pmjs logs for February 2002. Total number of messages: 85

previous month

list of logs

 log index

 pmjs index

next month

Linked titles lead to public archives.

* kitsune-nyôbô (Suzy Styles, Janet Goodwin, Adam Kern, Lawrence Marceau, Alan Cummings, Maria Chiara Migliore, Charlotte Eubanks, Michael Watson, Tim Kern, Michael Wachutka, Susan Klein, Richard Emmert, Denise O'Brien)
* Japanese sovereigns' birth/death dates (William Bodiford)
* Tamakiharu (Lewis Cook, Lawrence Marceau, Miki Wheeler)
* Prof. Kate Nakai / Watsuji Tetsuro Prize (Lawrence Marceau)
* Identifying 17th Century Christians in Japan (James Dorsey, Lawrence Marceau, Antony Boussemart, Joao Paulo Oliveira e Costa)
* East Asian History Symposium at ICU (Kenneth Robinson)
* One year position posting/Washington University (Elizabeth Oyler)
* Literati and Society in Early Modern Japan (Philip C. Brown)
* proposals for internet-aided academic events (Emanuel Pastreich) --announcements
* East Asian History Symposium at ICU (Kenneth Robinson)
* frog Buddha (Michael Watson, Karen Brock)
* "Reading Kambun" Summer Workshop at Yale (Edward Kamens)
* Announcement of special issue on Shingon Buddhism (Christian Morimoto Hermansen)
* Kadokawa kogo daijiten (Michael Watson, Adam Kern, Royall Tyler, Jan Goodwin, Noel Pinnington)
* Nihon shoki (Royall Tyler, John Bentley)
* Shinto Text Initiative (Richard Bowring, Michael Wachutka)
* proposal (Emanuel Pastreich) --> online
* bungaku jiten (Janine Beichman, Michael Watson)
* A question [about translation] (Wayne Farris, Rein Raud, Kai Nieminen, John Bradley, Royall Tyler, Elliot Berlin, William Higginson, Janine Beichman, Beatrice Bodart-Bailey, Robin Gill, Ingrid Parker, Amy V. Heinrich, Mikael Adolphson, Amanda Stinchecum, Philip Brown, Richard Bowring, Michael Watson)
* Shôtoku Taishi bibliography (Haruko Wakabayashi, Michael Wachutka, David Lurie, Jacqueline Stone, Stephen Miller, Sybil Thornton)
* --> Ippen hijiri-e ( (Haruko Wakabayashi, Sybil Thornton, Monika Dix)
* Towards macrohistory (Wayne Farris, Barbara Nostrand)
* Cornell East Asia Series
* AAS Panel on Shiryo Database (Haruko Wakabayashi)

Date: Fri, 1 Feb 2002 17:11:41 -0800

From: "Suzy Styles" <>

Subject: kitsune-nyobo queries

Dear pmjs members,

I am currently undertaking research at the Australian National University onthe topic of foxes
transforming into women in Japanese folktales and literature - in particularthe Japanese
conceptions of womanhood which are presented in OEKitsune-nyoubo and relatedtales. I have been tracking down various representations of fox-women in folklore and literature, and would be keen to hear if readers of this list have any further suggestions.

I have been looking at modern collections of Japanese folk tales by Yanagida Kunio, Fanny Hagin
Mayer and Keigo Seki, as well as in older literature including Kokonchuumonjuu, Uji shui monogatari, Konjaku monogatari, Otogiboko and Otogizoshi. I have also found reference tothe theme in "Hachikazuki", Ueda Akinari's "Ugetsu monogatari", Akutagawa's "Futari Komachi", Tanizaki's "Haha o kouru ki", and the hanashiki storytelling recorded by Post Wheeler.

I have also found references to the theme in modern pop-culture, anime and manga, as well as in art - Hiroshige's "kitsune-gao" women, and kitsune-bake images as sword decoration on tsuba and kozuka handles.

1) I keep finding references to the fox kabuki "Kuzunoha" and "Tamamonomae" (also Noh), does
anyone know of English translations of these? (I am only on a short researchproject at the moment and my classical Japanese would certainly not be up to speed) Are there others?

2) Any other suggestions for where to look in literature etc.? any brief mention you can think of in some novel, text, story... modern examples useful too.

3) Any great writers on fox-lore spring to mind? I have found Lafcadio Hearn's "Kitsune" and articles by Casal, Johnson, Dennys and Williams, as well as Nozaki Kiyoshi's book 'Kitsune; Japan's fox of Mystery, Romance and Humour.' Any others I should know about?

4) Does anyone know more about the use of fox images in sword ornamentation?Did it have a
particular meaning? What sort of images were most popular? Did women featureoften? Other

Hope to hear back from you soon,
Suzy Styles

Date: Thu, 31 Jan 2002 22:54:35 -0800 (PST)

From: "Janet R. Goodwin" <>

Subject: Re: kitsune-nyobo queries

Dear Suzy,

The Fox and the Jewel, by Karen Smyers, contains some information and
references that should be useful.

Date: Fri, 01 Feb 2002 06:04:24 -0500

From: "Adam L. Kern" <>

Subject: kitsune query

A quick response to your query, Suzy Styles, about foxes, another great
topic about which I remain unhappily ignorant.

Rania Huntington, who specializes in premodern Chinese literature but who is
sly and crafty in things Japanese too has written comparatively, I believe,
on the subject. See her "Foxes and Sex in Late Imperial Chinese
Narrative"in <Nannu> (Spring 2000). Her monograph, <Alien Kind: Foxes and
Late Imperial Chinese Narrative> is forthcoming from Harvard University

Also, foxes turn up prodigiously in the genre of kibyoushi, where they often
masquerade as courtesans. The best place to find a comprehensive listing of
their cameos is in Tanahashi Masahiro's compendious <Kibyoushi souran>, in
the series <Nihon shoshigaku taikei>, vol. 48, numbers 1-3 + index,
published by Seishoudou shoten, ca. 1986.

Happy hunting!

Adam Kern

Date: Fri, 01 Feb 2002 10:22:05 -0800

From: William Bodiford <>

Subject: Re: Japanese sovereigns' birth/death dates

Dear Amanda:

See _Koshitsu jiten_, edited by Murakami Shigeyoshi (Tokyo: Tokyodo, 1980).

The table at the end of the dictionary gives the following details for each tenno: generational number (as determined during pre-1945 Monbusho), official name, father's name, mother's name, date of senso ceremony (when actually assumed power) and age, date of enthronement (sokui) ceremony and age, date when reign ended and age, birth date, death date, name of spouse, name of burial site. It also notes female rulers and notes when the same person assumed the throne for a second time under a different name.

I hope this helps.

......William Bodiford (

***At 2002-01-31 , Amanda Stinchecum wrote:

Can anyone suggest a source for a table, in either Japanese or English, of
birth/death dates (NOT regnal dates) of Japan's sovereigns ? A translation
I am working on requires this information.

Amanda Mayer Stinchecum

Date: Sat, 2 Feb 2002 05:23:19 -0500

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Subject: Tamakiharu

Is anyone on the list aware of an existing or in-progresstranslation
into English (or other Western language) of "Tamakiharu" (a.k.a.
"Kenchumon'in no Chunagon Nikki"). The seemingly exhaustive list of
translations in the pmjs bibliography suggests that none exist. I'd much
appreciate any evidence to the contrary.

Lewis Cook

Date: Sat, 02 Feb 2002 15:40:27 -0500

From: Lawrence Marceau <lmarc...@...l.Edu>

Subject: Re: Tamakiharu


I came across this on one of the myriad pmjs links:

Miki Wheeler
I am a fifth-year doctoral student at UC Berkeley. My M.A. thesis focused on
the origins, development, and essential characteristics of wakan renku,
Japanese-Chinese linked verse, a form of linked verse most widely composed
from the late Muromachi to the Edo periods. My primary interest, however, is
self-writing in the Heian and Kamakura periods. For my dissertation I am
currently translating Tamakiwaru, the "diary" of Kengozen, writtenaround
1220 about the years surrounding the Gempei wars. My advisor is Professor H.
Mack Horton.


Lawrence M.

Date: Sat, 02 Feb 2002 15:57:33 -0500

From: Lawrence Marceau <lmarc...@...l.Edu>

Subject: Re: kitsune-nyoubo queries

Ms. Styles,

At 21:41 +0900 2002.2.3, Suzy Styles wrote:
1) I keep finding references to the fox kabuki "Kuzunoha"
and "Tamamonomae" (also Noh), does anyone know of English
translations of these? (I am only on a short research
project at the moment and my classical Japanese would
certainly not be up to speed) Are there others?

You should be able to check the pmjs database of Noh
translations at:

However, there was "no" translation for either work you
are looking for.

2) Any other suggestions for where to look in literature
etc.? any brief mention you can think of in some novel,
text, story... modern examples useful too.

Have you checked the following references?

(Zoho kaitei) Nihon setsuwa bungaku sakuin
Nihon Denki densetsu daijiten
Nihon kaku^ densho^ jinmei jiten
Nihon setsuwa densetsu daijiten

Good luck.

Lawrence M.

Date: Sat, 02 Feb 2002 14:30:56 -0800

From: "Miki Wheeler" <>

Subject: Re: Tamakiharu

Thank you to Professor Marceau for digging up old archives. I am in fact
working on a translation and study of Tamakiwaru for my dissertation at U.C.
Berkeley. I would be glad to answer any questions anyone might have about
the text.

Thank you,
Miki Wheeler

From the editor: I was very pleased see the pmjs website cited repeatedly in today's messages. But I also know that the various databases could always be improved. Recently I've been too tied up with work to initiate any major changes myself, but I am always glad to hear of areas where information can be added/corrected--especially when members send me suggested improvements in a way that I can easily add ("The entry for xx should read xyz...") [Michael Watson]

Date: Sun, 03 Feb 2002 11:29:04 +0000

From: Alan Cummings <>

Subject: Re: kitsune-nyoubou queries


there is a translation of the kabuki version of Kuzunoha by Cody Poulton
in "Brilliance and Bravado: Kabuki Plays On Stage, 1697-1770". this is
due from the University of Hawaii Press, hopefully sometime very soon
this year. the original play "Ashiya Douman Oouchi Kagami" was not
kabuki but a puppet theatre play.

it might be worthwhile trying to get in touch with Cody, as he might be
able to point in some interesting directions. drop me a line off list
and i'll send you his address, as i don't think he's a member of this list.

Alan Cummings

Date: Sun, 03 Feb 2002 17:45:29 +0100

From: Maria Chiara Migliore <>

Subject: kitsune question

The Nihon ryoiki contains the first appearance in Japan - as far as I know -
of a fox woman (first book, tale no. 2). In Second book, tale n. 4 relates
the story of one of her female descendants, a woman possessing an
extraordinary strength. There is an English translation by Kyoko Motomochi
Nakamura, Miraculous Stories from the Japanese Buddhist Tradition, Harvard
Univ. Press, 1973.

Date: Mon, 4 Feb 2002 13:19:36 -0700 (MST)

From: Eubanks Charlotte <Charlotte.Euba...@...orado.EDU>

Subject: kitsune nyoubou

Kawai Hayao spends several chapters in his book _Mukashi Banashi to
Nihonjin no Kokoro_ (which is also available in English translation)
discussing the irui kekkon and animal nyoubou phenomena in folk
literature. Though he does not specifically dissect the kitsune nyoubou
legends, he does refer to them and provides a good general analysis.

Also, Seki Keigo in his _Nihon Mukashi Banashi Taisei_ has an entire index
of irui kekkon situations. He deals with many kitsune nyoubou myths and
folktales therein and provides reference to some other sources.

Finally, Professor Shinoda Chiwaki (I've forgotten for the moment which
university he is associated with) in Japan specializes in irui kekkon
research. If you have the time to contact him, it may prove quite

Charlotte Eubanks

Date: Tue, 5 Feb 2002 09:36:42 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: kitsune nyoubou


I assume you have already seen the setsuwa translated by Royall Tyler in _Japanese Tales_. ("Fox(es) in index.)

For the story of Tamamonomae, see the noh play Sesshouseki ("The Killing Stone"). Waley translates extracts. If your French is better than your classical Japanese, see Rene Sieffert's version in _Zeami: La Tradition Secrete du No_ (1960). This includes the ai-kyogen interlude that gives an account of "Dame Tamamo" (pp. 302-4).

You might also look at the Chinese tale of King You of Zhou whose consort Baosi turns out to be a fox.
Heike monogatari, book 2.7 "Houka no sata" ("The Matter of the Signal Fires" in Helen McCullough's translation).

Michael Watson

Date: Tue, 05 Feb 2002 14:02:48 +0900

From: Tim Kern <>

Subject: kitsune-nyoubou queries

Suzy Styles,
I realize that you are more interested in the fox motif as it is
incorporated in Japanese literature and performance, but have you tried
Komatsu Kazuhiko in his work on spirit possession in Japan. to start I would
suggest his 'Kami gami no seishin shi' or 'Hyorei shinko ron'.It can give
you some insight into the folklore and cultural history of the fox.
Also, as to the reception of the Japanese fox motif into Canadian
literature, 'Foxes' in Timothy Findley's short story collection
"Stones"(Penguin Books, 1989) is a quick read on the bus.

Timothy Kern (Associate Professor)
Office of Research Exchange
International Research Center for Japanese Studies
3-2 Oeyama-cho,Goryo,Nichikyo-ku, Kyoto 610-1192
e-mail <>
URL <>

Date: Tue, 05 Feb 2002 09:11:41 +0000

From: "Michael Wachutka" <>

Subject: Re: kitsune nyoubou

For the story of Tamamonomae, see the noh play Sesshouseki ("The Killing
Stone"). Waley translates extracts. If your French is better than your
classical Japanese, see Rene Sieffert's version in _Zeami: La Tradition
Secrete du No_ (1960). This includes the ai-kyogen interlude that gives an
account of "Dame Tamamo" (pp. 302-4).

...and if your German is better than your classical Japanese, you might want to look at Hermann Bohner's detailed synopsis in _No: Die einzelnen No_ (1956), pp. 607-8.
[There Bohner describes and encyclopaedically discusses every single of the 240 Noh as given in the 7 volumes of Sanari Kentaro's  _Yokyoku taikan_  (kanji)_]

Bohner also mentions a translation in Aston's _History of Japanese Literature_ [I don't have this book at hand, so I don't know how detailed Aston deals with this play]and recommends for further details to look at: _A list of translations of Japanese drama into English, French, and German_ (compiled by Shio Sakanishi, Marion H. Addington, and P.D. Perkin; Washington, D.C. : American Council of Learned Societies, 1935).

I personally could add that B. H. Chamberlain gives a translation of Sesshou-seki in his _The classical poetry of the Japanese_ (London: Trubner, 1880).

Best regards,

Michael Wachutka

Date: Wed, 06 Feb 2002 06:28:57 -0500

From: Lawrence Marceau <lmarc...@...l.Edu>

Subject: Prof. Kate Nakai / Watsuji Tetsuro Prize

To the PMJS Community,

I sent this out Monday to the EMJNet list, and have been
asked to send it out on this list as well, which I'm only
more than glad to do.


Today's online version of the Asahi announced that
Professor Kate Wildman Nakai, Sophia University / Editor,
Monumenta Nipponica, is one of three recipients of the 14th
Watsuji Tetsuro^ Prize, for her book, _Arai Hakuseki no
seiji senryaku: Jugaku to shiron_ (University of Tokyo

Warmest congratulations to Kate for this well-deserved

Lawrence Marceau

Date: 06 Feb 2002 14:02:28 EST

From: James.Dor...@...tmouth.EDU (James Dorsey)

Subject: Identifying 17th Century Christians in Japan

*Request for help identifying early 17th century Christians in Japan*

My apologies for the length of this posting.

I'm translating a critical essay from Japanese into English, and it includes a quote from Sakaguchi Ango's 1940 historical novel "Inochi-gake" (Life on the line). This particular section ofAngo's story names nine early 17th century Christians, some Japanese and others from Italy and Portugal. I'm struggling to identify these individuals so that in this translation I may 1) accurately represent their names in Roman script, and 2) provide a brief note on them. The information provided on them in the story itself is minimal (and perhaps not reliable)--usually no more than a country of origin and a date and cause of death. I've searchedthe related sources in our library (mostly English language books on the Christian movement in 17th century Japan) and have surfed thenet extensively as well (oh the things I've seen!). I've identified some with a bit of certainty, others with less certainty, and remain completely in the dark on others. I'd be grateful toanyone who might refer me to sources or otherwise help me identify these individuals, which I list below.

Many thanks.

Jim Dorsey
Dartmouth College


(katakana) Adami
Info from the story itself: Italian priest secretly proselytizing in Japan for 19 years. Killed by "anatsurushi" in Nagasaki in 1633.
Other info: on the web I find one cryptic reference to a (katakana) Joan Adami. The first name would, I believe, be correctly romanized as Joao. I have otherwise been unable to identify this individual.

(katakana) Kourosu
Info from the story itself: Portuguese priest secretly proselytizing in Japan for 20 years. Died in a mountain shack while running from the authorities.
Other info: In _Deus Destroyed_, George Elison refers to a letter written by a Padre Mattheus de Couros in 1621. Might this be him?

(katakana) Paseo
Info from the story itself: Portuguese priest, burned at the stake in Nagasaki in 1626.
Other info: In _Rodrigues the Interpreter_, Michael Cooper mentions a Francisco Pacheco arrested in 1622 and martyred in Nagasaki in 1626. I believe this would be the man but, unfamiliar with Portuguese pronunciation, wonder if Pacheco would be rendered "Paseo"in katakana.

(katakana) Zora
Info from the story itself: Italian priest, secretly proselytizing in Higo and Hizen, captured in Shimabara in 1626, and burned at the stake in Nagasaki.
Other info: In _Rodrigues the Interpreter_, Michael Cooper mentions Joao Bautista Zola S.J. arrested and imprisoned by 1622. The dates don't match up exactly, but might this be the same man?

(katakana + kanji) Gasuparu Sadamatsu
Info from the story itself: Japanese priest, secretly proselytizing in Higo and Hizen, captured in Shimabara in 1626, and burned at the stake in Nagasaki.
Other info: In _Rodrigues the Interpreter_, Michael Cooper mentions a Brother Gaspar Sadamatsu who was martyred in 1626. I believe this must be the same man.

(katakana) Shimon Enbo (alternatively Enpo)
Info from the story itself: Japanese brother, burned at the stake in 1623 in Edo.
Other info: this is a Japanese national with a Christian given name (Simon?) and the katakana "Enbo" standing in for, I believe,kanji ("tooi" [distant] + "ura" [bay]). Other than that I have no idea who this man is.

(katakana) Kosuta
Info from the story itself: Portuguese priest who secretly proselytizedin China, was captured in province of Suou (modern Yamaguchi pref.)in 1633, and killed by "anatsurushi."
Other info: In _Rodrigues the Interpreter_, Michael Cooper mentions a Joao da Costa, S.J. who was a procurator in China in 1615. Could this be the same man?

(kanji + katakana) Yamamoto Deoniso
Info from the story itself: Japanese brother who secretly proselytized in China, was captured in province of Suou (modern Yamaguchi pref.) in 1633, and burned at the stake.
Other info: absolutely nothing. I don't even have an inkling of how this katakana is best romanized (Dionysius?).

(katakana) Barureto
Info from the story itself: Portuguese priest. Died of exhaustionnear Edo in 1620.
Other info: In _Rodrigues the Interpreter_, Michael Cooper mentions a Portuguese Jesuit named Manoel Barreto who was, perhaps, once a procurator of Japan. Could this be him?

Date: Wed, 06 Feb 2002 19:36:16 -0500

From: Lawrence Marceau <lmarc...@...l.Edu>

Subject: Re: Identifying 17th Century Christians in Japan


Papinot's _Historical and Geographical Dictionary of
Japan_ (1910, Tuttle reprint 1972) has a "Supplement",
"Principal Foreigners Connected with Japan before the
Restoration (1542-1868)". In the past I had only looked up
the names of prominent individuals, but the first name on
the list is "Adami."

Adami (John-Matthew).--Jesuit from Sicily. Arrived in Japan
in 1604, exiled to Macao in 1614, returned in 1624... was
buried alive at Nagasaki (1633)

Kourosu: Couros (Matheus de) (1571-1633). Portuguese
Jesuit....Came to Japan in 1603, banished in 1614, returned
soon after,...died worn out by labours at Fushimi.

Paseo: Pacheco (Francisco) (1566-1626). Portuguese
Jesuit... Arrested in 1625, he was imprisoned at Shimabara
and the following year burned alive at Nagasaki.

Zora: Zola (John-Baptist) (1575-1626). Italian
Jesuit...Came to Japan in 1606...Arrested in 1625, he was
burned alive the following year.

Gasuparu Sadamatsu (not listed)

Shimon Enbo (alternatively Enpo) (not listed)

Kosuta: Costa (Joan da) (1576-1633). Portuguese Jesuit.
...Came to Japan in 1609, was exiled to Macao...brought to
Nagasaki and condemned to the torture of the pit. He died
three days after.

Yamamoto Deoniso (not listed)

Barureto (not listed)

Good luck!

Lawrence Marceau

Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2002 12:51:15 +0100

From: "Antony Boussemart" <>

Subject: Re: Identifying 17th Century Christians in Japan

Dear James,

Maybe you know the title already, but you can have a look at an HakluytSociety publication (2001) : Michael Cooper, ed., _Joao Rodrigues'sAccount of Sixteenth-Century Japan_ in which some of the "chased" are listed

Good luck.

Antony Boussemart

Date: Wed, 6 Feb 2002 15:10:39 -0500

From: "Lewis Cook" <>

Subject: Re: Tamakiharu

Thanks very much to Lawrence Marceau and Miki Wheeler forrecent replies
to my query about Tamakiharu.

Lewis Cook

Date: Wed, 06 Feb 2002 15:59:26 -0800

From: "Susan B. Klein" <>

Subject: Re: kitsune nyoubou

Here's some info in English on foxes that I used the last time I taughtJapanese ghosts, plus a translation of the Noh play that is about Tamamo no Mae:


Carmen Blacker, The Catalpa Bow, "Witch Animals" pp. 51-68
Janet Goff, "Foxes in Japanese Culture: Beautiful or Beastly?" Japan Quarterly (April-June 1997), pp. 67-77
Royall Tyler, Japanese Tales: Foxes I #80-84; Foxes II #205-209; 124-125
Basil Hall Chamberlin, The Classical Poetry of Japan (London: Trubner,1880), "The Death-Stone" (Sesshouseki)

Janet Goff also gives a summary of The Death-Stone (Sesshouseki) in her article, which is helpful because obviously the Chamberlin translation is very old and may not be that easy to get a holdof. The language is a more than a bit creaky (it includes such gems as "waving in my hand the sacerdotal besom")and is filled with bad rhymes, but it should give you a sense of the plot. And of course, some of Chamberlin's romanizations of names are archaic (e.g. the Zen priest's name is given as Genwou). Although it is not about a fox woman, when I teach foxes I also include the kyogen play, Tsurigitsune (The Fox and the Trapper) because there are such good videos (lifted from NHK) of various kyogen masters in performance. And I show the segment from Kurosawa's Dreams in which the little boy spies on a fox wedding.

Hope that helps --


p.s. For those who don't know, I've recently moved. See the signature below for my new home address -- aren't I lucky? I got to name the street!

Susan Blakeley Klein
36 Murasaki St.
Irvine, CA 92612

Date: Wed, 06 Feb 2002 16:31:12 -0800

From: "Susan B. Klein" <>

Subject: Kitsune query (one more)

I should have noted that when I show Tsurigitsune I use Rick Emmert's translation:

Richard Emmert, trans., Selected Plays of Kyogen (Tokyo: Japan Society, 1968)
Tsurigitsune (The Fox and the Trapper) pp. 27-42

Although not specifically on Tamamo no Mae, the kyogen includes a long section in which the fox retells the Tamamo no Mae story in order to scare his "nephew" into not trapping foxes anymore.

bye for now --


Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2002 10:40:54 +0800

From: Richard Emmert <>

Subject: Re: Kitsune query (one more)


I think you made a mistake on this reference and should instead be referringto Richard McKinnon's kyogen translations. Thanks for the complement but I didn't know a word of Japanese yet back in 1968.

Rick Emmert

From: "Joao Paulo Oliveira e Costa" <>

Date: Thu, 07 Feb 2002 23:09:01 +0000

Subject: Identifying early 17th century christians in Japan

James and colleagues,

I am preparing the publication of my PHD thesis (O Cristianismo no Japao e o episcopado de D.Luis Cerqueira)which includes a biodata list of all Jesuits who were in Japan in the 16th and 17th centuries, and I think I can add some more information about those who James Dorsey found. Much of my informations were collected in the manuscript letters of the Roman Archive of the Society of Jesus, but many others can be found in the book of Josef Franz Schutte S.J., Monumenta Historica Japoniae I, published in Rome by the Institutum Historicum Societatis Iesu in 1975.
In this book, Schutte published all the existent lists of missionaries in Japan that have survived. Through those documents we can see where each Jesuit worked and also some other personal informations as their age or their studies. This book has also an excellent Index.

Adami (Giovanni Matteo) - Jesuit who was born in Mazzara circa 1577. He was first in Japan from 1604 to 1614 and then from 1618 until his death in 1633. In the first period he worked in Bungo and in Yanagawa, and in the second, we have reports of his presence in Amakusa (1618-1620) and in Oshu (1620-1624). Then we have only information of his torture to death in 22/10/1633, in Nagasaki.

COUROS, Mateus (1569-1632) - He was born in Lisbon and he entered in the Society in 1583. He came to Japan in 1590 and he left the country for a few months (March-August 1596) for getting sacerdotal ordination in Macao; later he was in Macao from November 1614 to July 1615, and then returned to Japan. He was the Provincial from 1617 to 1621, and the vice-provincial from 1625 to 1632. He was never captured by Japanese officials.

PACHECO, Francisco (1568-1626) Jesuit who was born in Ponte de Lima (Portugal). He was in Japan from 1604 to 1608, and then he was the Rector of the College of St. Paul in Macao (1608-1611). He was again in Japan between 1612 and 1614 having been the Assistant of bishop Cerqueira. He returned to Macao in November 1614, but in July 1615 sailed again to Japan, He worked specially in the area of Shimabara. He was the provincial from 1621 until his arrestment on 18/12/1625. He was burned in the satke in Nagasaki on 20/6/1626.

ZOLA, Giovanni Baptista, (c.1566-1626) - Jesuit who was born in Brescia. He was in Japan from 1606 to 1614 and then from 1615 until his death on 20/6/1626. He was captured on 22/12/1625. Such as I know he worked almost always in the area of Arima.

Sadamatsu Gaspar (c.1565-1626) Japanese Jesuit brother (he was not a priest) who was born in Hasami (Omura). Entered in the Society in 1582. Left for Macao in 1614 but returned to Japan in the next year. He assisted Mateus de Couros while he was the provincial and then assisted Pacheco, the following provincial. He was captured with Pacheco, in Kuchinotsu, and killed with him on 20/6/1626, in Nagasaki.

Yempo Simao (1580-1623) He was born in Nozu (Higo), and he was baptised in 1596. He studied in the Jesuit college of Nagasaki, and then became a dojuku. In 1614 left for Manilla, but in 1617 he was working in Japan, still as a dojuku, in Oshu with father Jeronimo de Angeles. When they were in prison, de Angelis received him as a Jesuit. He was burned at the stake in Edo on 4/12/1623.

Costa, Joao da (c.1574-1633) Jesuit who was born in Azeitao (Portugal) He was in Japan from 1604 to 1614; then he returned to Macao, but in 1621 got passage from Manilla to Japan. He was killed on 8/10/1633.

Barreto, Manuel (c.1563-1620) Jesuit who was born in Feira (Portugal). He worked in Japan from 1590 to 1613. He was in Miyako and was also the assistant of the bishop (1603-1607). In 1617 he sailed from Cochinchina to Japan and he worked in the area of Osaka.

I do not know any Japanese Jesuit with the name Yamamoto. I have not references to Dionisio. There was a dojuku called Dinis Fujishima who entered in the Society just before to be killed in 1622.

I hope these informations are useful

Joao Paulo Oliveira e Costa
New University of Lisbon

Date: Fri, 8 Feb 2002 10:49:38 -0500

From: "Philip C. Brown" <>

Subject: Literati and Society in Early Modern Japan: EMJ Panel Discussion at AAS

Early Modern Japan specialists:

Please watch the AAS program for details of the following panel of interest
which will appear under the "Meetings in Conjunction" section of the program

"Literati and Society in Early Modern Japan: A Panel Discussion"


Patricia Graham, author of _Tea of the Sages: The Art of Sencha_
Lawrence Marceau, author of (forthcoming): _Takebe Ayatari: A Bunjin Bohemian in Early Modern Japan_


Cheryl Crowley, Emory University

Thursday, April 4, 1 p.m. (Truman Room, mezzanine level)
AAS conference hotel Marriott Wardman Park Hotel

We will also hold a brief business meeting in conjunction with the session.

Philip C. Brown
Ohio State University

Date: Thu, 07 Feb 2002 21:12:57 -0600

From: Emanuel Pastreich <>

Subject: 2 PROPOSALS

Here are the two proposals for internet-aided academic events that I came up
with. If anyone is interested in such a project, please let me know.




This lengthy proposal is omitted here and placed instead in the public announcements:

Date: Mon, 11 Feb 2002 11:08:35 +0900

From: Robinson Kenneth <>

Subject: Re: East Asian History Symposium at ICU

Dear Colleagues,

(With apologies for cross-posting)

International Christian University's Institute of Asian Cultural Studies will host the symposium "Kooryuu kuukan no
henyou -- Chuu-kinsei kaijou Higashi Ajia (Shaping Spaces of Interaction in Maritime East Asia)" on Saturday, February 23, 2002. All presentations will be in Japanese. Below are English-language translations of the paper titles. Everyone is welcome.

"A Korean Map of Japan"
Kenneth R. Robinson, ICU
"'Where the Sun Rises' as Inscribed in Wood: Lumber in Japan-Song ChinaInteractions"
Fujita Akiyoshi, Tenri University
"Ryukyu between Japan and Qing China: The Handling of Castaways' Ships and Cargo in Early Modern Ryukyu"
Watanabe Miki, University of Tokyo/Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Special Researcher
"'Peace' in Ezo: Japanese in Ainu Society in the Seventeenth Century"
Namikawa Kenji, Tsukuba University

The date, time, and place are:
Date: Saturday, February 23, 2002, 12:50-17:30
Place: Diffendorfer Memorial Hall, ICU

For transportation details, please see the following pages:

For further information, please contact Ken Robinson.

Date: Mon, 11 Feb 2002 10:16:19 -0600

From: Elizabeth Oyler <>

Subject: One year position posting/Washington University

PMJS members,

Please forward the following to potential candidates.

Elizabeth Oyler



Washington University in St. Louis seeks to appoint a Lecturer in Japanese for the 2002-2003 academic year. The successful candidateshould have a Ph.D. in hand with a specialization in pre-modern Japanese literature or closely related discipline. Responsibilities will include teaching courses in pre-modern Japanese language, literature and culture to both undergraduates and graduate students. Letters of application, with supporting materials including a curriculum vitae, three letters of recommendation, and sample syllabishould be sent to Chair, Pre-modern Japanese Search Committee, Asian and Near Eastern Languages and Literatures, Box 1111, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899. Consideration of applicants will begin on February 15, 2002 and continue until the position is filled. E-mail inquiries should be directed to Telephone inquiries to 314-935-5156. Washington University is an Equal opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. Women and members of minority groups are encouraged to apply.
Elizabeth Oyler
Department of Asian and Near Eastern Languages and Literatures
Campus Box 1111
One Brookings Drive
Washington University
St. Louis, MO 63130

Phone: 314-935-4327

Date: Mon, 11 Feb 2002 12:42:07 -0800

From: "Susan B. Klein" <>

Subject: Re: Kitsune query (one more)

You're so right. It is Richard McKinnon who translated Tsurigitsune (I can only plead that my brain has been fried by the minutia of copy-editing my book....) Susan


Date: Thu, 14 Feb 2002 15:41:06 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: frog Buddha

I have just received the following query from a scholar not on the list. I assume that "frog Buddha" refers to the detail of the frog/Buddha worshipped by the monkey/priest in the "Choujuu jinbutsu giga" scroll of Kouzan-ji, Kyoto.

My memory is that the "Choujuu jinbutsu giga" scroll is on displayin the Tokyo Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan (Tohaku). One web page notes that the scroll exhibited in the Kozanji is a reproduction. Thescene in question is reproduced here, with credit for photograph given to Tohaku.

From: "jkirk" <>
To: <>

I just found your on the web
and decided to write to you.

I am a scholar, have produced a CD-ROM on popular arts in Bangladesh, and
for my file on comparative thematics I am seeking a (c) free photo of the
famous Japanese emaki picture of the frog Buddha. (There is an illustration
of this in Ienaga, S. PAINTING IN THE YAMATO STYLE.) My CD is under contract
with Indiana U Press.

Do you know anybody among your contacts who might have a personal photo of
this image? I don't live in Japan. I have heard that Japanese museums do not
reply to requests from abroad for permissions to reproduce images they own.
In some cases, though, museums do allow visitors to photograph objects. On
this basis I hope to get a photo.

Any advice?


Joanna Kirkpatrick, PhD
Bennington College (retd.)

A quick web search indicates that the question comes from Joanna Kirkpatrick, "PhD UCB 1970 (Prior degrees Stanford and Yale) Cultural andSocial Anthropologist" who has written (inter alia) on the Ricksha arts of Bangladesh,Joanna.htm

We discussed copyright issues almost a year ago on this list
Would there be such a thing as a "copyright free" photo of this image?
Surely Tohaku is good about dealing with requests for reproduction from abroad?

Suggestions, anyone?

Michael Watson

Date: Thu, 14 Feb 2002 09:29:30 -0700

From: Karen Brock <>

Subject: Re: frog Buddha

Hi Michael,

As I am close to Kozanji and familiar with the way things work I can answer this

Kozanji owns the scrolls and requires permission to publish them. Theyare on
permanent loan to Tokyo National Museum, which can supply a photograph IF they
have permission from Kozanji to do so. Kozanji is generally very prompt and
generous with granting permission, but for any kind of commercial use they will
charge a publication fee. This is not unreasonable, as it is one of the
important sources of revenue this temple can rely upon to help maintain its
grounds, buildings, and enormous collection of books, manuscripts, paintings,
etc. (Anyone familiar with Kozanji knows it is a strikingly non-commercial temple
in comparison to many one might name).

Once permission is granted, the permission letter can be taken to any Japanese
picture source who has a photo (such as Benrido), but Tohaku or Kyohaku can
provide a photo at a reasonable price.

There are also a few photographic studios in Japan that might have a copyright
free photo (Sakamoto, for instance), but these may cost as much as going through
the official route.

Technically anyone who photographs paintings or other works in Japanese museums
is bound by the same rules. When I have published my own photographs of Kozanji
objects, I always get permission from the temple first.

I know this information repeats my earlier posting, but Kozanji is dear to my
heart and I am always willing to help either the temple or someone who wishes to
contact them.

Karen L. Brock
Albuquerque, NM

Date: Sat, 16 Feb 2002 12:09:05 -0500

From: Edward Kamens <>

Subject: "Reading Kambun" Summer Workshop at Yale

"Reading Kambun"
Summer 2002 Workshop at Yale
July 18 - August 10

A three-week workshop focusing on the reading of Honchoo monzui and related Heian-period literary texts and documents in kambun will be held in New Haven at Yale University in summer 2002. Under the sponsorship of the Yale Council on East Asian Studies, this workshop continues the series held previously at Cornell University. Sessions will be conducted in Japanese. The workshop offers participants the opportunity to read selected texts under the guidance of expert instructors from Japan and in the company of scholars from a varietyof institutions with similar interests. This year Professor Sato Michio of Keio University will lead the workshop.

Interested graduate students and other scholars with prior experience in reading kambun texts are urged to apply. Those with no prior introduction to kambun will not be accepted. Enrollment is limited to ensure participation by all.

Yale housing will be available at a total fee of $1,750. Available meal plans range from about $350 to $560 for the 25 days of the program, depending on the number of meals chosen. Program and registration fees might also be charged. Some fellowship aid will be available to augment resources from participants' own institutions.

Application deadline: March 1, 2002. For application form and further details, please contact Joanne Izbicki, Council on East Asian Studies, Yale University, Box 208206, New Haven, CT 06520-8206, tel. 203-432-3428, or e-mail <>.

Edward Kamens
Professor and Chair, Dept. of East Asian Languages and Literatures
Yale University
Box 208236, New Haven CT 06520-8236
tel 203-432-2862, fax 203-432-6729

Date: Sat, 16 Feb 2002 15:01:34 -0500

From: "Denise O'Brien" <>

Subject: Re: kitsune nyoubou

A late contribution to this topic re a possible English derivative, Lady Into Fox.

David Garnett (1892-1981) published a short story called Lady into Foxin 1922. Garnett was the son of Edward Garnett, an influential publisher's reader, and Constance Garnett, the translator of Russian classics. David Garnett was part of the Bloomsbury set (His second wife was Angelica Bell, daughter of Clive Bell andVanessa Stephen Bell, sister of novelist Virginia Woolf.) and probably knew Arthur Waley. Whether he knew about kitsune nyoubou or not, I don't know. The narrative is sometimes referred toas a novel or novella---I've only seen it in the short story form. It has inspired some dance and theatrical adaptations (see links below).

The full text of Garnett's story is available on line at
The tale was made into a ballet with music by Arthur Honegger
and choreography by A. Howard. Its world premiere was in London in 1939.
It was also produced as a play in 1996-97 in England; for more details on that production see

It seems that women and foxes are associated in a variety of fiction and folklore according to this bibliography (keep scrolling to get to fiction section). Some of the sources listed clearly reference Japanese material or the stories are derivative from Japanese sources.
Regards, Denise O'Brien


Denise O'Brien, Ph.D.
Department of Anthropology
Temple University
Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
FAX: 215-204-1410 E-Mail:

Date: Mon, 18 Feb 2002 05:02:54 +0000

From: "Christian Morimoto Hermansen" <>

Subject: Announcement of special issue on Shingon Buddhism

Please excuse cross posting, but I wanted to inform you that a special issueof Japanese Religions is now available. The issue contains four excellent studies on Shingon Buddhism cf. the list of contents below. It costs 900 yen/ 7.5 US dollar + postage for for a single issue. Subscription of four issues (two years) is 3600 yen/ 30 dollar. Ifinterested please get in touch with me at

Yoroshiku onegaishimasu,
Christian Hermansen,
(New editor as of February 1, 2002)

Editorial 1
Introduction 3
The Hoogoo (Treasure Name) of Kooboo Daishi and the Development
of Beliefs Associated with It HINONISHI Shinjoo 5
The 11th Century Revival of Mt. Kooya: Its Genesis as a
Popular Religious Site William LONDO 19
Buddha`s Wrath: Esoteric Buddhism and the Discourse
of Divine Punishment Fabio RAMBELLI 41
A Late Heian Period Reinterpretation of
the Rishukyoo mandara Harriet HUNTER 69

Mikael Adolphson, The Gates of Power: Monks, Courtiers,
and Warriors in Medieval Japan WAKABAYASHI Haruko 99
Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and the Transformation
of Medieval Japanese Buddhism Martin REPP 105
Steven Heine, Shifting Shape, Shaping Text: Philosophy
and Folklore in the Koan Tradition Hank GLASSMAN 111
Brian Bocking, The Oracles of the Three Shrines:
Windows on Japanese Religion Martin REPP 113
Dennis Hirota, ed., Toward a Contemporary Understanding
of Pure Land Buddhism TERAMOTO Tomomasa 118

NCC Study Center Activities 2001 125
Report on the Annual Seminar 2001 Christian HERMANSEN 129

Christian Hermansen


606-8226 Kyoto-shi

Sakyo-ku, Tanaka Asuaki-cho 45 A

Tel: 075-781-4494

Date: Wed, 20 Feb 2002 00:12:48 +0900

To: Michael Watson <>

Subject: Kadokawa kogo daijiten

The five-volume Kadokawa kogo daijiten has just been released on CD-ROM. Theprice is a princely 120,000 yen (excluding tax). Sigh...theregoes next year's library budget.
I would be be very interested in hearing from anyone who has used the dictionary.

ISBN F4-04-908106-7-C3881 (kanji details)
(No information here about operating system requirements).

The dictionary is the largest Japanese kogo dictionary, with 95,000 entries.According to online information, searches with the CD-ROM willpermit one to look for all examples of citations from a certain work orauthor--much as with the Oxford English Dictionary CD-ROM. The print edition was published between 1982-1999.

Up to now, the only kogo dictionary on CD-ROM known to me is the more affordable
Zenyaku yourei kogo jiten (ed. Kindaichi)
with 15,000 entries that is contained on the Super Nihongo Daijiten
(Windows only, 9300 yen). This works nicely, but is fairly limited in scope.

Michael Watson

Date: Tue, 19 Feb 2002 11:44:24 -0500

From: "Adam L. Kern" <>

Subject: Re: Kadokawa kogo daijiten

In response to Michael's query about Kadokawa's kogo daijiten, for what it's
worth, I've been using this superb if extremely hefty (never mind pricey!)
5-volume set for the past couple years.

The set is especially strong on Tokugawa-period terminology, many of the
compilers being greats in the field of Edo literature (to wit: Nakamura
Yukihiko, Hamada Keisuke, Hino Tatsuo, Nobuhiro Shinji). How well covered
the earlier epochs are is a question best left to specialists, though I
would hazard to guess "very."

Ample quotes from contemporary sources and many diagrams make it worth the
price, but the set also doubles as an encyclopedia, drawing reliably (so far
as I can tell) on numerous lexicons of Edo terms (including slang
expressions and "secret words"), geography, historical names, senryu,
kobanashi, kotowaza, etc. Since I've begun using Kadokawa, I rely far less
on the other usual suspects (such as the single-volume <Edogo jiten> by
Okubo & Kinoshita).

As valuable as the Kadokawa set itself is, at \35,000 a volume, the \120,000
for the CD-ROM version actually looks not entirely unreasonable. As istrue
of most other academic books published in Japan, though, any of the nearly
two dozen authors should be able to obtain a discount. Would that the same
pertain to the CD!

Adam Kern

Date: Tue, 19 Feb 2002 16:07:29 +1100

From: Royall Tyler <>

Subject: Nihon shoki

It seems to me I read or heard somewhere that someone is preparing a new English translation of Nihon shoki. Does anyone out there know about this?

Royall Tyler

Date: Tue, 19 Feb 2002 15:37:21 -0600

From: "John R. Bentley" <>

Subject: Re: Nihon shoki


It is I. This is one of those projects that seems to take forever. I am about 60% finished, but other things keep falling on top of me and I have not found time to get back to the work. However, I have been prodded to get going again. Professor Delmer Brown at UC Berkeley has asked me to be the editor of the Nihon shoki section of the Shinto Text Initiative. I am planning to see how much of the work I can actually finish during the summer. I have two other book ms that I am trying to get completed, so that leaves little time for real life.


John Bentley

Date: Wed, 20 Feb 2002 08:04:05 +0000

From: Richard Bowring <>

Subject: Re: Nihon shoki

Next question.
What is the Shinto Text Initiative? I have never heard of it but it sounds interesting.
Richard Bowring

Date: Wed, 20 Feb 2002 10:07:13 +0000

From: "Michael Wachutka" <>

Subject: Re: Shinto Text Initiative (was Nihon shoki)

Dear Professor Bowring,

concerning your question about the Shinto Text Initiative mentioned by John Bentley, it is a project comparable to the well-known Japanese Text Initiative at the University of Virginia.
You can find their homepage (still very much under construction) at:


Looking at the 24 documents/ texts so far announced (for now only Nihongi and Kojiki have information) it promises to be *very* useful forall scholars interested in Shinto research.

Best regards,
Michael Wachutka

Date: Tue, 19 Feb 2002 08:48:17 -0600

From: Emanuel Pastreich <>

Subject: Pastreich project

for everyone interested in the actual proposal concerning distance learning that I wrote up, I enclose a copy in Japanese.


OMITTED, online at

Date: Wed, 20 Feb 2002 09:24:31 +1100

From: Royall Tyler <>

Subject: Re: Kadokawa kogo daijiten

The five-volume Kadokawa kogo daijiten has justbeen released on CD-ROM

I wrote to Kadokawa. Apparently the CD is for Windows only. Not Mac, alas.
Royall Tyler

The CD-ROM version being for Windows only, is is possible that it would run on a Mac equipped with PC-simulator software? Does anyone know anything about this?

Date: Wed, 20 Feb 2002 11:05:33 -0800 (PST)

From: "Janet R. Goodwin" <>

Subject: Re: Kadokawa kogo daijiten

My in-house computer guru says that there's a high probability that it
would run on Virtual PC for the Mac. However one would probably want to
test this out before buying the CD.

--Jan Goodwin

Date: Wed, 20 Feb 2002 12:30:41 -0700

From: "Noel John Pinnington" <>

Subject: Re: Kadokawa kogo daijiten

I also wonder if anyone knows whether such Japanese CDs work for
non-Japanese PCs, for example Windows 98, using Global IME Japanese language

Date: Fri, 22 Feb 2002 13:09:09 -0800

From: "Suzy Styles" <>

Subject: kitsune nyoubo thanks

Just a quick note to say thanks to everyone who offered suggestions for my research work into
kitsune nyoubo stories. You've given me some great leads to hunt down, and some of the stuff I have
found has been immensely useful.

Thanks again
Suzy Styles
Australian National University

Date: Fri, 22 Feb 2002 13:07:06 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: bungaku jiten

Janine Beichman writes to ask:

Does anyone know of a bungaku jiten (preferablymulti-volume) available on CD-ROM

I've not used it myself, but _Shinchou bungaku kurabu_ CD-ROM (1994) combined the (print) _Shinchou bungaku jiten_ and _Shinchou sekai bungaku jiten_ with 5530 and 3850 entries respectively.

Ah... I see that this CD-ROM is no longer listed on the Shincho site. Shincho is one of the Japanese publishers pioneering "on demand" printing of out-of-print books, but I suppose that does not extend to CD-ROMs.

Now I think back, I remember examining the CD-ROM in book stores. Aheadof its time--containing 3 hours of roudoku, images, etc. But at 26,000 yen for Windows only I gave it a miss. Some comments on this site:

Janine--you might check whether inter-library loan extends to CD-ROMs too. (Many google hits were for university and school libraries.) SomehowI doubt it, but it's worth trying. What with WebCat for booksand Nichigai for periodical articles, things are working much more smoothly now for those of us working at Japanese universities.

Michael Watson

Date: Fri, 22 Feb 2002 19:25:20 -0500

From: Wayne Farris <>

Subject: A question

Dear folks,
I have a simple question which will undoubtedly provoke much comment,
most of it negative, I suspect.
As an original member of the "Star Trek"generation, for which the
mantra was: "to boldly go where no one has gone before," whyis such effort
devoted to re- and re-re-translations of works already out in English?
To be sure, new translations often reveal different aspects of a work, but I
can't for the life of me understand why scholars should be devoting their
energies to such projects when there remain so many things which have never
been approached or touched upon at all, in Japanese, Asian, and world history
and literature. The insights awaiting those who undertake something truly
original are staggering.
Wayne Farris

Date: Sat, 23 Feb 2002 06:54:22 +0200

From: "Rein Raud" <>

Subject: Re: A question

Dear Wayne Farris,

I suppose most of literature people feel your question is analogous to "why
should one write a history of Japan if one exists already?" Or, perhaps more
adequately, why should anyone bother for example to make a film based on a book or
play if one has been made already? Translation is not a simple movement of a
literary work from one linguistic space into another, but a reinterpretation
of it in the context of another literary culture. The culture changes,
translations age, or do not fulfill their purposes any more. The waka "koishi
to wa/ ta ga nazukekemu/ koto naramu/ shinu to zo tada ni/ iu bekarikeru"
has been translated by B.H.Chamberlain into English as "O Love! who gave
thee thy superfluous name?/ Loving and dying - is it not the same?" - a
translation such a respectable scholar as W.G.Aston finds "neat", perhaps
even better than the original. So why bother retranslating?
A translation of a work such as Genji is, in a way, a huge collection of
microarticles (a word or a sentence each) about the Genji. Of course, I do
agree with you that so much still remains to be done and there are important
works that still remain to be translated, but this does not mean that
retranslations would be a waste of time and energy.

Rein Raud

Date: Sat, 23 Feb 2002 06:57:51 +0200

From: "kai nieminen" <>

Subject: Re: A question

Dear friends,
Wayne Farris raised a good question which is much more significant than
simply provocative.

As a translator outside from the English-speaking world I can only welcome
as many layers of translations and interpretations as there ever will be:
for me they're all just new aspects -- they're like enhancements to a
dictionary. But that is not Wayne Farris's point, of course. -- As a
translator outside from the English world I'd also welcome as many
translations of untouched literature as possible.
I've not yet seen Royall Tyler's new Genji translation --there's an
enraging, stupid contract between US postal services and an European postal
company (British Post, which market-economy-overtook at least Finnish
delivery of American package mail) that charges the equivalent of 25
dollars for handling e.g. Amazon packages if their value is more than 35
dollars. But I'm eagerly waiting to get it, when I visit USA this
spring. -- And I guess Wayne Farris is referring to this translation, too.
My own Genji translation is proceeding, slowly, steadily, I aim to get it
done by the end of 2005.
The situation here differs a little, but, mutatis mutandis, the
question might be asked here as well:
"Why translate Genji into Finnish, as there now exist three English
translations and 90 % of the potential readers can read English -- why not
translate something that is not available previously?"
This is a good question. Even if the obvious answer "because it is
there" is a true and sound one, it is not sufficient. There may not be an
one-and-only sufficient answer, but there are several reasons. One of which
W.F. gives:
> Tobe sure, new translations often reveal different aspects of a work,

One point where I very much agree with Wayne Farris is
there remain so many things which have never
been approached or touched upon at all, in Japanese,
Asian, and world history and literature.
and while we all know that the publishers, the public, the readers prefer
stuff with a brand, we also yearn for an adventure: a book never seen
before. But then there is the problem of the brevity of a lifespan: who
wouldn't want to translate both Genji and a "truly original" text from the
unknown tradition.
It is frustrating that the same few classics, the same few brand names
are translated into a multitude of languages time and again, and some of
the real pearls remain untranslated generation after generation. It is
frustrating, also, from the viewpoint of a translator, that the publisher
makes it a case of a sure winner.
There is the textual problem: the translating takes time,lots more of
time than translating modern Asian or modern Western literature. But a
devoted translator is blind especially when it concerns the run of the
time. A devoted translator thinks "after this I'll translate the fancy
thing nobody never knew of before; and after that the other thing that even
I didn't know to exist" and so on. --Translating classical texts is slow,
and what is worse: before one is ready to take to the classics, one usually
has spent 20--30 years studying. At least I feel now that all the
translations I did before this age should be revised. I'm 52 now, and I
keep forgetting my age and thinking that after Genji I'll have another 52
years for translating whatever novelties I fancy.
Wayne's question is a good one and should be answered by young, able
translators, too. But, although I'm not a scholar, there's one and very
important point to answer:
> can't for the life of me understand why scholars should be devoting
> their energies to such projects when The insights awaiting those who
> undertake something truly original are staggering.
Things like translating literature simply have to be done well. For the
benefit of those, who cannot read the originals. I'm sure that no scholar
or non-scholar translator would waste 5 or 10 years translating a text that
already has been well-done. I rather think that the re- and re-re-
translators have been devoting their time to benefit us, wasting their
prospects of fame as discoverers. This is a slow and silent trade, and
sometimes the re- and re-re- translators go, indeed, unnoticed "where no
one has gone before".

I fully agree with the wish to have rare new texts translated, and I hope
they will be done so well they don't need to be re-translated.

Warm regards,
Kai Nieminen

Baggbolen koulutie 11, FIN-07740 GAMMELBY, FINLAND
tel.& fax: +358-19-634 294, e-mail:

pmjs footer: Kai Nieminen: translations from Japanese, other publications

Date: Sat, 23 Feb 2002 08:52:05 -0500

From: wfarris <>

Subject: More on a question

Dear folks,
Thanks for the replies so far. I think that they have been thoughtful
and helped me.
I would disagree with Rein Raud, though, thata re-translation of a work
is like writing another history. The two are not strictly analogous, as
history may be written from many different sets of records and with many
agendas. Given a relatively set text, there may be some differences, but for
example, for the NIHON SHOKI, which I know better than GENJI, there will be
very little difference on most points.
And I'm not thinking just about Japan, either. Many fields--in both
history and literature--are practically moribund because the material has been
exhausted. I know this to be the case with some fields in US and European
history, and perhaps, literature. I just wish more people would explore new
topics. Certainly everyone would agree that for premodern Japan, scadsof
such topics exist.
Wayne Farris

Date: Sat, 23 Feb 2002 08:13:04 -0600

From: "John R. Bentley" <>

Subject: Re: A question

Dear readers,

Wayne does have a good question. I can't help but think that his question was somehow
related to Royall's simple question about who is translating Nihon shoki--already in English.

I have just finished a rather long, detailed study on Sendai kuji hongi, a work not in translation
in any language I know of. It is also not even published as an annotated text in Japanese. The
work has been vilified as a forgery for almost 200 years, but the methodology employed on
this work is terribly simplistic. Hence my re-analysis of the manuscripts. I believe the work is authentic.

Thus, with a new translation of Kujiki, it seemed imperative that Nihon shoki be re-translated. So
I agree with the others who have responded that a new translation of a work invariably has the
opportunity to incorporate new knowledge and new insights. I disagree with Wayne that there
would be little difference on various points.

The poetry in Aston's translation of Shoki is simply wrong in many places. Linguistically
we know a lot more about Japanese than Aston ever did. Also, there is a lot of information
in Nihon shoki that could be made more accessible to the reader if the work were
better annotated. There are more reasons, but I'll stop there.


John Bentley

Date: Sat, 23 Feb 2002 10:36:53 +1100

From: Royall Tyler <>

Subject: Re: A question

Just to second John Bentley on Nihon shoki. No, this one isn't be readthat widely, but it MUST be done again, and the sooner the better. Surely no one could disagree with that.

Royall Tyler

Date: Sat, 23 Feb 2002 10:28:15 +1100

From: Royall Tyler <>

Subject: Re: A question


I won't be able to justify retranslating Genji to you any better than I could justify studying the life of the aristocracy, but never mind. You certainly have a point about there being a lot that remains untranslated, so why not translate that instead; but I doubt thatmost people who translate think quite that way. They don't think, Uh oh, got that old translation itch again, gonna have to findme a text, any text. They're already interested in a particular text, for whatever reason. Sometimes it's been "done"before, sometimes not. If it's already been "done,"the value (to eventual readers) of redoing it depends on its quality and character, on the quality of the other translations, on the quality of the new one, and on its likely readership. Genji is an example (and how many are there, really, in classical Japanese?) of a work that is widely read and studied in various languages and to which very few people have useful access in the original. Just from an academic standpoint, it's probably worth making sure readers have a properly accurate translation, since accuracymay help to curb their tendency to draw mistaken conclusions from the work--which is all about the aristocracy anyway, I know, I know,so why should that matter?.

Anyway, at the other extreme (works of interest only to a few specialists) Ipersonally believe that some should NOT be translated, because translating the whole thing, or at least PUBLISHING a translation of the whole thing, is a waste of time. An example might be a medieval shugendo or ryobu shinto treatise. A text like that is likely to be so opaque in the first place that no scholar should draw any conclusion whatever solely from a "translation" of it. Such a translation is of legitimate value only as a trot for someone able to consult at least the relevant passage of the original. In a case like that, the would-be translator would domuch better to set forth an understanding of the text in an analytical essay, supported by translated quotations that are accompanied by the original passage.

Actually I have seen, even in academic essays, the danger of drawing conclusions solely from a translated passage even of Genji--not my translation yet, but no doubt that will come. One should not overestimate what can be done reliably from translation alone.

As for the value of translation to the translator (as distinguished from thereader), perhaps I'll say nothing about that, since you might not consider it a legitimate topic anyway. But in my case, don't worry. Nothing of value was lost when I devoted those years to translating Genji instead of something previously untranslated. I would not have translated anything else. I don't suppose anyone would have gotten much of anything out of me during those years; so at least some people got Genji.

I think you over-romanticize the value of translating hitherto untranslated works when you write, "The insights awaiting those who undertake something truly original are staggering." Are they, really? Not that often, I wouldn't think. Interesting, intriguing, and so on, but "staggering"? In most cases, why not just read the work and write about it?

Strangely enough, though, I've had the "staggering" experience just from translating that old chestnut, Genji. At first I never imagined having anything new to say about it, but now that I've been through the whole thing, in that fussy translator way, I'm literally staggered by the novelty of what I find myself saying about it. How my insights will play in the wider world remains to be seen, though. Staggering insights are great if you can put them across. Otherwise, they may just identify you as a crackpot.

Royall Tyler

Date: Sat, 23 Feb 2002 11:09:31 -0500

From: "EBerlin" <>

Subject: Re: A question

To a non-scholar this is a very interesting thread. Certainly there are
legitimate distinctions to be made between the value of having multiple
translations of a work of the greatness, influence, and importance of the
Genji and translating many other works that are inherently most interesting
to a scholar's special set of pereceptual/analytical tools and scholarly
interests. The value of having translations of generally unkown works is
somewhat dependent on a variety of criteria one can imagine. Yes of course
there are no absolutes and tastes change. Yet, not everything is equally
worth making available through translation, and some may never "make the
cut." Over the centuries I suppose most things will get done, butas Royall
suggested, it's unlikely most translators would achieve success by forcing
themselves to translate something nominally worthwhile but in which they
didn't have a critical mass of real interest.

I'm not a scholar, I'm a *fan* of the Genji. I'm incredibly glad that
Royall *performed* his translation. It's good for the literature
"industry," if you will, that reviews of this new Genji appear in major
publications, that Royall is scheduled for bookstore appearances and museum
lectures, and so on. It all brings renewed attention to Japanese literature
and to pre-modern Japan, which is good for everyone, right? Is this the
"trickle-down" theory of literary economy? I hope not...

Elliot Berlin

Date: Sat, 23 Feb 2002 12:39:52 -0700

From: wordfield <>

Subject: Re: A question

Good People,

Briefly, an aspect of this business (of "re-translating")
that seems only tangentially to have been mentioned, if

English changes.

I am in my sixties, and much of what I heard in the New York
metro region during my childhood, in Boston and New Haven
during my youth, has disappeared from current speech.

Royall's new Genji is just that: New! The language is new,
the approach is new (vastly different from Waley or
Seidensticker). It has an honored place on my shelves, and
will be referred to more often than its predecessors. (I
sold my Waley as soon as I got a copy of Seidensticker, as
Waley doesn't tell me anything about Japanese that I want to
know, and very little about English that interests me.
Seidensticker's version will stay around, but I'll be going
to Tyler's much more often.)

The second aspect: Most first-translators of a given
classical work are hard-pressed to pioneer. This means
bush-whacking, leaving some kind of trail. The roads that
will follow are not made by these pioneers, but by engineers
and technologists, hopefully with some landscape architects
thrown in for good measure.

Think Yusas's Basho reflects much of Basho? I don't. But I'm
grateful someone brought across at least something of that
fellow's time and travels. Still, Hamill, Sato, Keene, even
Corman/Kamaike (my personal favorite so far) have their
failings. Perhaps someday we'll have an Oku no hosomichi
that reflects more of what Basho may have intended. And in
English that sings as well and variously as his Japanese. In
the meantime, I'll still play with the pieces of it that
intrigue me most.

Meanwhile, someone should translate Sora's diary . . . but
that's the territory of a specialist, and will never draw
the interest and freshening that Basho does. Literature is
news that stays news, ol' Ez Pound once said. He was right,
but only if each generation or two takes up new versions in
its own language and interpretation.

Bless all,

William J. Higginson
P. O. Box 2740
Santa Fe, NM 87504 USA
1-505-438-3249 tel & fax
Personal Web Pages:
Info for Program Chairpersons:
Open Directory Project Editor:

Date: Sat, 23 Feb 2002 18:01:16 -0500

From: wfarris <>

Subject: More on translation

Dear folks,
Thanks to Royall, John, Robin, Kai, and others who have taken up my
question about the value of re-translating works.
I think part of my feeling comes from being an historian, rather than a
scholar of literature. As a historian, I find the most valuable works use
primary and original sources to construct a larger thesis or interpretation.
To me, translation by itself is not very satisfactory.
In answer to Royall, first I would like to congratulate him on his
translation. I have purchased a copy and am glad that I have it. Moreover,
to disagree with Royall, I do not believe that aristocrats should not be
studied. Quite the contrary. It's just that, as you all know, incomparison
with the amount of work on the civil aristocracy, religious elites, and
samurai, commoners remain GROSSLY understudied in the pre-1600 period
especially, but even for the Edo and modern periods. For me, it's not really
a matter of "class antagonism" towards the ruling elites, as it isa question
of allocation of scarce scholarly resources. Where can we, as historians and
scholars of literature, best put our resources to give a more inclusive
picture of Japanese society before Perry?
Finally, I also was not just being a "romantic" in stating that the
results of studying things that have never been done can be truly staggering.
For example, (and like translators, I can only speak from my own experience),
I KNOW that of the chapters in SACRED TEXTS AND BURIED TREASURES, the one I
wrote on Himiko and the Wajinden was the least enlightening. Why? Because
beginning with Young's study from the 1950s, lots of people had been working
on Yamatai, and doing a good job. It's an old chestnut (although not as old
as GENJI or the NIHON SHOKI), and there's just not much for someone like me to
add. On the other hand, while there had been several articles on the
Japan-Korea relationship earlier, I felt the chapter on the "Korean
Connection" added a LOT more to the English corpus.
I truly believe that there is even more out there on other topics if one
is willing to think laterally, or even use common sense. Instead of doing
elite political or cultural history, what about looking at the development of
cities in Japan, between, say, 1100 and 1600? Or trade and money? (I know
Ethan Segal is hard at work on this and I wish him well.) Or the iron idustry
from the Yayoi to the Edo? Or silk? I kid you not, the data and
contributions from studies of these topics will be indeed "staggering".
And for an e-mail that has gone too long already, I wouldfavor revising
Aston's translation of the NIHON SHOKI, rather than starting all over from
scratch. John has sent me some of his work, and I know that he is doing truly
path-breaking translations of several ancient sources, but if you want to
translate one of the ROKKOKU SHI, how about the SHOKU NIHONGI? The most
"accurate" and interesting of the series?
Best wishes,
Wayne Farris

Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 00:37:50 +0900

From: janine beichman <>

Suject: translation

John, forgive my ignorance, but could you tell us what the Sendai kuji hongiis
and why a new translation of it (I assume Kujiki is just another name for it)
makes a new translation of the Nihon shoki imperative?

Wayne, Your letter reminds me of Donald Keene's memory of a joyous moment inthe
stacks of the Columbia library in the early days of his study of Japanese, when he
looked around him and realized that most of the books there had yet to be read.
Rather than feeling overwhelmed, he felt a surge of energy at the terra incognita
that lay before him. Part of Keene's excellence as a teacher and mentor was and is
his ability to direct his students to compelling literary works that are notwell
known. Probably one of the most important things we can do as scholars and teachers
is to make a point of seeking such works out and directing students (and ourselves)
to them. But that is not enough. The most important thing (and this is also
something that I learned from Keene) is that what we translate be something that
has moved us deeply. I would add that it can also be something that holds out the
promise that it will move us if we could just understand it. The latter is more my
experience and makes for a more interesting translating process.


P.S. (from Michael Watson) The library stacks were in Cambridge, England,

if my memory serves me right...

Date: Sat, 23 Feb 2002 20:56:42 -0600

From: "John R. Bentley" <>

Subject: Re: translation

Dear Janine and others,

I apologize for not giving a clearer response. The issues surrounding Kujiki are complicated and dense.

To be brief, Sendai kuji hongi (or just Kujiki) was one of the tripartite works of Shinto, with Kojiki and Nihon shoki. Imai Arinobu, a minor historian who worked for Tokugawa Mitsukuni, is the first to advance the idea that Kujiki was nothing more than a forgery, a work that plagiarized Kojiki, Nihon shoki, and Kogo shuui.

This simple theory was expanded by later scholars, and Motoori Norinaga is probably the famous scholar to claim that Kujiki is nothing more than a dovetailing together of Shoki and Kojiki, though he did at least note there are sections seen in no other work. Tachibana Moribe is probably the last serious scholar to defend Kujiki as an authentic work. But there are scholars who believe Moribe did this simply in his attempt to take sides against Norinaga.

The problem is that modern scholars have accepted this premise (that Kujiki did plagiarize) and have NOT reviewed the manuscripts to see if wholesale copying has taken place. Kamata Jun'ichi came out with
a critical edition in 1960, and then redid this in 1980 for Shintoo Taikei. But his textual scholarship is flawed, because he emends his critical text a priori according to Nihon shoki or Kojiki. This should not be done! A good critical text should be put together from Kujiki witnesses only. I believe my work is the first to actually do

To make a long story short, if Kujiki is not a forgery, then what is it? I believe it is a draft of a work ordered in 681 by Temmu, based on the same material as Kojiki and Nihon shoki. In other words, Kujiki can tell us something about the historiographical movement that later produced Kojiki and Nihon shoki. This knowledge sheds NEW light on Nihon shoki itself--hence, the need for a new translation. I realize that is a fuzzy answer, but if anyone wants more, then can contact me off-list.

Finally, to Wayne who suggests I revise Nihon shoki: I am 60% finished with a complete translation,
so finishing the work is not really that time consuming. A translation of Shoku Nihongi would also be
interesting, but I doubt I would tackle it.

Sorry to be long-winded.


Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 16:29:38 +0900

From: Haruko Wakabayashi <>

Subject: Re: Shotoku Taishi

Dear Members,

Does anybody know of a summary or translation (complete or sections) in
English of the biographical text of Shotoku Taishi?

Also, I'd like to know if there are any articles in English on Ippen shonin
eden (Ippen hijiri-e). I do have the two articles in the "Flowing Traces."

yoroshiku onegai shimasu!

Haruko Wakabayashi

Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 09:35:47 +0000

From: "Michael Wachutka" <>

Subject: Re: Shotoku Taishi

>Does anybody know of a summary or translation (complete or sections) in
>English of the biographical text of Shotoku Taishi?

...I hate to seem beating the same drum over and over again ("... and in case you read German..."), but I cannot think of any study on Shotoku Taishi more detailed and exhaustive than this one, but alas, it is in German:

Bohner, Hermann: _Shotoku Taishi_. [Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Natur- und Voelkerkunde Ostasiens; Supplementband 15], Tokyo: OAG, 1940.

In 1033 (!) pages Bohner translates and comments on virtually *all* existing texts, temple-scrolls, inscripts on statues (you name it) concerned with Shotoku Taishi, and includes all then-existing secondary studies in his comments. (Only Shotoku's commentaries on sutras (Hokke, Sho^man, Yuiman) are not translated completely but only used as sources.
The translation of "Shotoku Taishi Denryaku (I assume you refer to this text when mentioning 'a biographical text'?), juxtaposed and enhanced with passages from other sources, can be found on pp. 55-169
An introduction to that text is on pp. 24-32.

However, if you wish for something in English, Penny Herbert, a specialist on Chinese History, presented a paper comparing the biographies of Shotoku Taishi and Li Lin-fu at the 38th International Conference of Orientalists in Japan in May 1993. This might be a place to start.
A very brief summery of the presentation can be found in _The Toho Gakkai (Transactions of the International Conference of Orientalists in Japan. Kokusai toho gakusha kaigi kiyo)_; No. 38 (1993), pp. 164-165.

Best regards,

Michael Wachutka

Ph.D. candidate in Japanes Intellectual History at Tuebingen University, Germany
Research Fellow at German Institute of Japanese Studies (DIJ), Tokyo

Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 19:15:56 +0900

From: "Bodart-Bailey" <>

Subject: Re: a question of translation

Dear All,

Nobody seems to think much about the practical aspect of getting a
translation published. The publisher's prerequisite is surely that enough
people are interested in the work: that it will sell. I am sure there are
plenty of translations around which never found a publisher. I certainly
know of some.

Why did I re-translate Kaempfer when there is no English version of Siebold?
Perhaps the main reason was that everybody kept citing passages from
Kaempfer which I knew were not what the ms said. And the interest of a
publisher and colleagues/friends saying that a new version was really
essential certainly helped.

As Royall said, to get that "staggering" experience one does not need to
translate a complete work for publication. Translating the most relevant
passages and discussing the rest might be enough. Many works have lengthy
passages which are of little interest. Then there are references which can
take weeks and months to chase up. There were plenty of those in Kaempfer:
the fishes were the worst. There was one name of a fish which simply did not
appear in any of the many dictionaries and reference works I consulted in a
great many libraries. Then I discovered in the catalogue of the rare book
section of Tokyo U. Library a 19th century dictionary which looked as if it
could provide the answer. It took some time until I got permission and
finally sat there putting on the white gloves. The dictionary had the name
of the fish. The explanation said; "name used by Kaempfer."

My point: translating is such an incredibly time-consuming business that it
appears a waste of time and energy to produce a polished and well-annotated
translation of a work in which only very few people are interested.
Especially in view of the fact that there seems to be a limited number of
people who are prepared to dedicate their time to this task ...

Beatrice M. Bodart-Bailey.

Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 08:33:41 -0500

From: wfarris <>

Subject: More on translation

Dear all,
Two points, from someone who has already written too much:
1) Janine's story of Donald Keene was very inspirational, but it raised
another question which I think about from time to time. With all the
excellent work that is being done by scholars in Japanese studies, is anybody
really taking the time to read our stuff? Not only people in related fields,
but even amongst ourselves? Has anyone else had this empty feeling?
2) And on a completely different tangent: Why is the NIHON SHOKI
considered a Shinto text? Must be the myths at the beginning, I suppose. And
a later development, like late chuusei or kinsei. Certainly most of it has
nothing to do with Shinto, and it was, after all, written mostly in Chinese.
Wayne Farris

Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 11:48:59 -0500

From: "robin gill" <>

Subject: Why so many retranslations?

In respect to Wayne Farris's question, I --- with no academic
experience --- can't help but wondering if the publishing problem, broached
by Kai Nieman and enlarged by Bodart-Bailey, might not have as much to do
with this as the obvious advantage of proving one can do a better job than
someone else before doing one's own thing.

Working as an acquisition editor and translation checker (which sometimes
included major rewriting!) for a Japanese publisher, I got Thoreau's CAPE
COD and Steinbeck's SEA OF CORTEZ (with the great 50 pages on Ed Ricketts)
translated --- there had already been oodles of translations of their major
works (I vaguely remember nine WALDENS) --- because the editors trusted my
judgement. Unless publishers have readers they can trust and editors with
the guts to back unknown books and unknown --- to the lay press at least ---
authors (e.g. Fontanelle's THE PLURALITY OF WORLDS, or most recently, from
Kousaku-sha, Eiseley's STAR THROWER), the same safe "classics" will keep
being translated and retranslated. A publisher may accept the judgement of
a respected bunka-jin, especially if he or she also offers to back the book
in one way or another. Otherwise, new translations of books that are not
obvious best-sellers is something only possible when publishers maintain a
long-term relationship with someone whose judgement they trust. With
editors changing posts and publishers as fast as they do in the USA (I have
no statistics, just the memory of having to write different people at the
same publishers), it seems a miracle to me that they publish any interesting

In Japan at least, re-translation is often the result of sheer stupidity on
the part of the eigyobu (not having worked for a publisher in the USA, I do
not know what the proper translation is) which usually dreams of getting an
enormous market for a safe book or a safe title, forgetting that everyone
else is doing the same thing, where bold marketing of something new aimed at
a larger portion of a smaller piece of the overall market could still make a
best-seller. That is to say that publishing is like radio, where everyone
aims for the same large chunk of the market, thereby guaranteeing they end
up with nothing much and preventing us from enjoying the variety that the
free market is supposed to offer.

Much of what I write above may not hold true for some academic publishers,
but Wayne thought some of my observations might be of interest, so I sent
them (with some changes) and add that I also think the practice of combining
partial translation and summary, mentioned by Bodart-Bailey, is the way to
go; for done right, it can create more good reading for the buck; and this
will prod the mainline publishers to consider introducing more such work,
usually left to a small number of academic or Japanalia? presses. Since
many if not most of the top popular publishers may only be reached through a
literary agent, and the best agent is someone who can understand exactly
what they are promoting, it would seem that a literary agent fluent in
Japanese and known by the English language publishers could do the most good
of all. Is there such an animal out there?

regards to all and best wishes to friends,

robin d gill

Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 01:36:03 +0900

From: David Lurie <>

Subject: Shotoku Taishi

Regarding translations of Shotoku Taishi biographies, a partial English
translation of the early Jogu shotoku ho-o teisetsu (KANJI_)
by William Deal can be found in _Religions of Japan in Practice_ (George
J. Tanabe, ed.; Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press,
1999); unfortunately, the numerous omissions are not specified, so
anyone interested in getting a sense of the entire text must carefully
compare the translation with the original. I do not have a copy of this
useful anthology in front of me, but I would not be surprised if it
contains translations of some later Shotoku materials as well.

I briefly examined the early Shotoku cult in my dissertation, and plan
on putting together a more extensive study of his significance (or lack
thereof) in early Japan, so I also would be grateful to learn of
western-language studies in addition to Bohner's massive work.

---David Lurie

Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures
Columbia University
39 Claremont Ave. Apt. 53, New York NY 10027

Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 14:41:18 -0500

From: Jacqueline Stone <jst...@...nceton.EDU>

Subject: Re: Shotoku Taishi

You might want to contact Kevin G. Carr, a Ph.D. student in Art and
Archaeology at Princeton who is writing a dissertation on the cult of
Prince Shotoku in the medieval period and is looking at literary sources
as well as iconographic materials.

On the Ippen hijiri-e, see James Harlan Foard, ""Ippen Shonin and
Popular Buddhism in Kamakura Japan," Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford
1977). As I recall, it contains a fairly detailed summary of the text.

Jackie Stone

Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 13:59:53 -0800

From: "stephen d. miller" <>

Subject: Shotoku Taishi

Laura Kaufman's Ph.D. dissertation was on the Ippen hijiri-e (I know because I wrote in all the characters in the glossary for it!). The bibliographic info for that dissertation may be in the Flowing Traces chapter (I don't have the book in front of me), but if it isn't, please contact me and I'll put you in contact with her (she teaches at Manhattanville College).

Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 17:15:15 EST

From: Ingrid Parker <>

Subject: Genji translations et al.

Dear scholars,

This discussion was very interesting to me for two reasons: First, I still
have an abiding fondness and admiration for GENJI, and consequently own all
three translations; and second: I cannot read Japanese and must rely on
translations for my research as a writer.

In the first instance, I must say that I fell in love with the Waley
translation and find it hard to adjust to a different style. I also have
little time nowadays. I sampled the Seidensticker edition (a rather gorgeous
one compared to the Modern Library edition of the Waley), and with Royall
Tyler's I went straight to the apparatus, which was nice, but I wanted more.
I will, in time, get around to the text.

I'm not getting into the argument about translating that which has already
been translated. Sufficient reasons for doing so have been given. My need,
however, is for more translations of minor works, particularly those which
are of interest to students of social history, but also works which might
give insight into the daily lives of the common people. Stuff for university
presses only perhaps.

On another note: Since I've joined, I've been a little startled that those
who provided the first translations and earliest scholarly works about
Japanese history and literature are often treated with disdain as totally
out-dated and too inaccurate for words. I think everyone owes something to
those who have gone before, especially if they went "where no man has gone
before," and if inaccuracies slipped in during their undertaking, then these
should be measured against the enormous contribution of the whole work and
the foundation they laid for later scholars.

In that context, I was very glad to learn that Matthew Stavros (I think) is
working on a new book on Heian Kyo, but must say that, for the time being,
and even taking into account all the footnotes in more recent research (which
were cited here in regard to Rashoo-mon, and which I gratefully checked), I
am still totally dependent on Ponsonby-Fane for a detailed description of

With grateful regards to all you helpful people,

I. J. Parker

Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 07:18:52 +0900

From: janine beichman <>

Subject: [translation]

Thanks for your correction of the locale of the Keene story to the stacks of
Cambridge. Do you know the written source of the story, too, then--? Now I'm not
sure if I heard it orally or read it, or both.

From: janine beichman <>

To: Multiple recipients of pmjs <>

Subject: [translation]

Younger scholars may be reading us here and so I want to say very clearly again
that the only work you should translate is the one that (when you read it in the
original) calls out to you like a lover and whose call you can not resist. There is
no need to rate a literary work when you are thinking about translating it or not;
all you need to know is if you love it or not. After that (to answer Beatrice) you
can start to think about whether or not there will be a publisher or readers.
Flexibility is helpful here too. There are ways to package a translation that can
make it more attractive to a publisher, make it more marketable: a good roundtable
at some future AAS or other meeting between academic publishers and
scholar-translators might be very helpful here.

But all that comes after the first thing, which is to translate what is compelling
to you personally. I think we need to believe that what is important to us will be
important for enough readers to justify translating it. Since most of us derive our
main financial support from teaching, not translating, I think we can afford to do
this. Even free-lancers can divide their translation work into what they do for
money and what they do for themselves. If lucky, the two sometimes merge.
For Royall, it was the Genji that was the compelling work. But there are lots of
works in the classic corpus that are not well known, and have not been translated,
or have been translated but long ago and in a different language than the one we
speak now (good point, Bill), or have been translated but not well. Has anyone gone
through the entire Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei and its sibling collections? I find it
hard to believe that there are not many works in there that are enormous fun, or
tremendously moving, or just sheerly fascinating--and which are still
untranslated. As scholars, it is our responsibility to keep looking for them. And
as translators, it is our potential joy. For myself, I always prefer to work on
something that no one else has done before, but that is a personal preference. I
don't think that there are any rules or standards about what one should translate
that have universal validity,anymore than there are universal rules or standards
about how to translate. What is right to do is what you love, and you have to have
confidence that what you love others will too, and that if you can't find a
publisher, there is a way to repackage it so that it can be made marketable.
Sorry to be repetitive and awkward in my phrasing.

Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 19:22:33 -0500

From: "Amy V. Heinrich" <>

Subject: [translations]


The story is in *Landscapes and Portraits,* although I can't put my hand
on it at the moment to give a better citation. I always assumed it was
in the Columbia East Asian Library, but now I'll ask.

Amy V. Heinrich
Director, C. V. Starr East Asian Library
Columbia University

Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 10:09:39 +0900

From: Mikael Adolphson <>

Subject: Re: More on translation

Fellow PMJS'ers,
I would like to second Wayne's suggestion for more translations of other
works, even if I see the value of re-interpretations as well. In particular,
courtier diaries provide an immense amount of information, but, to date, we
only have one major translation... In French (Herail)... Nothing wrong with
practicing this noble language, but there are other diaries that provide so
much more than the Mido Kampaku ki. Chuuyuuki, Heihanki, Gyokuyou, Meigetsuki
just to mention a few. It would take me too long to note all the aspects
that these sources cover, but suffice it to say that one can find ample
information about life much beyond the walls of the palace and noble

if there are any scholars presently working on a translation of such
sources, please identify yourselves!!! I have no doubt that they would


Mickey Adolphson

Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 20:18:01 -0500

From: wfarris <>

Subject: Om learning what you love

Dear folks,
I know you must be tired of (and perhaps miffed at) me by now, but
after reading Janine's most recent comment, I was first excited to jump up and
down, and then I thought a little more.
Of course, translate or study or learn what you love. It's the basic
reason for almost all of us, I would think. But aren't our loves fairly
malleable, especially at the early stages of our careers? I know I started
out about thirty years ago desirous of doing intellectual history. But partly
through the direction of my advisor, and partly from the influence of the
times, I ended up doing something very different--the social and economic
history of common folk in ancient Japan. And as I learned what the problems
and sources were and how to think about and read them, I learned to love that
topic and those sources, too, even more than intellectual history.
So my only thought is, of course, do what you love, but let yourself be
guided to some extent by various other factors and influences as well. And
perhaps this is presumptuous of me, but I would add, think: about where the
truly significant problems or texts lie, and how you can employ a heretofore
unthought-of approach to teach all of us something we would have never known
Wayne Farris

Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 21:11:44 -0500

From: "Amanda Stinchecum" <>

Subject: Re: on translation: literature and history

Although Wayne mentioned it in passing, perhaps more emphasis should be
placed on how scholars and readers in different disciplines--history and
literature--approach a text. Wayne's remark, "To me, translation by itself
is not very satisfactory," is clearly the voice of the historian, who is
looking for ever more information to apply to whatever problem consumes him
or her at the moment. The extent to which a historian can "read" a
literary work, or a painting, for that matter, as a historical document,
remains problematic.

This is very different from the translator and reader of literature, who may
seek an enriched understanding of human nature, of a particular society at a
particular time, of the structure of the work, and of the nature of
literature itself, conveyed through and interpreted by the artful use of
language. Some works offer more than others, and surely the inadequacies of
previous translations can only act as a spur to the translator who finds the
original so compelling.

Amanda Stinchecum

Date: Sun, 24 Feb 2002 23:47:15 -0500

From: "Philip Brown" <>

Subject: Re: on translation: literature and history

I have been following this discussion with some interest. I can agree with
virtually all of the arguments in favor of re-translation and I agree with
Amanda Stinchecum in part that there are both problems reading literary
materials as historical sources and that some of the difference in the
discussion is a result of a different disciplinary emphasis. Yet there is
still a fundamental issue that I feel has been inadequately addressed in the
discussion so far.

For my "case study" let me stay within the context of literature to avoid
the possible confusions resulting from disciplinary perspectives. During
the course of a conference on the state of the field in Early Modern
Japanese Studies, one of the notable discussions focused on literature and
the related performing arts. The argument was advanced (correctly, I think)
that what is translated has a great deal to do with what gets studied in the
future. For many, reading translations provides the first exposure to
Japanese literature and creates the resonance between that field and the
personality of the reader/would-be scholar. Yet the discussion also
revealed that the image of Early Modern Japanese literature provided by
existing translations barely skims the field, leaving us with a rather
warped view of the literary world of the 17th to 19th centuries. To the
degree that translations influence the direction of the field, existing
translations will encourage scholars to focus on already translated genres
rather than explore those Tokugawa literary forms that would help us get a
better appreciation not only for the field as a whole but for the place of
commonly translated works within that context. What are the mechanisms by
which scholars might be encouraged to explore more broadly?

Further gnawing at me is another concern. Works like _Genji_ or of authors
like Saikaku are first translated because our Japanese colleagues treat them
as part of the canon of great Japanese literature. While I recognize the
merits of works that have led to that conclusion, I can think of any number
of cases in which non-canonical works of literature and art are potentially
as meritorious or at least as interesting as more honored counterparts, but
are not so readily called to our attention. It seems to me that one way for
non-Japanese scholars to contribute to the development of our respective
fields is to go beyond the objects of study as defined by our Japanese
colleagues. Such an endeavor can involve new methodologies and theories,
but it seems to me that a significant role can be played by looking beyond
the standard materials of study.

Finally, let me raise a practical, professional issue: the way in which
non-Japanist colleagues in our colleges and universities evaluate the
scholarly contributions of translation. I have been made aware of recent
cases in which critical decisions of promotion and tenure hinged on whether
or not translation was considered an act of scholarship. In these cases
literature scholars from other European languages treated translation as a
mechanical, rather than scholarly act. In the case of many translations
from Japanese, I think such evaluations are absurd, yet the claims of these
kinds of people receive a pretty warm reception among many non-literature
colleagues, especially those in fields that do not involve much use of
foreign language sources or whose experience is limited tot he major Western
European languages. In this context (and perhaps in partial answer to the
question I raised about incentives to move beyond the tried and true), it
seems to me that translations of unexplored genre or works that can
challenge in some way the past intellectual configurations of the field are
likely to be more persuasive grounds for seeking tenure and promotion.

I've gone on long enough!

Phil Brown
Ohio State University

Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 14:52:53 +0900

From: "B.M. Bodart-Bailey" <>

Subject: Re: translating

Janine wrote:

"Since most of us derive our main financial support from teaching, not
translating, I think we can afford to do this."

"This" being: "... the only work you should translate is the one that (when
you read it in the
original) calls out to you like a lover and whose call you can not resist."

This is very sound advice to all those who have managed to derive their
"main financial support from teaching." But don't let's forget that there
are large numbers of young and not so young scholars who have not yet
managed to do so on a permanent basis, and that getting one of those coveted
tenured teaching jobs (or even getting on the short list) unfortunately
often depends on a fairly crude count of publications. In this case spending
several years translating something regardless of whether it has a chance of
publication is not very sound advice: it could even spell the end to an
academic career.

In view of Phil Brown's remarks on the much debated value of translations
in job applications, which I can only confirm, it might be kinder not to
encourage young scholars without permanent jobs to spend their time on any
kind of translation.

Beatrice M. Bodart-Bailey.
Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 03:16:25 -0500
From: wfarris <>
Subject: Towards "macrohistory"

Here I go again!
How come literary works and art are doubtful objects of the historian's
craft? Of course one must not be literal-minded, but does that approach work
even with so-called "historical documents"?
In the same vein, world historian and general wiseman William McNeill
has something useful to add to what we've been discussing. At least I think
it's important. In an article entitled "Colleges must Revitalize the Teaching
and Study of World History," McNeill wrote in the August 8, 1990 issue of the
CHRONICLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, "...Surely it is absurd to ask high-school
teachers to teach a subject (world history) that they cannot study in most
institutions of higher learning because colleges and universities busy
themselves exclusively with other comparatively tiny and even trivial
questions. Yet this is what is happening; and the more prestigious the
institution, the more indifferent historians are to the pressing historical
question of the age: how to put together what we know about the past so that
world history may emerge as an intelligible whole, something that can be (and
obviously should) be taught.
Reasons for this seemingly irrational behavior are obvious enough.
Professional reward comes from publication, and the quickest path to
publication is to polish a Ph. D. dissertation until some press accepts it.
And Ph.D. dissertations, built on the ideal of exhausting all the relevant
original sources after a short period of research, must by necessity be
confined to a very narrow chronological, geographical, and thematic compass.
All too often the result is trivial and of interest only to a very narrow
circle of specialists, Yet because it is based directly upon texts someone
once had some reason to write down (and that happen to have been preserved and
become available to researchers), this sort of history is deemed scholarly and
somehow respectable.
Writing on macrohistorical questions (from world history), however
urgent they may be for our understanding of the past, is felt to be suspect
simply because paraphrase of original documents plays a very minor role in
such writing....
...What historians in our graduate schools and prestigious colleges are
doing is to deny the need for a different level of historical study from that
permitted by the Ph.D. dissertation and research built directly upon original
Macrohistory requires the same (as macroeconomics): new concepts
applied to new data from the past--data collected on the basis of old
documents, archaeological remains, and other evidence in response to questions
put to the past by historians who are no longer content merely to purge old
texts of apparent or probable errors, paraphrase the residue, and call the
result scholarly. The old ideal of scholarship simply suppresses dimensions
of the past of which contemporaries were not aware, but which may seem central
in retrospect....
In other words, written and unwritten evidence of a lively intelligence,
addressing real questions of historical interpretation and synthesis, ought to
count for more than narrow, conventional articles and monographs in making
tenure and salary decisions...."
Enough, already!
Wayne Farris

Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 08:42:07 +0000

From: Richard Bowring <>

Subject: Re: More on translation

Just in reply to this last paragraph, I would be interested to know just how
many copies Professor Herail has sold of her Mido Kanpakuki! Anyway, she is
busy and productive:

FRANCINE HERAIL: Notes journalieres de Fujiwara no Sukefusa: traduction du
Shunki (tome premiere)

Richard Bowring

Accents removed in message above (and mine below) so as to permit display of kanji elsewhere in this digest.

Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 21:28:55 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: translation

French-readers who don't know it already should certainly have a look at Francine Herail's earlier selections from Shunki, which are still in print. This is a gem of a book. And the perfect introduction to anyone who has preconceptions about kanbun diaries being on the dull side. Fascinating--and moving too.

Fujiwara no Sukefusa, _Notes de l'hiver 1039_ Editions Gallimard, 1994. 132 pp.
12.31 Euros at

As Richard Bowring has already mentioned, the first volume of Herail's planned complete translation has now come out. I had a chance to look through it quickly the other day and ordered it that very night. Very much like Mido kanpukuki--very full annotation. Not available on Amazon, but can be found on the publisher's own site:

Francine HERAIL.
Notes journalieres de Fujiwara No Sukefusa. Traduction du "Shunki". Tome premier (1038-1040)
Geneva: Droz, 2001
760 pp. ISBN: 2-600-00649-4
96.00 Swiss Francs
When you reach the list of series click
Hautes Etudes Orientales - Extreme Orient
(accents omitted)
Online orders possible but as the site is not secure you might want to fax an order to Droz in Switzerland: + 41 22 347 23 91

Michael Watson

Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 22:03:02 +0900
From: janine <>
Subject: Re: pmjs digest 2002/02/25

My messages don't seem to be wrapping right, so I apologize if the lines are
truncated. I've changed the line length to 65 from 72; that might make a

Whoever is right about where that library was that Keene had his revelation in, it
shows that he recreated it in such universal terms that we all imagine it asour

Re Beatrice's letter: yes, you are right that translating what you find compelling
is sound advice for those with permanent positions and that in fact those without
would be better advised not to translate at all. When I was up for promotionin
Japan, I was told that translations did not count as part of my gyouseki at all,
which was a huge shock to me. I'm interested to hear that it is the same in the
U.S. (sorry I can't remember who made that last point, and can't seem to find it
again in the digest.)

And the exceptions that Wayne takes to my comments are well taken: I wholeheartedly
agree that all those things you say are important really are. There's a certain
level of competence/knowledge, etc. that you have to reach before you can trust your
instincts. I remember that I started doing my master's thesis while Keene was on
sabbatical in Japan and when he came back he didn't like my ideas at all. One was
otogi zoshi, and the other was the idea of the self in modern Japanese literature:
I was going to read Dazai and Kawabata in English. i forget what he said about the
otogi zoshi idea, but when I presented the second idea, he just kind of looked at
me and said that ELAC was a language department and I had to do something in
Japanese. I said I couldn't read that much Japanese yet (I had been studyingit for
one and a half years in intensive courses). He said, well can't you just read a
page a day? I forget what I said to that. Probably that I didn't think it would
work, Anyway, it was obvious that he wasn't going to support either idea, soI
asked him to suggest something. He had just been selecting works for the Chuo Koron
volume of Shiki and Kyoshi, and he thought a) Shiki was very interesting andb)
translating Bokuju Itteki would be good language training because Shiki usedso
many different kinds of Japanese (sorobun, colloquial, kambun, etc.) I had no idea
what I was getting into, but I took his suggestion, and I'm glad I did, because he
was right about both a) and b). I didn't have enough knowledge of Japanese or
Japanese literature to have strong feelings so I was lucky to have someone guiding
me who did. This is just to support what Wayne says about how it takes time to
develop enough to have sound instincts, and how along the way, your tastes can
change in fundamental ways. I guess that's what education is all about.

Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 09:34:00 +1100

From: Royall Tyler <>

Subject: Re: More on translation

It appears that Francine Herail has just published her first volume of Shunki. Yes, Heian kanbun diaries are definitely an area for a lot more translation work, as I know a number of our colleagues are aware. As for how well they would sell, though...

Royall Tyler

Date: 25 Feb 2002 10:39:38 -0800

From: sybil thornton <>

Subject: Re: Ippen hijiri e

Dear Haruko,

Depending on what you need the text for, you might take a look at Jonathan Todd Brown's : WARRIOR PATRONAGE, INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE, AND DOCTRINAL INNOVATION IN THE EARLY JISHU (Princeton dissertation).

I don't survey the text, but I do compare the Hijiri e with the so-called Yugyoh Shohnin engi e in _Charisma and Community Formation in Medieval Japan_.


On Sat, 23 February 2002, "Sato/Wakabayashi" wrote:
Also, I'd like to know if there are any articles in English on Ippen shonin
eden (Ippen hijiri-e). I do have the two articles in the "Flowing Traces."

Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 14:42:53 +1100

From: Royall Tyler <>

Subject: Re: on translation: literature and history

Just to second Philip Brown and Beatrice Bodart-Bailey on this. Watch out, aspiring translators! I've run head-on into this one myself.

Royall Tyler

Date: Tue, 26 Feb 2002 09:31:35 +0900

From: Michael Watson <>

Subject: Cornell East Asia Series

I've been asked to publicize the following information about the Cornell East Asia Series--appropriate timing considering how much it has contributed to making good translations available at reasonable prices.


Please update your Cornell East Asia Series links. The book series homepage is now at, and you to a complete list of all our premodern Japanese studies titles (if clicking on the address doesn't automatically take you there, push "Alt" and simultaneously click on the url).

The website now features an online bookstore allowing direct ordering with asecure server (Visa, Mastercard, and Discover accepted). We direct market the books ourselves, so appreciate any links you make to the website. You can even make links directly to a book's detailed description; see for example.

Here is a list of our recently-published premodern titles:

Japan's Renaissance: The Politics of the Muromachi Bakufu, by Kenneth Alan Grossberg

In Little Need of Divine Intervention: Scrolls of the Mongol Invasions of Japan (Translation with Interpretive Essay), by Thomas D. Conlan

Hogen monogatari: Tale of the Disorder in Hogen, by William Ritchie Wilson

Japan in the Muromachi Age, edited by John W. Hall and Toyoda Takeshi, with a new foreword by Paul Varley

Thanks so much for your attention, and continued support of the series.

Sincerely, Karen Smith
Karen K. Smith, Managing Editor, Cornell East Asia Series, 140 Uris Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7601
607-255-5685/fax 255-1388,

Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 13:05:50 -0500

From: Barbara Nostrand <>

Subject: Re: Towards "macrohistory"

Dear Prof. Farris.

In the same vein, world historian and general wiseman William McNeill
has something useful to add to what we've been discussing. At least I think
it's important. In an article entitled "Colleges must Revitalize the Teaching

An interesting note and an interesting article. Here in New York,
the State legislature mandates U.S. History for bachelor's degrees. This
is a bit sad as U.S. History is repeatedly taught in K-12 public education.
Why do I bring this up? Because, it seems that academic disciplines and
fields of study need to constantly sell themselves to the general public
and legislatures. My impression is that many colleges and universities have
abandoned Russian and German instruction for undergraduates. In contrast,
Spanish study is doing quite well here on the Canadian border while German
has completely disappeared from the curriculum despite the fact that this
area was settled by German immigrants. Spanish is only the sixth or seventh
most widely spoken language in Massachussetts, yet bilingual English-Spanish
signs are everywhere in Boston. Why such success? Spanish (usually Mexican
Spanish) advocates aggressively market Spanish to the general public.

Back to history. History is usually taught in K-12 in such a way that you
would think that England was the center of the medieval European world and
that Spanish speakers somehow have more right to this continent than say
Mohawk speakers. Spanish claims are elevated by requiring students to
memorize the names of Cortez, deSoto, &al. while the French are anonymous
trappers and the Indians other than Montezuma, Pocahontas, &al are non-people.
Teaching the national founding myth has some value, but it unrealistically
neglects the rest of the world. Regardless, I think that those interested in
World History need to aggressively sell it to the public through the popular
media and through elementary school teachers.

Barbara Nostrand

Date: Wed, 27 Feb 2002 03:50:26 -0800

From: "Dix Monika" <>

Subject: Re: Ippen Hijiri e Query

Some other English-language sources that might be useful to you are:

1.) Hirota, Dennis. NO ABODE: THE RECORD OF IPPEN.
Kyoto: Ryukoku University, 1986.
(translation of the Ippen Shonin Goroku)

Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International, 1979.

Then there is a German publication:

MITTELALTERLICHEN JAPAN (The Travels of Ippen Shonin: Pictures of Medieval Japan).
Munchen: DuMont Buchverlag, 1992.

If I recall correctly, all of these works include pictorial illustrations.
I hope this will be of any use to you.

Monika Dix

Date: Wed, 27 Feb 2002 23:49:21 +0900

From: "Sato/Wakabayashi" <>

Subject: Re: Ippen hijiri e + AAS Panel on Shiryo Database

Thank you to all those who have responded to
my query. I am presently writing an article in Japanese on Ippen hijiri-e,
which will be published as one of the chapters in a book on Ippen
edited by Imai Masaharu and published sometime later this
year from Yoshikawa kobunkan. I do hope to include some of
the Western-language scholarship in my references.

On another note, I also wish to inform the members
that Ishigami Eiichi, Kondo Shigekazu, Ineke Van Put and I will be
attending the AAS this spring to introduce, demonstrate, and
discuss the Japan Memory Project of the Historiographical Institute.
This is a database of various sources at the Historiographical
Institute (shiryo hensanjo), and will also include a Japanese-English
on-line glossary of premodern Japanese historical terms (not
on-line yet).

Our panel is scheduled as a Meeting in Conjunction on Friday,
April 5, 7:00 p.m.-9:00 p.m. in Delaware Suite B. Details of the
panel are as follows:

Title: The Japan Memory Project at the Historiographical Institute, U of

Paper #1: Studies and Methods of Computerization of Premodern Sources
at the Historiographical Institute <Ishigami Eiichi>

Paper #2: The JMP Database as a Virtual Laboratory of Historical Sources
<Kondo Shigekazu>

Paper #3: On-Line Glossary of Japanese Historical Terms: Its Content and
<Ineke Van Put & Haruko Wakabayashi>

We hope this to be an opportunity to hear your comments and suggestions
about our database, which is available through our Home Page (the glossary
is not yet on-line):
Click deeta beesu annai at the bottom left. We would
appreciate very much if you could experiment using the database before coming to
the panel. And even if you would not be able to attend the panel, we would
be grateful if you could send comments/opinions/advice regarding our present
databases to my office e-mail address:
I thank you in advance for you help, and hope to see some of you there!

Haruko Wakabayashi

::::: pmjs footer:::::

From the pmjs home page you can now search our monthly logs and the
translation database.

Recent publication by pmjs member
Rolf Giebel. _Two Esoteric Sutras_ (BDK English Tripitaka 29-II, 30-II).
Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, 2001.

Six threads from January now online

Forthcoming Publication:
Barbara Ruch, ed. _Engendering Faith: Women and Buddhism in Premodern Japan_
(Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002).

Thanks to all of you who ordered books through Amazon through a pmjs link.
Some $550 of books were purchased in total last quarter, earning pmjs $60.30
in "referral fees." We didn't have a Tokyo bonenkai in December, so I'm
holding over the amount for a future get-together.

previous month

list of logs

 log index

 pmjs index

next month