pmjs logs for October 2004. Total number of messages: 34

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* Question about waka/imperial poetry anthologies (Stephen Miller, Aileen Gatten, Janine Beichman, Lewis Cook, Adrian Pinnington)
* new members: Ellen P. Conant, Tullio Lobetti, Levi McLaughlin, Hari Raghavacharya, David A. Eason, Fumiko Joo, Regan Murphy
* Women Praying for the Salvation of their Mothers (Jens Sejrup, Monika Dix)
* Announcement: Endangered Archives Program (Philip Brown)
* Art Exhibit, Brigham Young University (Lee Butler)
* kentoushi memorial discovered (Michael Watson, Mack Horton, Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney)
* Amino Yoshihiko collection? / Amino [translations] (Matthew Stavros, Herman Ooms, Hank Glassman, Jordan Sand, Hitomi Tonomura)
* A seminar on Shinto & Women (Medieval Japanese Studies Institute)
* _Dainikko_ (Morgan Pitelka, Sharon Domier)
* Chinese and Japanese Lute Lore (David Pollack)

Date: Sat, 2 Oct 2004 10:15:20 EDT
Subject: Question about waka/imperial poetry anthologies

Greetings, everyone--

I've been thinking about the ideas of "association" and "progression" that Konishi Jin'ichi, along with Robert Brower and Earl Miner, introduced us to back in 1958. It occurred to me the that I didn't know what the Japanese equivalents for these words are. Looking back at the HJAS article, I found that Brower and Miner do refer to a study by Kazamaki Keijiro (which I do not have immediate access to) and they also tell us that Konishi deals with these ideas in his own work (though they don't refer us to that work). Apparently, the article published in HJAS was written specifically for that purpose by Konishi. I'm wondering if any of you know where these words might have come from and if there are equivalents that can be used in Japanese.
Both words have become such stock critical expressions in the west, it seems like there ought to be.

Thanks for any light you can shed on this!

Stephen Miller
Smith College

Date: Sat, 2 Oct 2004 20:25:25 EDT

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: new members

We welcome the following five members and a similar number of "read-only" members.

Ellen P. Conant <>

affiliation = Independent scholar

Research interests: Japanese art, particularly painting, from about 1750-1950. Special interest in Meiji painting, Japanese participation in national and international expositions, and foreign employees of the Meiji government (oyatoi).

Tullio Lobetti <>

affiliation = SOAS, London

MA in Japanese Language and Literature (University of Turin, Turin)

MA in Japanese Religions (SOAS, London)

Currently PhD Student at SOAS, department of Study of Religions

Main Resarch Topic: Ascetic practices in Japan

Other interests: Esoteric Buddhism; Japanese new religious movements; the concept of "death" and its religious implications cross cultural.

Levi McLaughlin <>

affiliation = Princeton University

PhD student at the Department of Religion, Princeton University. I am interested in new religious movements in the modern era and their connections to premodern traditions and practices. BA, MA University of Toronto, research student University of Tokyo 2000-2002, Research Assistant at the Institute for Japanese Culture and Classics, Kokugakuin University, 2002-2004.

Quitman E. Phillips <>

affiliation = University of Wisconsin-Madison

Professor of Japanese Art History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison specializing in the late medieval period. My focus has recently shifted from the Kano and Tosa schools toward art related to popular religious practices.

Major publication: The Practices of Painting in Japan, 1475-1500 (Stanford, 2000)

Hari Raghavacharya <>

affiliation = Dept. of Japanese Literature, Faculty of Letters,Hokkaido University

Phd candidate in Japanese philology. Currently engaged in completion of my dissertation on "Philological study of Tsurayukishu". Compiled a database of major manuscripts of TSURAYUKISHU, kana by kana,recording errors (individual and collective)in manuscripts compared against a base manuscript.

Areas of interest, Waka, Classical dictionaries.

** updates **

Leith Morton <>

Recent publications:

(edited volume) Takamizawa, Junko, My Brother Hideo Kobayashi (Sydney:

Univ. of Sydney East Asian Series & Wild Peony Press, 2001)

Modern Japan: The Insider View (Melbourne: Oxford Univ. Press, 2003)

Modernism in Practice: An Introduction to Postwar Japanese Poetry

(Honolulu: Univ. of Hawaii Press, 2004)

Also, I am current editor of the Journal of the Oriental Society of

Australia and would welcome submissions from pmjs members to our journal

(all submitted articles are subject to anonymous refereeing) Journal


From: "Jens Sejrup" <>
Subject: RE: [pmjs] Query>Women Praying for the Salvation of their Mothers
Date: Sun, 03 Oct 2004 18:33:37 +0000

Dear Monika,
There's an instance in the Genji Monogatari which comes to mind in regard to your question. In the Suzumushi (38th) chapter, Hikaru Genji and the character known as Akikonomu have a discussion on whether or not it would be suitable for her to 'abandon the world' in order to ease her deceased mother's (the Rokujo lady's) passage to salvation.

In Tyler's translation her rationale goes: 'Through what hellish fumes might her mother, the Rokujo Haven, now be wandering in her agony? His Grace had done all he could to conceal the way her mother had announced her by now detested presence even after death, but gossip about it had of course reached her, and the intense shock had made life hateful. She longed to know exactly what her mother had said in the course of these visitations, but she could not bring herself to speak plainly and instead touched only obliquely on the matter. "I have vaguely gathered that the departed's present state suggests a heavy burden of sin, which is easy enough to assume even in the absence of proof, but I myself will never forget the sorrow of losing her, and it is very distressing to me not to be more considerate of her in the beyond. I long more and more to accept the guidance of those who seek comfort and to quench those flames, all on my own if need be, and that is the reason I now feel as I do."'

Genji advises against it - 'I doubt that you are up to (it)' - and at the end of the chapter we are told that her concern for and obligations to the retired emperor (Reizei) keep her from carrying out her wish: 'No aspect of her circumstances could fail to please her, were it not that concern for her mother confirmed her desire to devote herself to pious practice. She would never have leave to do so, however, and she therefore busied herself with good works, realizing meanwhile ever more profoundly the true character of this world.'

Akikonomu only reappears in the novel a few times after this chapter and, as far as I remember, we are never told if eventually she takes holy orders at all. It seems likely that she doesn't. Anyhow, her motivation seems to parallel that of women who do take that step.

The passage quoted above is found in the original version on pp. 81-82 and 83 in vol 4 of the Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei version of the Genji (Iwanami Shoten, 1996).
I hope this can be of some use to you.
Best wishes,
Jens Sejrup

From: "Dix Monika" <>
Subject: Query>Women Praying for the Salvation of their Mothers
Date: Tue, 28 Sep 2004 07:49:52 -0700

Dear PMJS Members,

Medieval Japanese literature comprises many stories of young women who become nuns after the death of their fathers, husbands, sons, or lovers. However, it seems that stories of young women who become nuns after the death of their mothers are quite rare.
If members know of any narratives (with the exception of CHUJOHIME'S LEGEND) that address this issue of women praying for the death of their mothers or could suggest links to pursue, I would greatly appreciate your assistance.

Monika Dix

From: "Dix Monika" <>
Subject: Women Praying for the Salvation of their Mothers
Date: Sun, 03 Oct 2004 23:16:23 -0700

Dear Prof. Sejrup,

Thank you very much for your response.
Yes, I have already looked at this passage in the Genji Monogatari. But the crucial point is that Akikonomu in the end does not become a nun, whereas Chujohime does. So, there are a few stories that tell about women praying for their mothers, but in the end these women do not sacrifice their social rank (ie. becoming the emperor's consort) to become a nun. So, it is actually the fact of a woman both praying and becoming a nun for the sake of her dead mother that I am interested in. The discussion between Genji and Akikonomu is interesting for yet another reason, however: if I remember correctly, Genji actually refers to the story of the monk Mokuren saving his mother from hell, but then he says that such examplary disciples of the Buddha are rare--which ironically implies a gender difference - and upon this Akikonomu decides not to take the tonsure. I am no Genji specialist, so if I made any mistakes regarding this passage or if anybody of you has done research on this particular passage, I would greatly appreciate your input.

Thank you for your assistance regarding my query.

Monika Dix

Date: Mon, 4 Oct 2004 10:16:09 -0400
From: Aileen Gatten <>
Subject: Re: Question about waka/imperial poetry anthologies

Have a look at Konishi's "Nihon bungeishi," volume 2, especially the chapter on waka. In it he uses "shinkou" for "progression" and "rensou" for "association."
Aileen Gatten

On Saturday, October 2, 2004, at 10:15 AM, Stephen Miller wrote:

Greetings, everyone--

I've been thinking about the ideas of "association" and "progression" that Konishi Jin'ichi, along with Robert Brower and Earl Miner, introduced us to back in 1958. It occurred to me the that I didn't know what the Japanese equivalents for these words are. Looking back at the HJAS article, I found that Brower and Miner do refer to a study by Kazamaki Keijiro (which I do not have immediate access to) and they also tell us that Konishi deals with these ideas in his own work (though they don't refer us to that work). Apparentlyy, the article published in HJAS was written specifically for that purpose by Konishi. I'm wondering if any of you know where these words might have come from and if there are equivalents that can be used in Japanese. Both words have become such stock critical expressions in the west, it seems like there ought to be.

Date: Tue, 05 Oct 2004 12:03:45 -0400
From: Lee Butler <>
Subject: Art Exhibit, Brigham Young University

The Special Collections of the Brigham Young University library is pleased to announce the opening of an exhibit, "Looking Inward, Looking Outward: Japanese Representations of Self and Other."

"Looking Inward, Looking Outward" presents for the first time a representative sample of items contained in the Japanese collection of the L. Tom Perry Special Collections. The exhibit has been organized around one theme that runs through the collection: Japanese perceptions of themselves and the outside world, and the changes in those perceptions over time. Beginning with the intersections of India-China-Japan in the eighth century, during which time writing and Buddhism exerted a profound influence on Japan, Japanese history has been punctuated by periods of vigorous trade and exchange, followed by relative isolation. This exhibit is designed spatially to reflect those moments, with a central area representing the intersections between Japan and the outside world, and the two opposing walls representing Japanese views of self and the outside world during the lengthy period of Tokugawa isolation (17th - 19th centuries).

The north wall, "Looking Inward," and its cases contain items that portray Japanese domestic life, including the flourishing literary and cultural arts, work and play, war and religion, and the penchant Japanese artists and writers had for documenting daily life. The south wall, "Looking Outward," and its cases are designed to show Japanese representations of the outside, primarily Western, world during a time when trade was limited to a small trickle carefully filtered through Dutch and Chinese traders in Nagasaki. The Nagasaki "intersection" is represented in the center of the room by a triangle of hanging scrolls and maps. The back wall shows Japan proceeding towards opening to the West, culminating in the establishment of a foreign trading community in Yokohama.

Curators for the exhibit are Lee Butler and J. Scott Miller.

The exhibit runs through January 15, 2005. Special Collection hours are 8-5 Monday and Friday; 8 am - 9 pm Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday; and 10-5 Saturday. The library is closed Sundays and major holidays. Admission is free.

For additional information call 801.422.3514 or visit the collection web site (

The Japanese Materials Collection
In 1965 the Harold B. Lee Library purchased a collection of rare Japanese materials from Harry F. Bruning, a book collector in San Francisco. These items, over 250 separate titles, represent an eclectic mix of historical, literary, artistic, and cartographic interests that range from the eighth through the early twentieth centuries, though the bulk of the items date between 1600 and 1900. The earliest items are two miniature wooden pagodas (hyakumantoo) and printed scrolls dating from 767 A.D. The collection's numerous maps are primarily from the Tokugawa period (1600-1868) and depict major Japanese cities, Japan itself, and adaptations of early world maps. Japanese art is well represented with a variety of woodblock prints as well as hand-painted silk and paper scrolls and illustrated books. The collector's interest in Japanese views of the outside world gives this collection strength in documenting Japanese contacts with the West, including manuscript narratives of Japanese fishermen lost at sea and rescued by Western vessels, carefully drawn and copied descriptions of the West made by Japanese sailors, illustrated documentations of Dutch, Russian and American efforts at diplomacy during the mid-1800s, and books and scrolls of Japanese interactions with Korea and Okinawa. The collections also contains fine examples of classical and Tokugawa period literature, illustrated botanical texts, and encyclopedic works on Japanese shellfish.

In conjunction with the exhibit, the library is sponsoring a symposium October 21-22, 2004, to be held in Special Collections, as follows.

Thursday, October 21

Mapping Cultures in the Bruning Collection of Japanese Art, Jack Stoneman, Ph.D. candidate in Japanese literature, Columbia University

Legends of Urashima Taro Revisited, Janet Ikeda, Associate Professor of Japanese, Washington and Lee University

Short Break

Love Them, Hate Them: Christianity as a Political Wildcard in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Kyoto, Lee Bruschke-Johnson, Independent scholar, Winschoten, The Netherlands

Kyoto and Nagasaki in Maps and Guidebooks: Representing the Familiar and the Exotic in Early Modern Japan, Lee Butler, Visiting Assistant Professor of History, University of Michigan

Afternoon: Open time in the archives

5:30, Keynote address, 「17世紀初期の日本における出版革命」 Oka Yoshihiko, Professor emeritus, National Institute of Japanese Literature (国文学研究資料官), Tokyo.

Friday, October 22

A Hundred Tales, a Hundred Ghouls: Early Modern Japanese Depictions of the Other Side, Lawrence Marceau, Visiting Associate Professor of Japanese, University of Hawaii

Guns, Maps, Ambassadors: Samurai Interests 1600-1900, Elizabeth Lillehoj, Associate Professor of Art, Depaul University

Short Break

More Romance than Reality: Kanagaki Robun's Biography of U. S. Grant: J. Scott Miller, Professor of Japanese and Comparative Literature, Brigham Young University

Shina and Youga: The Use of 'China' to Diminish the Westernness of 'Western
Painting' in Japan, 1910-1945, Bert Winther-Tamaki, Associate Professor of Art, University of California, Irvine

Date: Tue, 5 Oct 2004 20:40:01 -0400

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Subject: Re: Question about waka/imperial poetry anthologies

On Saturday, October 2, 2004, at 10:15 AM, wrote:

> I've been thinking about the ideas of "association" and "progression" 

> that Konishi Jin'ichi, along with Robert Brower and Earl Miner, 

> introduced us to back in 1958. 


> Stephen Miller

On Oct. 5, Aileen Gatten replied: 

Have a look at Konishi's "Nihon bungeishi," volume 2, especially the 

chapter on waka. In it he uses "shinkou" for "progression" and 

"rensou" for "association."

Aileen Gatten

I hope that in replying to both of the above messages with more questions than answers I won't be accused of causing indecorous turbulence, or heat, rather than shedding light. 

My first response to Mr. Miller's query was to wonder whether this is based on a thoughtful reading of Konishi's article, and of some of the relevant secondary or tertiary literature, etc., and if so, whether replies could, just possibly, be expected to result in a 'thread' of some sort on the list, or whether it was a simple request for information? In other words, might this post have the potential to initiate a debate, exchange of scholarly views, argumentation, etc. -- which I should hope is the achievable purpose of pmjs as a "discussion list" for our field -- or is it merely an informational query ('Ask Mr. Jeeves' and hope he knows)? 

Nothing wrong with the latter, of course, but it's not what we need. All of us have access to libraries and search engines. What many of us lack, given the inevitable dispersion of those of us who work outside of Japan, is a forum for discussing work-in-progress, ideas for possible works, nascent thoughts, things other than information... I am constantly envious of scholars in other (mostly though not always) larger fields -- Medieval European lit., classics, NT studies, almost any field in the humanities you can name -- for their lists on which discussion and debate (as well as, indeed, exchanges of raw information) are available to anyone willing to participate. 

Let me do what I can, tersely, to try to provoke some serious discussion of the fallout of the 1958 Konishi article, which I think is long overdue. 

I confess that I have not read the article with any care in 20 some years, though I would be willing to do so if anyone can argue that it is worth returning to. 

What is the evidence that both words ("association and progression") have become "stock critical expressions in the west"? One or two citations? (I haven't noticed evidence for widespread usage, but I don't read everything.) 

Is there any plausible basis for the assertion, by Miner and Brower, that these "principles (of integration)" amounted to a "rediscovery" (cf., footnote 2 to the article in HJAS) thanks to a "casual" remark to Konishi by his sensei Yamada Yoshio that "the poems throughout the _Shinkokinshu_ are arranged for calculated artistic effect." Can anyone more than a most casual reader of SKKS (or of KKS or any other chokusenshu) ever have imagined that the arrangement of the poems was uncalculated? Why, to put it more bluntly, might the overwhelmingly obvious evidence that the chokusenshu were thoughtfully _compiled_ need rediscovering (on a hint from sensei), given the abundant evidence of a tradition of 8 or 9 centuries of critical commentary on (and prescriptive rules for) the principles of compilation and editing of chokusenshuu and other anthologies of waka? 

Enough questions. I'd be happy to pursue this thread if it turns out to be that. 

Lewis Cook 

Date: Wed, 06 Oct 2004 10:46:36 +0900

From: Janine Beichman <>

Subject: Re: pmjs digest

Dear Aileen,

Am I right that you and Mark Harbison (with Earl Miner as editor)

translated vol. 2 of Konishi's Nihon Bungeishi as A HIstory of Japanese

Literature Vol. 3  The High Middle Ages, and that the corresponding

pages are on pp. 241-254? I am asking because I want to know if I have

missed any other mentions of this question in Konishi's own work,

especially in this, his magnum opus.



Date: Wed, 06 Oct 2004 09:03:08 -0400

From: Philip Brown <>

Subject: Announcement: Endangered Archives Program


Coming in October 2004

In pursuit of their general aim to support fundamental research

into important issues in the humanities and social sciences,

the Trustees of the Lisbet Rausing Charitable Fund have decided

to sponsor a Programme focusing on the preservation and copying

of important but vulnerable archives throughout the world.

The Programme is administered by the British Library and

applications will be considered by an International Panel of

historians and archivists.

The Programme will achieve its objectives principally by making

a number of grants to individual researchers to locate relevant

collections, wherever possible to arrange their transfer to a

suitable local archival home, and to deliver copies into the

international research domain via the British Library.

Pilot projects may also be funded. Grants will be made each year

and will vary in amount, but a guideline maximum of GBP 50,000 for

a full project, and GBP 10,000 for a pilot project, is envisaged.

It will also make available - to overseas archivists and librarians

only - bursaries for professional attachments at the British Library

to foster better archival standards in cataloguing, preservation, etc.,

and thereby to assist the process of safeguarding other such collections

locally in the future. 

The aim is to safeguard archival material relating to societies usually

at an early stage of development, i.e. its normal focus will be on the

period of a society's history before 'modernisation' or 'industrialisation'

had generated institutional and record-keeping structures for the

systematic preservation of historical records, very broadly defined.

The relevant time period will therefore mostly vary according to the

society with which we deal.

The Programme will be completely open as to theme and regional interest,

although it will normally, but not invariably, be concerned with

non-western societies.

For the purposes of the Programme, archives will be interpreted widely

to embrace not only rare printed sources (books, serials, newspapers,

ephemera, etc.) and manuscripts in any language, but also visual

materials (drawings, paintings, prints, posters, photographs, etc.),

audio or video recordings, digital data, and even other objects and

artefacts - but normally only where they are found in association with

a documentary archive. In all cases, the validity of archival materials

for inclusion in the Programme will be assessed by their relevance as

source materials for the pre-industrial stage of a society's history.

The Fund does not offer grants to support the 'normal' activities of an

archive, although the Programme may offer support for such items as costs

directly related to the acceptance of relocated material.

Further information about the timetable, criteria, eligibility and

procedures will be announced on the Programme's website at

<> in October.

Preliminary enquiries or expressions of interest may be addressed now

to <>


Philip Brown

Department of History

Ohio State University

Date: Wed, 6 Oct 2004 13:15:54 -0400

From: Aileen Gatten <>

Subject: Re: Konishi "History"

On Tuesday, October 5, 2004, at 09:46 PM, Janine Beichman wrote:

Dear Aileen,

Am I right that you and Mark Harbison (with Earl Miner as editor)

translated vol. 2 of Konishi's Nihon Bungeishi as A HIstory of Japanese

Literature Vol. 3  The High Middle Ages, and that the corresponding

pages are on pp. 241-254? I am asking because I want to know if I have

missed any other mentions of this question in Konishi's own work,

especially in this, his magnum opus.

Janine, vol. 2 of Konishi's "Nihon Bungeishi" is translated as "A History of Japanese Literature vol. 2: The Early Middle Ages." I was the sole translator of this volume; Earl Miner edited all three of the volumes translated to date. The discussion of association and progression appears in Chapter 7, "Waka," pp. 226-31 and relates specifically to "Kokinshuu."

Volume 3 ("The High Middle Ages"), a translation of Konishi's 3rd volume of "Nihon Bungeishi," has sections on association and progression with regard to later waka anthologies and hundred-poem sequences (on the pages you mention, plus pp. 418-24), as well as brief applications of these principles to "Konjaku monogatari shuu" (pp. 134-36), renga (pp. 279-80), and "Tsuzuregusa" (pp. 498-99).

Aileen Gatten

Date: Wed, 6 Oct 2004 18:41:19 -0700

From: Thomas Howell <>

Subject: Re: Question about waka/imperial poetry anthologies

On Oct 5, 2004, at 5:40 PM, Lewis Cook wrote:

What is the evidence that both words ("association and progression") have become "stock critical expressions in the west"? One or two citations? (I haven't noticed evidence for widespread usage, but I don't read everything.)

Is there any plausible basis for the assertion, by Miner and Brower, that these "principles (of integration)" amounted to a "rediscovery" <...>? <..>

Enough questions. I'd be happy to pursue this thread if it turns out to be that.

In the spirit of discussion, on the Konishi Brower Miner article:

I think the description of association and progression made in the article aims to be something more than just to reaffirm the anthologies were "thoughtfully compiled." But those claims derive more from the need at the time to position waka as a rich literary tradition, against the implied criticism that waka as a whole are limited in subject matter and lack the grandeur of longer forms.

To quote from the article".. there is nothing we know of in Western literature to prepare a foreign student of Japanese poetry to see the integrated unity of such a collection as the SKKS -- an anthology that can be read from beginning to end as a single long structure divided into books. The form of the sequence...affords the Western reader a view of Japanese poetry that allays his innate, if prejudiced doubts about the short Japanese forms.."

I think this excerpt (page 68) shows the underlying motivations for the claims made about association and progression. Part of what Brower and Miner felt they had to address in Court Poetry was the place of waka in world literature. Despite all the ways they found profundity in waka poems, they still couldn't fully answer the charge that waka as a short form, lacked development. But in this "rediscovery" (the paper is ostensibly written by Konishi, but "adapted with freedom") they made books of the SKKS into magnificent, single, long poems, which, if a reader read "from beginning to end" would transport that reader through the great theme of the passing of seasonal time. And the modern reader would come to the realization that "Such subtleties in the association and progression of seasonal poems in the SKKS perhaps made Tristram Shandy, Ulysses, or Ezra Pound's Cantos seem less uniquely Western or strangely modern than they often seem to be." (page 88) This both answers the charge that Japan "had no epic" or ability to sustain long forms, and at the same time manages to place waka in a tradition of radical artistic method (Sterne, Joyce, Pound).

This is not to say association and progression are contrived concepts, but a starting point of a reevaluation would be to look at them again apart from the need to give to waka the clothes of the western literary masterpiece.

I wonder if the reader of the time of the SKKS was interested in reading books from beginning to end, or in discovering an "integrated unity" emerging from the poems as a whole.

Tom Howell

Date: Fri, 8 Oct 2004 12:07:28 +0900

From: Joshua Mostow <>ー,

Subject: Re: Question about waka/imperial poetry anthologies


I spent some pages (pp. 48-51) critiquing "a & p" in my Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image (Hawaii, 1996), and recently Robert Huey has responded to some of my points in his The Making of the Shin Kokinshu.



Date: Fri, 08 Oct 2004 14:38:39 +0900

From: Janine Beichman <>

Subject: Progression and Association in Imperial Waka anthologies

Dear Lewis,

I am unfamiliar with any works which provide prescriptive rules for the compilation and editing of chokusenshuu

and other waka anthologies. Would you mind giving a few examples of "the abundant evidence" that you referred

to in your response to Stephen?



Date: Fri, 8 Oct 2004 12:34:46 -0400

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Subject: Re: Question about waka/imperial poetry anthologies

Many thanks to Thomas Howell for this thoughtful reply to my all too impetuous remarks.

Having chastised the entire pmjs membership for lack of diligence (or leisure time, as it is known in our profession) I confess I'm under too many deadlines to offer a detailed reply at the moment, just some impromptu comments.

The SKKS was the wrong choice for making a case for "long [poetics] structures" based on principles of progression and association. The poems are grouped under standard topics, many of them compound (musubidai). What you are reading, in fact, are clusters of 2 or 3 or 10 or more poems on a given topic, followed by another cluster on another topic, or on sub-topics. Just for example, following the editorial notes to the ShinNKBT SKKS, the first 17 poems (285 - 300 plus one kiridashi uta) in the first book of autumn are on the topic of risshu, primary motif being 'akikaze.' Within this cluster there is a sub-group of poems, beginning with 293, in which 'hatsukaze' is linked with 'tsuyu,' but there is no 'tsuyu' in 296, and no 'hatsukaze' in 297, both of which lapses in arrangement the editors mark as 'dubious' ("hairetsu ni gimon"). Poems 301 and 302 are on the topic 'early autumn in a mountain villa' and 303 to 312 are on 'early autumn winds.' (You thought we already covered 'autumn winds'? These are "early" autumn winds.) The clusters of topics are, of course, arranged in broadly chronological order, but there is very often no basis for such ordering at the micro level.

I don't see the makings, here, of "magnificent, single, long poems." On the contrary, I see a series of short poems on the same or adjacent topics competing fiercely for recognition, as exemplified in the notorious non-sequence 36, 37, 38 (Gotoba-in, Karyuu and Teika), a nice snapshot of an artificed utaawase. Such contests are, after all, the driving force behind the SKKS.

One fact which I think is pertinent to this discussion is suggested by the "kiridashi uta" mentiomed above. SKKS was never finished. (Cf. editorial notes on the JTI edition of SKKS.) If SKKS as we have it (in varying editions) were "an integrated unity," how to explain the evidence that its designer-in-chief, Gotoba-in, set about marking 400 or so of its 2000 some poems for deletion, during his years in Oki? Doesn't this suggest that at least one reader (who was said to have committed the entire text to memory) didn't share the notion of SKKS as a "unity"?

That much said, it is abundantly clear that editors or compilers of chokusenshuu sought to find and follow principles for arranging individual poems into complex wholes of some sort, and I certainly agree that it is worth pursuing the question of what those amounted to.

In response to Stephen Millers's original query, the terms which medieval readers of KKS used to refer to structural principles of the compilation of chokusenshuu were (primarily) "budate" (referring to the structure of a given book, e.g. of the 20 'books' of KKS) and "shidai" (sequences within a given book). A good deal of carefully nuanced attention is accorded such matters in the major medieval commentaries on KKS (which have been available for some decades now in Takeoka's edition of KKS).

Lewis Cook

Date: Fri, 8 Oct 2004 21:32:40 -0400

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Subject: Re: Question about waka/imperial poetry anthologies

On 10/08, Joshua Mostow wrote:

I spent some pages (pp. 48-51) critiquing "a & p" in my Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image (Hawaii, 1996), and recently Robert Huey has responded to some of my points in his The Making of the Shin Kokinshu.

Thanks for this reminder; I will return to these pages and comment as soon as I can.

(BTW, I assigned _Pictures of the Heart_ as a textbook the year it appeared, and the students rebelled at the price. Any prospect of it appearing in paperback?) 

L Cook 

Date: Sat, 09 Oct 2004 13:10:48 +0900

From: "Adrian Pinnington" <>

Subject: Question about waka/imperial poetry anthologies

I am not sure that I have seen all the messages on this topic, so this may have been said, but surely what is distinctive about Konishi's view is that he sees the imperial anthologies as closely reflecting principles that become explicitly formulated in renga. This is not just careful arrangement by topic or whatever, but the idea that that adjacent uta are 'close' or 'distant' in relation and the idea, which is strongly asserted concerning the SKKS, of a careful arrangement of poems according to whether they are 'mon' and 'ji' ('design' and 'ground'), with the result that poems were selected for their ordinariness as well as for their outstandingness. I have always taken this is an attempt to read back principles which are known about for the renga into the imperial anthologies. In a similar way, many critics find complicated narratives in Elizabethan sonnet sequences, but this kind of claim seems to me very difficult to judge.

Adrian Pinnington

Date: Sun, 10 Oct 2004 15:06:41 +0900
From: Janine Beichman <>
Subject: waka anthologies

Dear All,

Lewis says that he doesn't mind if I post the following snippet from his offlist reply to my query about sources for the principles governing the arrangement of waka anthologies, so here it is. Hopefully this will lead to more discussion of such sources, for without them saying that Konishi did not point out anything new is as untenable as saying that he did.


Lewis says:
"Among the hundreds of texts in the genres of karon and kagaku, there are many which devote attention to questions of the compilation of anthologies, particularly (of course), chokusenshuu. (The reputations of medieval poets were staked, to a large extent, on getting their poems included in chokusenshuu, so all kinds of questions about how to compile such collections, the rules and protocols, etc., and who was qualified to do so, were topics of ongoing debates..)

> The principles are stated implicitly and referred to constantly in many of the major karon texts from around the mid-Kamakura period to late 14th - early 15th c.. This is where you want to look, and for a start, I would suggest reading volumes 3, 4 and 5 of the _Nihon Kagaku taikei_, and some of the supplementary volumes. You will not find isolated, integral texts which say: here is how to compile a chokusenshuu. This was proprietary knowledge, for obvious reasons, so you have to read between the lines, but it is there to be read if you know what you are looking for. "
Date: Mon, 11 Oct 2004 13:37:27 -0400
From: Michael Watson <>
Subject: kentoushi memorial discovered

Dear all,

Some of you may already seen news reports of the discovery in Xian of a memorial for a kentoushi who is believed to have accompanied Abe no Nakamaro to Tang China and died there at the age of 36. The memorial includes his name, praise for him, and what is claimed to be the earliest documentary use of "Nihon" as name of the country.


(with translation of the text on the stele)

Michael Watson

Date: Mon, 11 Oct 2004 11:36:17 -0700

From: "H. Mack Horton" <hmhor...@...rates.Berkeley.EDU>

Subject: Re: kentoushi memorial discovered

Dear Michael,

Many thanks for sending this--I'll include it in my book on the Silla envoy poems in Man'yoshu which parenthetically deals with the Kentoushi!



H. Mack Horton

Professor and Chair

East Asian Languages and Cultures

Durant Hall

University of California

Berkeley, CA 94720-2230

Tel 510-642-6806

Fax 510-642-1518

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Subject: Re: [pmjs] waka anthologies thread

Date: Mon, 11 Oct 2004 22:06:07 -0400

On October 10, 2004, Janine Beichman posted the following:

Dear All,

Lewis says that he doesn't mind if I post the following snippet from his offlist reply to my query about sources for the principles governing the arrangement of waka anthologies, so here it is. Hopefully this will lead to more discussion of such sources, for without them saying that Konishi did not point out anything new is as untenable as saying that he did.


Two hasty replies:

(1) A none-too-technical note on formatting messages: if you use MS Outlook Express 5 or 6.0 as your e-mail client (as some majority of us apparently do), better, when composing a message, to click on the 'format' tab in the toolbar at the top and set your format to "plain text" rather than "rich text" (a.k.a. html). Otherwise, messages which quote plain text messages (as in this case) will be illegible without an awful lot of sideways scrolling (due to filtering out of line breaks, or more generally because OE is a Microsoft product). Plain text is safer than html and just as viable for our limited purposes.

(2) I didn't say, or mean to imply, that Konishi (in his 1958 HJAS article) did not point out anything new. What I wrote meant to imply that much of what he pointed out was wrong, and that most of the remainder was not new. I will offer some subtance in support of this modest charge soon as time allows (though I don't think it's all that difficult to discover, about five decades after the fact of publication)..

Lewis Cook

Date: Tue, 12 Oct 2004 11:19:38 -0500

From: emiko ohnuki-tierney <>

Subject: Re: [pmjs] kentoushi memorial discovered

Thanks for the fascinating information. I remember that the late Amino

Yoshihiko gave a lecture in which he mentioned how the designation "Nihon"

"Hi-no-Moto" originated in China from which Japan was located at the base

where the sun rose -- makes sense.

I am yet to track down this information in his voluminous writing,

which, fortunately, will be published as a multi-volume zenshuu from

Iwanami. (They are planning a collection of his articles of theoretical

import in English.)

Emiko (Ohnuki-Tierney)

Date: Tue, 12 Oct 2004 20:56:08 -0400

From: Matthew Stavros <mstav...@...nceton.EDU>

Subject: Amino Yoshihiko collection?

I would be very interested in hearing more about the plan to publish a collection of Amino Yoshihiko's articles into English.

And about Amino-san's reference to the origins of the work "Hinomoto," I doubt you'll have to look far. I recall seeing it in various articles of his.

Matthew Stavros

Date: Tue, 12 Oct 2004 22:36:34 -0400

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: Re: kentoushi memorial discovered

The following pages contain photographs of the stone memorial and its inscription.

Date: Wed, 13 Oct 2004 08:38:56 -0700]

From: Herman Ooms <>

Subject: Re: [pmjs] Amino Yoshihiko collection?

I think that the Amino reference is to be found in the opening pages of his Nihonron no shiza: retto no shakai to kokka.

Herman Ooms

Date: Wed, 13 Oct 2004 20:19:24 -0400

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: new members

We welcome three new members: David A. Eason, Fumiko Joo, and Regan Murphy.

There is also a profile in Japanese from Yasunaga Hisashi, who subscribes to the Japanese-language digest.

David A. Eason <>

affiliation = University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)

PhD Candidate in Early Modern Japanese History, UCLA

Currently residing in Tokyo, engaged in research for dissertation

entitled "The Culture of Disputes in Early Modern Japan, 1550-1700."

Fumiko Joo <>

affiliation = University of Chicago

I am a PhD student of the Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago, working for late imperial Chinese fiction. My research interest is literary imagination of women's bodies, reproduction and salvation in Ming/Qing fantastic stories. I am also interested in comparative research of Chinese and Japanese literature, particularly how Ming Qing fiction influenced 18th-century Japanese literature.

Regan Murphy <>

affiliation = Harvard University

I am a PhD student in Harvard University's Committee on the Study of Religion, focusing primarily on the Edo period.

Yasunaga Hisashi 安永 尚志 <>

affiliation = 大学共同利用機関法人人間文化研究機構国文学研究資料館


* I have known Professor Yasunaga for many years, first on a full-text database project at NIJL (National Institute of Japanese Literature) and more recently for on the ICJS (International Collaboration for Japanese Literary Studies) project. Rather rather than attempting a full translation of all these titles, however, I'll point interested readers to the NIJL pages:

Michael Watson

Date: Thu, 14 Oct 2004 08:52:45 -0400

From: Hank Glassman <>

Subject: Amino (was Kentoshi)

Hi Emiko,

This is a late response, but I don't think it has been answered by others yet.

I believe the lecture you are talking about is represented in English by:

Amino Yoshihiko. "Deconstructing 'Japan.'" _East Asian History_ 3 (1992): 121-142.

An interesting aspect of this article is Amino's point that Hinomoto often meant North Western Japan to those living in the Kinai




Hank Glassman

Assistant Professor, East Asian Studies

Haverford College

Date: Thu, 14 Oct 2004 10:12:08 -0400

From: Jordan Sand <js...@...nceton.EDU>

Subject: Amino translations

Alan Christy has been translating Amino's Nihon no rekishi o yominaosu. The website at UC Santa Cruz, where he teaches, says the work is forthcoming from Michigan. You can find several draft chapters on-line through Gerald Figal's class site at the University of Delaware:

Jordan Sand

Date: Thu, 14 Oct 2004 18:43:25 -0400

From: Philip Brown <>

Subject: Panel Presentation, "Autobiographical Writings in Early-Modern Japan and Ryukyu"

"Autobiographical Writings in Early-Modern Japan and Ryukyu," a panel sponsored by The Early Modern Japan Network, will be presented on the first day of the Association for Asian Studies (AAS), March 31, 2005 (Thursday) from 2-5. The panel theme and paper abstracts appear below.

"Autobiographical Writings in Early-Modern Japan and Ryukyu"


Autobiographical writings are potentially rich sources that shed light on the relationship between self and society, prevailing social values, and viable modes of personal, political, and intellectual expression.

This panel examines autobiographical writings in Japan and Ryukyu during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Through close readings of specific works by men and women of various social strata, the participants seek to situate autobiographical expression in a social, political, and rhetorical context, and to explore its uses and limitations. Bettina Oka explores autobiography as a means by which Tokugawa Japanese women represented themselves. Gregory Smits examines autobiography as a rhetorical device for advancing political agendas among elites in the Ryukyu Kingdom and Tokugawa Japan. Through the autobiographical writings of a brothel owner, Elizabeth Leicester demonstrates the possibility for autobiography to give voice to the political views of non-elites. Through a close, comparative reading of two of Takizawa Bakin's autobiographical works, Glynne Walley reveals Bakin's choices in the development of his authorial persona. The papers provide new historical insight on a variety of social groups, all of whom resorted to autobiographical writings to give voice to their multivalent views.


1. Bettina Oka, "Finding a Voice: Tokugawa Women and Autobiography."

There is a long tradition in Japan of expressing oneself in an autobiographical style, yet the genre's production by writers of either gender in the Tokugawa period (1600-1868) remains generally unexplored. In particular, while the diary literature of the Heian period (794-1185) is well known as a genre of women's writing, we tend to overlook those works written by Tokugawa period women. As ever more writings by these women come to light, the often-claimed gap of almost one thousand years between representations of the female self in the Heian period and modern times is becoming increasingly problematic.

This paper introduces and compares various autobiographical texts that reflect a conscious process of self-representation by women. By correlating the autobiographical accounts of the philosopher Tadano Makuzu (1763-1825) with the works of Shingaku teacher Jion-ni Kenka (1716-78) and writer Iseki Takako (1785-1844), I will illustrate the problems inherent in this genre. While all these authors share gender as a common element, the form of their literary activity distinguishes them, as does their social status. Western critical theories on women's autobiography that suggest the inscription of gender and genre into political discourse can contribute to a more sensitive reading of texts such as those written by Tokugawa women. With questions about their aims in writing and what kind of strategies these women use, a thorough reading will give us a glimpse of how Tokugawa women portrayed and created themselves within their particular social environment.

2. Gregory Smits, "Autobiography as Allegory: Sai On's Jijoden."

Sai On (1682-1761) was the Ryukyu Kingdom's most influential politician and political theorist. He advocated a distinctive variety of Confucianism as means of clarifying Ryukyu's ambiguous political status and solving what he regarded as the kingdom's most vexing social and economic problems. Sai On's Confucianism placed an unusually heavy emphasis on the power of individual agency. Late in his life, Sai On wrote a brief autobiography, the first such work to appear in Ryukyu. Although ostensibly a straightforward account of his life and career, Sai On's autobiography is actually a more complex text that served the rhetorical function of reinforcing his overall political agenda. This paper examines the allegorical elements in Sai On's autobiography and compares his rhetorical approach with that of select eighteenth-century autobiographical writings by Japanese writers.

3. Elizabeth Leicester, "Memoir of a Pimp: The Use of Historical Rhetoric as Political Commentary in the Watatsuya Sei'eimon jikki"

Watatsuya Sei'eimon (1804-1865) was the adopted son of a Kanazawa brothel owner who spent his life working in the prostitution and theater industries in the first half of the nineteenth century. The sometimes prodigal son of a family of neighborhood officials, he wrote a memoir, compiled as the Watatsuya Sei'eimon jikki, which recounts his experiences and travels in the entertainment trades. And late in his life, he erected a monument to seven outcastes executed for an 1858 rice riot in Kanazawa. Sei'eimon's memoir has been used as a source of information about prostitution in the 1820s, but it also demonstrates the political and historical consciousness of a provincial townsman living at the margins of respectable society. The autobiographical form here blends the genres of history-writing, literary self-representation, and political commentary. The structure of the text follows a codified form of prostitution histories, provides candid comment on ulterior motives and sullied policies of government officials, and provides an intimate narrative of the fluidity of movement and contact among dominant and semi-legitimate social groups. This paper explores the multivalent levels of historical and literary representation through the autobiographical text and historical context of this dubious figure, focusing on his self-representation as a historical actor, his political commentary, and his position as an associate of outcaste rebels enshrined in legend.

4. Glynne Walley. "'An Idiosyncrasy of My Ilk': Takizawa Bakin's Two Accounts of His Journey of 1802"

In 1802, journeyman gesaku author Takizawa Bakin (1767-1848) traveled the Tokaido to the capital on one of his rare trips outside of Edo. His experiences on the road furnished the material for two autobiographical writings. The first was Kiryo manroku, a diary-style travelogue that he finished in the winter of 1802. This was not published until 1885, although it seems to have had at least limited circulation in manuscript form during the author's lifetime. Bakin himself compiled selections from this diary into a miscellany which was published in 1804 as Saritsu udan and reprinted in 1848 under the title Chosakudo issekiwa.

This paper will explore the gaps between the two works. Kiryo manroku has received attention as a source of biographical information on Bakin. This paper will seek to understand it as a work of crafted prose (and occasional poetry). I will then examine the choices Bakin made when selecting episodes to rework for Saritsu udan. In the process, I will address issues such as Bakin's interest in and self-censorship regarding politically dangerous subjects, his attitude toward his craft as a writer of gesaku, and his fashioning of an authorial persona through the compilation of Saritsu udan.

Discussant: Harold Bolitho

From: "chusei nihon" <>

Subject: A seminar on Shinto & Women

Date: Fri, 15 Oct 2004 13:52:24 +0900

Medieval Japanese Studies Institute, Center for Women, Buddhism and Cultural History announces its 3rd "Daikankiji Tea & Talk Programme" as below:

Speaker: Umeda Setsuko 梅田節子

Topic:     神祭りの場の女性の姿をかいまみる (in Japanese, no English translation)

Date:     2004. 10. 23 (Sat) 2pm~ 4p.m.

Place: Seminar room on the 2F of Medieval Japanese Studies Institute, Center for Women, Buddhism and Cultural History, Kyoto-shi, Kamigyo-ku, teramachi imadegawa agaru,    Tsuruyama cho-5-3, The priory, Daikankiji Convent.


Fee:     ¥1000 (students ¥500 / Members free)

For further information and application please contact:

Phone & Fax: 075-212-1206



Date: Fri, 15 Oct 2004 14:03:14 -0700

From: Morgan Pitelka <>

Subject: _Dainikko_


I have been unable, by searching WorldCat and other databases, to locate any

library in the United States that has the Japanese journal _Dainikko_ in its

holdings. If anyone knows how or where to get access to this periodical

(published by the Dainikko Hakkojo, Nikko Toshogu Shamusho), I would greatly

appreciate it if you could let me know.

Many thanks,



Morgan Pitelka

Asian Studies Department

408 Johnson Hall

Occidental College

1600 Campus Road

Los Angeles, CA 90041



Date: Sun, 17 Oct 2004 21:16:05 -0400

From: Sharon Domier <>

Subject: Re: _Dainikko_


This is a good time to remind you and the others on the list that it is now possible to get articles from Japan easily when they are not available in North America.

You have 2 choices.

1. Register with the National Diet Library so that you can request articles online using Zasshi Kiji Sakuin. You can do this either as an individual or as an organization (i.e. your Library). Payments can be made by credit card, international money orders, or bank transfers. I have done this both individually and as the library and I can vouch that it works like a charm.

2. Have your library join the GIF (Global ILL Framework). GIF is a reciprocal arrangement between academic libraries in US and Japan that uses technology to enable ILL staff to use their own software to send and receive requests over the internet. There are over 90 Japanese libraries participating, so your chances of getting articles through GIF are very high. The drawback - if you consider it one- is that you need to verify holdings information using NACSIS Webcat and supply the OCLC symbol to your library staff (unless you are lucky enough to be at a place where library staff read Japanese). Vickey Bestor of the North American Coordinating Council for Japanese Library Resources is the North American coordinator for the GIF project.

I see that both NDL and NACSIS Webcat have holdings of the journal you need. Once you are registered, it shouldn't be a problem. If I may suggest, try to get your library to sign up for both GIF and NDL (sometimes we need things that academic libraries don't subscribe to) by promising to supply accurate holdings information. If they are reluctant, sign up for NDL yourself.

Here are the links you need to get started:

Best wishes,

Sharon Domier

UMass Amherst

Date: Thu, 21 Oct 2004 08:31:14 -0400

From: Hitomi Tonomura <>

Subject: Re: Amino translations

News from the Center for Japanese Studies Publications Program, University of Michigan:

It is indeed true that the translation of Nihon no rekishi o yominaosu is forthcoming, and not too far in the future.

Just a few more details to take care of.

Omatase itashiteorimasu, but soon!

Hitomi Tonomura

Date: Fri, 22 Oct 2004 13:20:47 -0400
From: David Pollack <>
Subject: [pmjs] Chinese and Japanese Lute Lore

This may be something that everyone else but me already knew about, but
I ran across what seems a very useful online collection of ancient
Chinese and Japanese materials pertaining to music and especially the
qin (kin/koto) and si (ssu/oogoto) that I thought I might share:
the magnification feature is especially useful.

David Pollack

:::::: pmjs footer ::::::

Shirane, Haruo (ed.)
Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900. (Columbia U.P., 2004)
Now in paperback. $27.50
ISBN 0-231-10991-1
Paperback examination copies available -- see:

Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 59 No. 3 (Autumn 2004)
Table of Contents now online at:

ASCJ - Asian Studies Conference Japan
Call for Papers now online for the ninth conference: June 18-19, 2005
Deadline for proposals: November 25

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