate. Unlike published, paper bibliographies, online ones do not
necessarily become outdated the instant they are made public.

Does anyone else have bibliographies they would be interested in sharing
with the list?


From: Laurel Rasplica Rodd <>

Date: Tue, 27 Mar 2001 08:54:03 -0700 (MST)

Subject: Re: Aurora Scholarship

With apologies for crosslisting! Please note that the Aurora Foundation
has extended the deadline for the summer fellowships they offer to
non-native teachers of Japanese and prospective teachers of Japanese to
April 30, 2001 (for summer 2002 fellowships).


The Japanese Language Scholarship þgAuroraþh Foundation (JLSF) is currently
accepting applications for its Year 2002 Scholarship for Japanese language
study in Japan. The primary goal of this scholarship is to nurture and
provide support for Japanese language education in the USA. The
scholarships will enable the awardees to attend an intensive Japanese
Language teacher education program.

The another scholarship that we provide is that Year 2002 þgAurora Challenge
Grantþh. The grant is to provide support for a USA citizen who resides in
California and has a unique dream, in any field of endeavor, which is
related to Japanese culture and which would never be possible to realize
without traveling to Japan between fall of 2001 and summer of 2002.

Please refer to the enclosed information for more details including
qualifications and required documents. Application forms and further
information are available at the JLSF þgAuroraþh Foundation web site at

<snip snip>

From: Michael Watson <>

Date: Wed, 28 Mar 2001 17:35:03 +0900

Subject: new members

Welcome to three new members.

Masaki Hirano <>

Assistant Director, Japan Foundation New York Office. Please visit for more information on the Japan Foundation's programs.

Nils Meyer <>

I am a Ph. D. candidate at Leipzig University, Germany, currently doing
research at Kyoto University. My field of research is the history of ideas
since the Meiji-period. I am particularly interested in the ideas of the
entrepreneur Shibusawa Eiichi (1840-1931) and his use of Confucian ideas in
the propagation of a modern Japanese work ethic.

James Ford <>

I teach East Asian Religions at Wake Forest University. My research
focuses primarily on medieval Japanese Buddhism. I am presently
completing a manuscript on Jokei (1155-1213) of the Hosso school and
issues related to the interpretation of "Kamakura" Buddhism. I have a
particular interest in koshiki liturgical texts and the importance of
"place" in Japanese religiosity. I presently serve as Executive
Secretary of the Society for the Study of Japanese Religions

::::: pmjs footer:::::

14 manuscript fascimiles online. Many illustrated.
commentary by Imanishi Yuichiro

Journal of Japanese Studies -- index 1974-2001

Journal of Asian Studies (no online index?)

From: "Linda K. Letten" <>

Date: Fri, 30 Mar 2001 17:41:25 +1000

Subject: otogi zoshi

Greetings all, (especially otogi zoshi fans)

Belated thanks for the response to my request for info and the bibliography
regarding otogi zoshi. (I was a little overwhelmed.) I would like to get
UMI copies of Barbara Ruch's and Keller Kimbrough's dissertations and will
be in the States (Colorado) briefly in late-April, which may facilitate
things--does anyone have contact details on how to attain these? My info is
a bit out-dated.

There is another article by Ruch that people may wish to add to their
Ruch, Barbara "Transformation of a Heroine: Yokobue in Literature and
History." Heinrich, Amy Vladeck ed. Currents in Japanese Culture. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1997. [pp. 99-116]

For Mary Cender Miller, in case you are unaware, here is an older
instructional-type wet-nurse in Yokobue Zoshi.

I would be delighted to hear when any new work gets published (Keller and
Roberta--any others?)

Back to the 'illustrations' debate. We are encouraged as new PhD candidates
to incorporate illustrations in our dissertations. It seems to me that
there is a wealth of art available for this purpose, especially relating to
otogi zoshi so the access issue seems to be worth pursuing.

I am still navigating my way through the homepage etc. Is there a dedicated
PMJS conference??

Many thanks,
Linda K. Letten

From: Kendon Stubbs <>

Date: Fri, 30 Mar 2001 11:13:39 -0500

Subject: Re: otogi zoshi

Two sources for purchasing copies of American dissertations are Bell and
Howell's Dissertation Express service at

and Contentville's dissertation service at

Bell and Howell's search database seems to be a little more up-to-date than
Contentville's, but Contentville's prices are slightly lower. Both services
include Ruch but not (yet) Kimbrough. Some but not all American
universities lend dissertations through interlibrary loans. A few
universities are now making some of their dissertations available as
electronic publications through their Web sites.

Kendon Stubbs

From: Keller Kimbrough <>

Date: Fri, 30 Mar 2001 11:47:02 -0500

Subject: otogizoshi / dissertations

Dear Linda,

Thank you for your interest in my dissertation. It is possible to order
just about any dissertation from UMI by calling them at 1-800-521-0600.
They also have a website:

As for reproducing illustrations, I was told by an art historian friend
that I did not need to seek copyright permission for reproducing photos in
a doctoral dissertation. I do not know if this is true, however. Does
anyone know?

Keller Kimbrough


Cross-posting from H-Japan

Date: Fri, 30 Mar 2001 20:30:30 -0500
From: H-Japan Editor <>
Subject: H-Japan (E): Jeffrey Mass

The editors of H-Japan have learned that Professor Jeffrey Mass, renowned
Professor of medieval Japanese history at Stanford and Oxford, passed
away this morning at 11 a.m. Pacific Time at Stanford University
Hospital. We will post an obituary as we receive it.

Philip Brown

From: Hitomi Tonomura <>

Date: Sat, 31 Mar 2001 11:35:16 -0500

Subject: sad news

Dear colleagues:

This is a personal message (I am no poet) in memory of Jeffrey P. Mass, our
dear mentor, colleague, friend who passed away two days ago, as many of you
already know. It was comforting for me to know that his beloved wife and
daughters were with him as his spirit "flew out of the window" (his words)
to be released from the illness (cancer) which he found out only a month

All too abruptly
The lifeline of a scholar
So untimely severed
A sinking feeling of loss

Uncompromisingly dedicated
to sources, scholarship, and students
What we received from you
No word can express

Salute to your accomplishments
A veritable Monument
We miss you terribly
As you rest with Yoritomo

Tomi Tonomura

Hitomi Tonomura
Associate Professor of History, Women's Studies and Asian Languages and
Director, Center for Japanese Studies
Mailing address: Department of History, The University of Michigan
1029 Tisch Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1003 U.S.A.

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